Carlo M Croce

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (706)6453.61 Total impact

  • Veronica Balatti, Yuri Pekarky, Carlo M Croce
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    ABSTRACT: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia occurring as indolent or aggressive form. CLL clinical features and genetic abnormalities are well documented, but molecular details are still under investigation. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in several cellular processes and expressed in a tissue-specific manner. MicroRNAs regulate gene expression, and their deregulation can alter expression levels of genes involved in development/progression of tumors. In CLL, microRNAs can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and can also serve as markers for CLL onset/progression. Here, we discuss the most recent findings about the role of microRNAs in CLL and how this knowledge can be used to identify new biomarkers and treatment approaches.
    Journal of Hematology & Oncology 12/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13045-015-0112-x · 4.93 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1502068112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Mario Acunzo, Carlo M. Croce
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs with a length of approximately 22 nucleotides that are involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs cover an important role in all biological processes, and aberrant miRNA expression is commonly associated with cancer. Recent discoveries have associated the involvement of miRNA in an increasingly large number of biological processes, including cachexia. The cachexia syndrome is a debilitating state of cancer that is, at least in part, associated with apoptosis. The mechanism through which tumors promote the characteristic distal loss of muscle and fat mass during the cachectic process is still not deeply investigated. In this review, we briefly describe the role of miRNAs in cancer development and cachexia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2015; 212(suppl 1). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv197 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P19 H-Ras, a second product derived from the H-Ras gene by alternative splicing, induces a G1/S phase delay, thereby maintaining cells in a reversible quiescence state. When P21 H-Ras is mutated in tumour cells, the alternative protein P19 H-Ras is also mutated. The H-Ras mutation Q61L is frequently detected in different tumours, which acts as constitutive activator of Ras functions and is considered to be a strong activating mutant. Additionally, a rare congenital disorder named Costello Syndrome, is described as a H-Ras disorder in children, mainly due to mutation G12S in p19 and p21 H-Ras proteins, which is present in 90 % of the Costello Syndrome patients. Our aim is to better understand the role of p19 and p21 H-Ras proteins in the cancer and Costello Syndrome development, concerning the miRNAs expression. Total miRNAs expression regulated by H-Ras proteins were first analyzed in human miRNA microarrays assays. Previously selected miRNAs, were further analyzed in developed cell lines containing H-Ras protein mutants, that included the G12S Costello Syndrome mutant, with PCR Real-Time Taq Man miRNA Assays primers. This study describes how p19 affects the RNA world and shows that: i) miR-342, miR-206, miR-330, miR-138 and miR-99b are upregulated by p19 but not by p19W164A mutant; ii) anti-miR-206 can restore the G2 phase in the presence of p19; iii) p19 and p21Q61L regulate their own alternative splicing; iv) miR-206 and miR-138 are differentially regulated by p19 and p21 H-Ras and v) P19G12S Costello mutants show a clear upregulation of miR-374, miR-126, miR-342, miR-330, miR-335 and let-7. These results allow us to conclude that the H-Ras G12S mutation plays an important role in miRNA expression and open up a new line of study to understand the consequences of this mutation on Costello syndrome. Furthermore, they suggest that oncogenes may have a sufficiently important impact on miRNA expression to promote the development of numerous cancers.
