Ralf Dringen

Universität Bremen, Bremen, Bremen, Germany

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Publications (169)568.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arsenate is an environmental pollutant which contaminates the drinking water of millions of people worldwide. Numerous in vitro studies have investigated the toxicity of arsenate for a large number of different cell types. However, despite the known neurotoxic potential of arsenicals, little is known so far about the consequences of an exposure of neurons to arsenate. To investigate acute effects of arsenate on the viability and the glutathione (GSH) metabolism of neurons, we have exposed primary rat cerebellar granule neuron cultures to arsenate. Incubation of neurons for up to 6 h with arsenate in concentrations of up to 10 mM did not acutely compromise the cell viability, although the cells accumulated substantial amounts of arsenate. However, exposure to arsenate caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the export of GSH from viable neurons with significant effects observed for arsenate in concentrations above 0.3 mM. The arsenate-induced stimulation of GSH export was abolished upon removal of arsenate and completely prevented by MK571, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance protein 1. These results demonstrate that arsenate is not acutely toxic to neurons but can affect the neuronal GSH metabolism by stimulating GSH export.
    Neurochemical Research 12/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Charlotte Petters, Ralf Dringen
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are frequently used for biomedical applications. Although nanoparticles can enter the brain, little is known so far on the uptake of IONPs in neurons and on their neurotoxic potential. Hence, we applied dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated IONPs to cultured primary rat cerebellar granule neurons. These IONPs had average hydrodynamic diameters of around 80 nm and 120 nm when dispersed in incubation medium in the absence and the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively. Acute exposure of neurons with IONPs for up to 6 h did neither alter the cell morphology nor compromise cell viability, although neurons accumulated large amounts of IONPs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner which caused delayed toxicity. For the first 30 min of incubation of neurons at 37°C with IONPs the cellular iron content increased proportionally to the concentration of IONPs applied irrespective of the absence and the presence of serum. IONP-exposure in the absence of serum generated maximal cellular iron contents of around 3000 nmol iron/mg protein after 4 h of incubation, while the accumulation in presence of 10% serum was slower and reached already within 1 h maximal values of around 450 nmol iron/mg protein. For both incubation conditions was the increase in cellular iron contents significantly lowered by reducing the incubation temperature to 4°C. Application of inhibitors of endocytotic pathways did not affect neuronal IONP accumulation in the absence of serum, while inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis lowered significantly the IONP accumulation in the presence of serum. These data demonstrate that DMSA-coated IONPs are not acutely toxic to cultured neurons and that a protein corona around the particles strongly affects their interaction with neurons. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neurochemistry International 12/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes have a pivotal role in brain as partners of neurons in homeostatic and metabolic processes. Astrocytes also protect other types of brain cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species and are considered as first line of defence against the toxic potential of xenobiotics. A key component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which generate GSH conjugates that are efficiently exported from the cells by multidrug resistance proteins. Moreover, GSH reacts with the reactive endogenous carbonyls methylglyoxal and formaldehyde to intermediates which are substrates of detoxifying enzymes. In this article we will review the current knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes.
    Neurochemical Research 11/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescently labeled nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a wide range of biomedical and nanotoxicological studies to elucidate their interactions with cellular components and their intracellular localization. As commonly used fluorescence microscopes are usually limited in their performance to a few channels which detect the emitted fluorescence light in the red, green and blue color range, the simultaneous colocalization of accumulated fluorescent NPs with cellular markers is often difficult and remains a challenge due to spectral overlay of NP-fluorescence and fluorescence of stained cellular components. To overcome this problem we have synthesized three different photostable dual-labeled fluorescent core/shell silica NPs with high fluorescence intensity (FI) and well defined shape, size and surface chemistry. The synthesis route of dual fluorophore doped silica (DFDS) NPs was based on a water in oil microemulsion method and includes the separate incorporation of two fluorophores in core or shell. The suitability of DFDS for colocalization studies was assessed and successfully demonstrated with human osteoblast (HOB) cells. Parallel visualization of DFDS NPs with two separate microscope channels allowed cellular NPs uptake and discrimination from fluorescently stained cellular components, even in triple stained cells that show fluorescence for the cytoskeleton protein actin (green), the nucleus (blue) and collagen (red). Our results demonstrate the feasibility and straightforwardness of the approach for colocalization studies at single-cell-level to discern clearly the accumulation of NPs from triple stained cellular components. Such NPs with multiple fluorescence characteristics have a great potential to replace single fluorescent NPs for in vitro studies, when multiple staining of cellular components is required. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Acta biomaterialia. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Colloidosomes are microcapsules consisting of nanoparticle shells. These microcarriers can be self-assembled from a wide range of colloidal particles with selective chemical, physical, and morphological properties and show promise for application in the field of theranostic nanomedicine. Previous studies have mainly focused on fairly large colloidosomes (>1 μm) based on a single kind of particle; however, the intrinsic building-block nature of this microcarrier has not been exploited so far for the introduction of tailored functionality at the nanoscale. We report a synthetic route based on interfacial shear rheology studies that allows the simultaneous incorporation of different nanoparticles with distinct physical properties, that is, superparamagnetic iron oxide and fluorescent silica nanoparticles, in a single submicron colloidosome. These tailor-made microcapsules can potentially be used in various biomedical applications, including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic particle imaging, drug targeting, and bioimaging.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 11/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • Felix Bulcke, Ralf Dringen
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    ABSTRACT: Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are frequently used for industrial or medical applications and are known for their high toxic potential. As little is known so far on the consequences of an exposure of brain cells to such particles, we applied CuO-NPs to cultured primary rat astrocytes and investigated whether such particles affect cell viability and alter their metabolic properties. Astrocytes efficiently accumulated CuO-NPs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The cells remained viable during a 24 h incubation with 100 µM copper in the form of CuO-NPs, while higher concentrations of CuO-NPs severely compromised the cell viability. Astrocytes that were exposed for 24 h to 100 µM CuO-NPs showed significantly enhanced extracellular lactate concentrations and increased cellular levels of glutathione and metallothioneins. The CuO-NP-induced increase in lactate release and metallothionein content were prevented by the presence of the membrane-permeable copper chelator tetrathiomolybdate, while this chelator increased already in the absence of CuO-NPs the cellular glutathione content. After removal of the CuO-NPs following a 24 h pre-incubation with 100 µM CuO-NPs, astrocytes maintained during a further 6 h incubation an elevated glycolytic lactate release and exported significantly more glutathione than control cells that had been pre-incubated without CuO-NPs. These data suggest that copper ions which are liberated from internalized CuO-NPs stimulate glycolytic flux as well as the synthesis of glutathione and metallothioneins in cultured viable astrocytes.
    Neurochemical Research 10/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify discrepancies in the literature on the adverse effects of hydrogen peroxide on neurons, this study investigated the application of this peroxide to cultured cerebellar granule neurons with six assays frequently used to test for viability. Cultured neurons efficiently cleared exogenous H2O2. Although viability was not affected by exposure to 10 µM hydrogen peroxide, an exposure to the peroxide in higher concentrations rapidly lowered, within 15 min, the cellular 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction capacity to 53% ± 1% (100 µM) and 31% ± 1% (1,000 µM) and the 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methyl-phenazine hydrochloride (neutral red; NR) uptake to 84% ± 6% (100 µM) and 33% ± 1% (1,000 µM) of control cells. The release of glycolytically generated lactate was stopped within 30 min in neurons treated with 1,000 µM peroxide. In contrast, even hours after peroxide application, the cell morphology, the number of propidium iodide-positive cells, and the extracellular activity of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were not significantly altered. The rapid loss in MTT reduction and NR uptake after exposure of neurons to H2O2 for 5 or 15 min correlated well with a strongly compromised MTT reduction and a very high extracellular LDH activity observed after further incubation in peroxide-free medium for a total incubation period of 24 hr. These data demonstrate that cultured neurons do not recover from damage that is inflicted by a short exposure to H2O2 and that the rapid losses in the capacities of neurons for MTT reduction and NR uptake are good predictors of delayed cell damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 10/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Eric Ehrke, Christian Arend, Ralf Dringen
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    ABSTRACT: The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used for various applications in biomedicine, for example as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, for cell tracking and for anti-tumor treatment. However, IONPs are also known for their toxic effects on cells and tissues which are at least in part caused by iron-mediated radical formation and oxidative stress. The potential toxicity of IONPs is especially important concerning the use of IONPs for neurobiological applications as alterations in brain iron homeostasis are strongly connected with human neurodegenerative diseases. Since IONPs are able to enter the brain, potential adverse consequences of an exposure of brain cells to IONPs have to be considered. This article describes the pathways that allow IONPs to enter the brain and summarizes the current knowledge on the uptake, the metabolism and the toxicity of IONPs for the different types of brain cells in vitro and in vivo.