    BMC Medical Genetics 07/2015; 16(1):46. DOI:10.1186/s12881-015-0184-z · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a promising anticancer agent that can be potentially used as an alternative or complementary therapy because of its specific antitumor activity. However, TRAIL can also stimulate the proliferation of cancer cells through the activation of NF-κB, but the exact mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that chronic exposure to subtoxic concentrations of TRAIL results in acquired resistance. This resistance is associated with the increase in miR-21, miR-30c, and miR-100 expression, which target tumor-suppressor genes fundamental in the response to TRAIL. Importantly, down-regulation of caspase-8 by miR-21 blocks receptor interacting protein-1 cleavage and induces the activation of NF-κB, which regulates these miRNAs. Thus, TRAIL activates a positive feedback loop that sustains the acquired resistance and causes an aggressive phenotype. Finally, we prove that combinatory treatment of NF-κB inhibitors and TRAIL is able to revert resistance and reduce tumor growth, with important consequences for the clinical practice.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2015; 112(26). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1504630112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis suggests the possibility of anti-CLL therapeutic approaches based on miRNAs. Here, we used the Eµ-TCL1 transgenic mouse model, which reproduces leukemia with a similar course and distinct immunophenotype as human B-CLL, to test miR-181b as a therapeutic agent.In vitro enforced expression of miR-181b mimics induced significant apoptotic effects in human B-cell lines (RAJI, EHEB), as well as in mouse Eµ-TCL1 leukemic splenocytes. Molecular analyses revealed that miR-181b not only affected the expression of TCL1, Bcl2 and Mcl1 anti-apoptotic proteins, but also reduced the levels of Akt and phospho-Erk1/2. Notably, a siRNA anti-TCL1 could similarly down-modulate TCL1, but exhibited a reduced or absent activity in other relevant proteins, as well as a reduced effect on cell apoptosis and viability. In vivo studies demonstrated the capability of miR-181b to reduce leukemic cell expansion and to increase survival of treated mice.These data indicate that miR-181b exerts a broad range of actions, affecting proliferative, survival and apoptotic pathways, both in mice and human cells, and can potentially be used to reduce expansion of B-CLL leukemic cells.
    Oncotarget 06/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T-cell defects, immune suppression and poor anti-tumor immune responses are hallmarks of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory signaling has emerged as a major immunosuppressive mechanism. However, the effect of different microenvironments and the confounding influence of aging are poorly understood. The current study uses the Eμ-TCL1 mouse model, which replicates human T-cell defects, as a preclinical platform to longitudinally examine patterns of T-cell dysfunction alongside developing CLL and in different microenvironments, with a focus on PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. The development of CLL was significantly associated with changes in T-cell phenotype across all organs and function. Although partly mirrored in aging wild-type mice, CLL-specific T-cell changes were identified. Murine CLL cells highly expressed PD-L1 and PD-L2 in all organs, with high PD-L1 expression in spleen. CD3(+)CD8(+) T-cells from leukemic and aging healthy mice highly expressed PD-1, identifying aging as a confounder, but adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated CLL-specific PD-1 induction. Direct comparisons of PD-1 expression and function between aging CLL mice and controls identified PD-1(+) T cells in CLL as a heterogeneous population with variable effector function. This is highly relevant for therapeutic targeting of CD8(+) T-cells, showing the potential of reprogramming and selective subset expansion to restore anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 05/2015; DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-02-626754 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor MYC is a proto-oncogene regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metabolism. The recent identification of MYC-regulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) expands our knowledge of the role of lncRNAs in MYC functions. Here, we identify MYC-repressed lncRNAs named MYCLo-4, -5 and -6 by comparing 3 categories of lncRNAs (downregulated in highly MYC-expressing colorectal cancer, up-regulated by MYC knockdown in HCT116, upregulated by MYC knockdown in RKO). The MYC-repressed MYCLos are implicated in MYC-modulated cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation. By screening cell cycle-related genes regulated by MYC and the MYC-repressed MYCLos, we identified the MYC-repressed gene GADD45A as a target gene of the MYC-repressed MYCLos such as MYCLo-4 and MYCLo-6.
    Oncotarget 05/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiation of lung vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) is tightly regulated during development or in response to challenges in a vessel specific manner. Aberrant vSMCs specifically associated with distal pulmonary arteries have been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a progressive and fatal disease, with no effective treatment. Therefore, it is highly relevant to understand the underlying mechanisms of lung vSMC differentiation. miRNAs are known to play critical roles in vSMC maturation and function of systemic vessels; however, little is known regarding the role of miRNAs in lung vSMCs. Here, we report that miR-29 family members are the most abundant miRNAs in adult mouse lungs. Moreover, high levels of miR-29 expression are selectively associated with vSMCs of distal vessels in both mouse and human lungs. Furthermore, we have shown that disruption of miR-29 in vivo leads to immature/synthetic vSMC phenotype specifically associated with distal lung vasculature, at least partially due to the derepression of KLF4, components of the PDGF pathway and ECM-related genes associated with synthetic phenotype. Moreover, we found that expression of FBXO32 in vSMCs is significantly upregulated in the distal vasculature of miR-29 null lungs. This indicates a potential important role of miR-29 in smooth muscle cell function by regulating FBXO32 and SMC protein degradation. These results are strongly supported by findings of a cell autonomous role of endogenous miR-29 in promoting SMC differentiation in vitro. Together, our findings suggested a vessel specific role of miR-29 in vSMC differentiation and function by targeting several key negative regulators.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2015; 11(5):e1005238. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005238 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    European Journal of Cancer 04/2015; 51(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2015.03.001 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although disruption of DNA repair capacity is unquestionably associated with cancer susceptibility in humans and model organisms, it remains unclear if the inherent tumor phenotypes of DNA repair deficiency syndromes can be regulated by manipulating DNA repair pathways. Loss-of-function mutations in BLM, a member of the RecQ helicase family, cause Bloom's syndrome (BS), a rare, recessive genetic disorder that predisposes to many types of cancer. BLM functions in many aspects of DNA homeostasis, including the suppression of homologous recombination (HR) in somatic cells. We investigated whether BLM overexpression, in contrast to loss-of-function mutations, attenuated the intestinal tumor phenotypes of ApcMin/+ and ApcMin/+;Msh2-/- mice, animal models of familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP). We constructed a transgenic mouse line expressing human BLM (BLM-Tg) and crossed it onto both backgrounds. BLM-Tg decreased adenoma incidence in a dose-dependent manner in our ApcMin/+ model of FAP, although levels of GIN were unaffected, and concomitantly increased animal survival over 50%. It did not reduce intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+;Msh2-/- mice. We used the pink-eyed unstable (pun) mouse model to demonstrate that increasing BLM dosage in vivo lowered endogenous levels of HR by two-fold. Our data suggests that attenuation of the Min phenotype is achieved through a direct effect of BLM-Tg on the HR repair pathway. These findings demonstrate that HR can be manipulated in vivo to modulate tumor formation at the organismal level. Our data suggests that lowering HR frequencies may have positive therapeutic outcomes in the context of specific hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes, exemplified by FAP. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Prevention Research 04/2015; 8(7). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-15-0001-T · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are CD1d-restricted, lipid antigen-reactive T lymphocytes with immunoregulatory functions. iNKT cell development in the thymus proceeds through subsequent stages, defined by the expression of CD44 and NK1.1, and is dictated by a unique gene expression program, including microRNAs. Here, we investigated whether miR-155, a microRNA involved in differentiation of most hematopoietic cells, played any role in iNKT cell development. To this end, we assessed the expression of miR-155 along iNKT cell maturation in the thymus, and studied the effects of miR-155 on iNKT cell development using Lck-miR-155 transgenic mice, which over express miR-155 in T cell lineage under the lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) promoter. We show that miR-155 is expressed by newly selected immature wild-type iNKT cells and turned off along iNKT cells differentiation. In transgenic mice, miR-155 over-expression resulted in a substantial block of iNKT cell maturation at Stage 2, in the thymus toward an overall reduction of peripheral iNKT cells, unlike mainstream T cells. Furthermore, the effects of miR-155 over-expression on iNKT cell differentiation were cell autonomous. Finally, we identified Ets1 and ITK transcripts as relevant targets of miR-155 in iNKT cell differentiation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that a tight control of miR-155 expression is required for the development of iNKT cells.
    Frontiers in Immunology 03/2015; 6:140. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00140
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic siRNA administration to target and treat glioblastoma, one of the most deadly cancers, requires robust and efficient delivery platform without immunogenicity. Here we report newly emerged multivalent naked RNA nanoparticle (RNP) based on pRNA 3-way-junction (3WJ) from bacteriophage phi29 to target glioblastoma cells with folate (FA) ligand and deliver siRNA for gene silencing. Systemically injected FA-pRNA-3WJ RNPs successfully targeted and delivered siRNA into brain tumor cells in mice, and efficiently reduced luciferase reporter gene expression (4-fold lower than control). The FA-pRNA-3WJ RNP also can target human patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells, thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and deadly recurrence, without accumulation in adjacent normal brain cells, nor other major internal organs. This study provides possible application of pRNA-3WJ RNP for specific delivery of therapeutics such as siRNA, microRNA and/or chemotherapeutic drugs into glioblastoma cells without inflicting collateral damage to healthy tissues.
    Oncotarget 03/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    Advances in Biological Regulation 03/2015; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.jbior.2015.02.001
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    ABSTRACT: The first transgenic mouse of the TCL1 oncogene was described more than 15 years ago, and since then, the overexpression of the gene in T- and B-cells in vivo has been extensively studied to reveal the molecular details in the pathogenesis of some lymphocytic leukemias. This review discusses the main features of the original TCL1 models and the different lines of research successively developed with particular attention to genetically compound mice and the therapeutic applications in drug development.
    Gene Expression 02/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.3727/105221615X14181438356256 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This volume provides an overview of RNA bioinformatics methodologies, including basic strategies to predict secondary and tertiary structures, and novel algorithms based on massive RNA sequencing. Interest in RNA bioinformatics has rapidly increased thanks to the recent high-throughput sequencing technologies allowing scientists to investigate complete transcriptomes at single nucleotide resolution. Adopting advanced computational technics, scientists are now able to conduct more in-depth studies and present them to you in this book. Written in the highly successful Methods of Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and equipment, step-by-step, readily reproducible bioinformatics protocols, and key tips to avoid known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, RNA Bioinformatics seeks to aid scientists in the further study of bioinformatics and computational biology of RNA.
    RNA Bioinformatics, Methods in Molecular Biology edited by Ernesto Picardi, 02/2015: chapter 25: pages 388; Humana Press, Springer., ISBN: ISBN 978-1-4939-2290-1
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    ABSTRACT: Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome IBS not only have abdominal pain but also may suffer from visceral hypersensitivity and heighted visceral nociception. Moreover, IBS has few effective therapeutic agents and mechanisms of disease are unclear. Our goals were to (i) identify microRNA (miRNA) expression, signalling and targets in human colon (controls; patients with IBS); (ii) verify in vitro, IBS-associated changes in miRNAs, especially miR-199, which is complementary to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) gene; and (iii) determine whether modulating the expression of miRNAs in vivo, especially miR-199, reverses associated changes and pathological hallmarks of visceral hypersensitivity via TRPV1 signalling. We evaluated 45 patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and 40 controls with (1) visceral pain severity score and (2) colonoscopy with biopsies. miRNA expression was evaluated in human colon following miRNA array analysis. Luciferase assays were done to confirm relationships between miR-199 and TRPV1 expression. A rat model of visceral hypersensitivity was used to study miR-199 and its target gene (TRPV1) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and colon in vivo. Gut miR-199a/b expression in IBS-D was significantly decreased, which correlated directly with both increased visceral pain scores and TRPV1 expression. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a by intraperitoneal injection of lenti-miR-199a precursors decreased visceral hypersensitivity via diminished TRPV1 signalling. Decreased colonic miR-199a/b correlates with visceral pain in patients with IBS-D. Similarly, reduced miR-199a expression in rat DRG and colon tissue is associated with heightened visceral hypersensitivity. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a decreases visceral pain via inhibition of TRPV1 signalling. Thus, miR-199 precursors may be promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment in patients with visceral pain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Gut 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306464 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in several cancers, but the roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) are less well understood. The transcription factor MYC is known to regulate lncRNAs and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Methods: CRC cells and tissues were profiled to identify lncRNAs differentially expressed in CRC, from which we further selected MYC-regulated lncRNAs. We used luciferase promoter assay, ChIP, RNA pull-down assay, deletion mapping assay, LC-MS/MS and RNA immunoprecipitation to determine the mechanisms of MYC regulation of lncRNAs. Moreover, soft agar assay and in vivo xenograft experiments (four athymic nude mice per group) provided evidence of MYC-regulated lncRNAs in cancer cell transformation and tumorigenesis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified lncRNAs differentially expressed in CRC (P < .05, greater than two-fold) and verified four lncRNAs upregulated and two downregulated in CRC cells and tissues. We further identified MYC-regulated lncRNAs, named MYCLos. The MYC-regulated MYCLos may function in cell proliferation and cell cycle by regulating MYC target genes such as CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2B (p15), suggesting new regulatory mechanisms of MYC-repressed target genes through lncRNAs. RNA binding proteins including HuR and hnRNPK are involved in the function of MYCLos by interacting with MYCLo-1 and MYCLo-2, respectively. Knockdown experiments also showed that MYCLo-2, differentially expressed not only in CRC but also in prostate cancer, has a role in cancer transformation and tumorigenesis. Conclusions: Our results provide novel regulatory mechanisms in MYC function through lncRNAs and new potential lncRNA targets of CRC.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 02/2015; 107(4):dju505. DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju505 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia and dysregulation of the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) oncogene is a contributing event in the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of this disease based on transgenic mouse studies. To determine a role of microRNAs on the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of CLL we studied regulation of TCL1 expression in CLL by microRNAs. We identified miR-3676 as a regulator of TCL1 expression. We demonstrated that miR-3676 targets three consecutive 28-bp repeats within 3'UTR of TCL1 and showed that miR-3676 is a powerful inhibitor of TCL1. We further showed that miR-3676 expression is significantly down-regulated in four groups of CLL carrying the 11q deletions, 13q deletions, 17p deletions, or a normal karyotype compared with normal CD19(+) cord blood and peripheral blood B cells. In addition, the sequencing of 539 CLL samples revealed five germ-line mutations in six samples (1%) in miR-3676. Two of these mutations were loss-of-function mutations. Because miR-3676 is located at 17p13, only 500-kb centromeric of tumor protein p53 (Tp53), and is codeleted with Tp53, we propose that loss of miR-3676 causes high levels of TCL1 expression contributing to CLL progression.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; 112(7):201500010. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1500010112 · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

72k Citations
6,453.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2015
    • The Ohio State University
      • • Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics
      • • The James Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
    • University of Aberdeen
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Jichi Medical University
      • Center for Molecular Medicine
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 2013–2014
    • Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1995–2013
    • Universita degli studi di Ferrara
      • Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine
      Ferrare, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Cancer Biology
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
      • Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1999–2011
    • Weizmann Institute of Science
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
    • The Philadelphia Center
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1995–2011
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      • • Kimmel Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010
    • IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
      • Programa de Epigenética y Biología del Cáncer - PEBC
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2007–2010
    • Istituto Superiore di Sanità
      • Department of Haematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2006–2007
    • Universita' degli Studi "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro
      Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy
    • University of Verona
      • Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Molecular Medicine and Health Biotechnology
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1995–2005
    • Jefferson College
      Хиллсборо, Missouri, United States
  • 1993–2002
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1981–1997
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis
      • • Laboratory of Cell Biology
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Wills Eye Institute
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1989–1990
    • Temple University
      • Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1971–1989
    • Wistar Institute
      • Melanoma Research Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1976
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • MRC Human Genetics Unit
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1972–1973
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States