    Neurochemical Research 07/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intoxication with inorganic arsenicals leads to neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. However, little is known so far on the cellular targets that are involved in the adverse effects of arsenite to brain cells. To test whether arsenite may affect neural glucose and glutathione (GSH) metabolism, primary astrocyte cultures from rat brain were used as a model system. Exposure of cultured astrocytes to arsenite in concentrations of up to 0.3mM did not compromise cell viability during incubations for up to 6 h, while 1 mM arsenite damaged the cells already within 2 h after application. Determination of cellular arsenic contents of astrocytes that had been incubated for 2 h with arsenite revealed an almost linear concentration-dependent increase in the specific cellular arsenic content. Exposure of astrocytes to arsenite stimulated the export of GSH and accelerated the cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal stimulation of GSH export and glycolytic flux were observed for arsenite in concentrations of 0.1 mM and 0.3 mM, respectively. The arsenite-induced stimulation of both processes was abolished upon removal of extracellular arsenite. The strong stimulation of GSH export by arsenite was prevented by MK571, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance protein 1, suggesting that this transporter mediates the accelerated GSH export. In addition, presence of MK571 significantly increased the specific cellular arsenic content, suggesting that Mrp1 may also be involved in arsenic export from astrocytes. The data observed suggest that alterations in glucose and GSH metabolism may contribute to the reported adverse neural consequences of intoxication with arsenite.
    Neurochemistry International 07/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanodiamonds are a class of carbon-based nanoparticles that are rapidly gaining attention, particularly for biomedical applications, i.e., as drug carriers, for bio imaging, or as implant coatings. Nanodiamonds have generally been considered biocompatible for a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. We show that, depending on their surface composition, nanodiamonds kill Gram-positive and -negative bacteria rapidly and efficiently. We investigated six different types of nanodiamonds exhibiting diverse oxygen-containing surface groups that were created using standard pretreatment methods for forming nanodiamond dispersions. Our experiments suggest that the antibacterial activity of nanodiamond is linked to the presence of partially oxidized and negatively charged surfaces, specifically those containing acid anhydride groups. Furthermore, proteins were found to control the bactericidal properties of nanodiamonds by covering these surface groups, which explains the previously reported biocompatibility of nanodiamonds. Our findings describe the discovery of an exciting property of partially oxidized nanodiamonds as a potent antibacterial agent.
    ACS Nano 05/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic arsenicals are environmental toxins that have been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. To investigate whether such substances accumulate in brain astrocytes and affect their viability and glutathione metabolism, we have exposed cultured primary astrocytes to arsenite or arsenate. Both arsenicals compromised the cell viability of astrocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. However, the early onset of cell toxicity in arsenite-treated astrocytes revealed the higher toxic potential of arsenite compared with arsenate. The concentrations of arsenite and arsenate that caused within 24h half-maximal release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were around 0.3mM and 10mM, respectively. The cellular arsenic contents of astrocytes increased rapidly upon exposure to arsenite or arsenate and reached after 4h of incubation almost constant steady state levels. These levels were about 3-times higher in astrocytes that had been exposed to a given concentration of arsenite compared with the respective arsenate condition. Analysis of the intracellular arsenic species revealed that almost exclusively arsenite was present in viable astrocytes that had been exposed to either arsenate or arsenite. The emerging toxicity of arsenite 4h after exposure was accompanied by a loss in cellular total glutathione and by an increase in the cellular glutathione disulfide content. These data suggest that the high arsenite content of astrocytes that had been exposed to inorganic arsenicals causes an increase in the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione which contributes to the toxic potential of these substances.
    Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS). 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral protease inhibitors are crucial components of the antiretroviral combination therapy that is successfully used for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. To test whether such protease inhibitors affect the glutathione (GSH) metabolism of neurons, cultured cerebellar granule neurons were exposed to indinavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir or ritonavir. In low micromolar concentrations these antiretroviral protease inhibitors did not acutely compromise the cell viability, but caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of extracellular GSH which was accompanied by a matching loss in cellular GSH. The stimulating effect by indinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir on GSH export was immediately terminated upon removal of the protease inhibitors, while the nelfinavir-induced stimulated GSH export persisted after washing the cells. The stimulation of neuronal GSH export by protease inhibitors was completely prevented by MK571, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance protein 1, suggesting that this transporter mediates the accelerated GSH export during exposure of neurons to protease inhibitors. These data suggest that alterations in brain GSH metabolism should be considered as potential side-effects of a treatment with antiretroviral protease inhibitors.
    Neurochemical Research 03/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copper is an important trace element that is required for essential enzymes. However, due to its redox activity, copper can also lead to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cellular uptake, storage as well as export of copper have to be tightly regulated in order to garantee sufficient copper supply for the synthesis of copper-containing enzymes but also to prevent copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, copper is of importance for normal development. In addition, both copper deficiency as well as excess of copper can seriously affect brain functions. Therefore, this organ possesses ample mechanisms to regulate its copper metabolism. In brain, astrocytes are considered as important regulators of copper homeostasis. Impairments of homeostatic mechanisms in brain copper metabolism have been associated with neurodegeneration in human disorders such as Menkes disease, Wilson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This review article will summarize the biological functions of copper in the brain and will describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in copper transport, storage and export of brain cells. The role of copper in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis will also be discussed.
    Progress in Neurobiology 01/2014; · 9.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic arsenicals are environmental toxins that have been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. To investigate whether such substances accumulate in brain astrocytes and affect their viability and glutathione metabolism, we have exposed cultured primary astrocytes to arsenite or arsenate. Both arsenicals compromised the cell viability of astrocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. However, the early onset of cell toxicity in arsenite-treated astrocytes revealed the higher toxic potential of arsenite compared with arsenate. The concentrations of arsenite and arsenate that caused within 24 h half-maximal release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were around 0.3 mM and 10 mM, respectively. The cellular arsenic contents of astrocytes increased rapidly upon exposure to arsenite or arsenate and reached after 4 h of incubation almost constant steady state levels. These levels were about 3-times higher in astrocytes that had been exposed to a given concentration of arsenite compared with the respective arsenate condition. Analysis of the intracellular arsenic species revealed that almost exclusively arsenite was present in viable astrocytes that had been exposed to either arsenate or arsenite. The emerging toxicity of arsenite 4 h after exposure was accompanied by a loss in cellular total glutathione and by an increase in the cellular glutathione disulfide content. These data suggest that the high arsenite content of astrocytes that had been exposed to inorganic arsenicals causes an increase in the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione which contributes to the toxic potential of these substances.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 01/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PVP-capped silver nanoparticles with a diameter of the metallic core of 70 nm, a hydrodynamic diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of -20 mV were prepared and investigated with regard to their biological activity. This review summarizes the physicochemical properties (dissolution, protein adsorption, dispersability) of these nanoparticles and the cellular consequences of the exposure of a broad range of biological test systems to this defined type of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles dissolve in water in the presence of oxygen. In addition, in biological media (i.e., in the presence of proteins) the surface of silver nanoparticles is rapidly coated by a protein corona that influences their physicochemical and biological properties including cellular uptake. Silver nanoparticles are taken up by cell-type specific endocytosis pathways as demonstrated for hMSC, primary T-cells, primary monocytes, and astrocytes. A visualization of particles inside cells is possible by X-ray microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and combined FIB/SEM analysis. By staining organelles, their localization inside the cell can be additionally determined. While primary brain astrocytes are shown to be fairly tolerant toward silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles induce the formation of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSB) and lead to chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster fibroblast cell lines (CHO9, K1, V79B). An exposure of rats to silver nanoparticles in vivo induced a moderate pulmonary toxicity, however, only at rather high concentrations. The same was found in precision-cut lung slices of rats in which silver nanoparticles remained mainly at the tissue surface. In a human 3D triple-cell culture model consisting of three cell types (alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells), adverse effects were also only found at high silver concentrations. The silver ions that are released from silver nanoparticles may be harmful to skin with disrupted barrier (e.g., wounds) and induce oxidative stress in skin cells (HaCaT). In conclusion, the data obtained on the effects of this well-defined type of silver nanoparticles on various biological systems clearly demonstrate that cell-type specific properties as well as experimental conditions determine the biocompatibility of and the cellular responses to an exposure with silver nanoparticles.
    Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 01/2014; 5:1944-65.
  • Michaela C. Hohnholt, Ralf Dringen
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    ABSTRACT: A short exposure of viable cerebellar granule neurons to micromolar concentrations of H2O2 stimulates a prolonged multidrug resistance protein 1-mediated export of cellular glutathione (GSH) from viable neurons but not from cultured astrocytes. This process may compromise the antioxidative potential of neurons and increase their sensitivity towards drugs and toxins.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):1, Export Date: 18 October 2014
    Progress in Neurobiology. 01/2014; 116:33-57.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the cellular accumulation and intracellular localization of dimercaptosuccinate-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (D-IONPs) in oligodendroglial cells, we have synthesized IONPs that contain the fluorescent dye BODIPY (BP) in their coat (BP-D-IONPs) and have investigated the potential effects of the absence or presence of this dye on the particle uptake by oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells. Fluorescent BP-D-IONPs and non-fluorescent D-IONPs had similar hydrodynamic diameters and ζ-potentials of around 60 nm and -58 mV, respectively, and showed identical colloidal stability in physiological media with increasing particle size and positivation of the ζ-potential in presence of serum. After exposure of oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells to BP-D-IONPs or D-IONPs in the absence of serum, the specific cellular iron content increased strongly to around 1,800 nmol/mg. This strong iron accumulation was lowered for both types of IONPs by around 50 % on exposure of the cells at 4 °C and by around 90 % on incubation in presence of 10 % serum. The accumulation of both D-IONPs and BP-D-IONPs in the absence of serum was not affected by endocytosis inhibitors, whereas in the presence of serum inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis lowered the particle accumulation by around 50 %. These data demonstrate that oligodendroglial cells efficiently accumulate IONPs by an endocytotic process which is strongly affected by the temperature and the presence of serum and that BP-D-IONPs are a reliable tool to monitor by fluorescence microscopy the uptake and cellular fate of D-IONPs.
    Neurochemical Research 12/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Michaela C Hohnholt, Ralf Dringen
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are considered key regulators of the iron metabolism of the brain. These cells are able to rapidly accumulate iron ions and various iron-containing compounds, store iron efficiently in ferritin and also export iron. The present short review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the handling of iron by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up iron as ferrous or ferric iron ions or as haem by specific iron transport proteins in their cell membrane. In addition, astrocytes accumulate large amounts of iron oxide nanoparticles by endocytotic mechanisms. Despite the rapid accumulation of high amounts of iron from various iron-containing sources, the viability of astrocytes is hardly affected. A rather slow liberation of iron from accumulated haem or iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the strong up-regulation of the synthesis of the iron storage protein ferritin are likely to contribute to the high resistance of astrocytes to iron toxicity. The efficient uptake of extracellular iron by cultured astrocytes as well as their strong up-regulation of ferritin after iron exposure also suggests that brain astrocytes deal well with an excess of iron and protect the brain against iron-mediated toxicity.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2013; 41(6):1588-1592. · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
568.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Universität Bremen
      • • Center for Biomolecular Interactions CBIB
      • • Faculty 02: Biology/Chemistry
      • • Institut für Organische und Analytische Chemie
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 2013
    • Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune
      Poona, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 2011
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2004–2011
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • School of Psychology and Psychiatry
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2009
    • University of Leipzig
      • Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Klinische Forschung
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 1992–2006
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry
      • • Institute for Physiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2005
    • Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine
      • Department of Neurogenetics
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1999
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada