[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrinus erythrinus, a Neotropical fish species of the Erythrinidae family, has a wide distribution in South America. Previous cytogenetic analysis showed that this species presents extensive karyotype diversity, with 4 karyomorphs (A-D) described herein. This study investigated the karyotypic structure of 2 new populations of E. erythrinus from the Brazilian Pantanal region, in order to improve the knowledge of the chromosomal diversity in this species. Both populations showed typical characteristics of karyomorph A, with 2n = 54 chromosomes (6 m + 2 st + 46 a), without differentiation between males and females. In addition, identical supernumerary B chromosomes, appearing as double minute ones, were also found in both the populations. These findings suggest the presence of mitotic instability in view of their high intra and inter-individual numerical variation. The presence of these chromosomes is likely a basal characteristic for this group, since the same kind of Bs also occurs in some other populations and karyomorphs of E. erythrinus. As such, they are important markers of biodiversity found in this nominal species, which probably corresponds to a species complex.
Genetics and molecular research: GMR 02/2014; · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study presents an adaptation of current methodologies for preparing mitotic chromosomes from fishes, optimized for use in the field. The high-quality preparations obtained using this modified methodology is suitable for subsequent chromosomal analysis. Importantly, this method is particularly useful when specimen collection sites are far from research laboratories or when researchers are working with highly sensitive species that do not survive long outside of their natural habitats.
Journal of Fish Biology 07/2012; 81(1):351-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish from the family Labridae elicit considerable ecological interest, especially due to their complex interactions with the reef environment. Different karyoevolutionary tendencies have been identified in the subfamilies Bodianinae, Corinae and Cheilinae. Chromosomal analyses conducted in the Atlantic species Bodianus rufus (2n=48; 6m+12sm+14st+16a, FN=80), Bodianus pulchellus (2n=48; 4m+12sm+14st+18a, FN=78) and Bodianus insularis (2n=48; 4m+12sm+14st+18a, FN=78) identified Ag-NOR/18SrDNA sites located only in the terminal region of the short arm (p) of the largest subtelocentric pair. The 5S rDNA genes were mapped in the terminal region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric pair and the p arm of chromosome 19 in B. insularis. The karyotype of the three species shows an extensive heterochromatic and argentophilic region, exceptionally decondensed, located in the p arm of the second subtelocentric pair. This region does not correspond to a NOR site, since it is not hybridized with 18S rDNA probes, and is not GC-rich, as generally occurs with nucleolus organizer regions of lower invertebrates. Heterochromatin in the three species is reduced and distributed over the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes. The elevated number of two-armed chromosomes in species of Bodianus, in relation to other Labridae, shows karyotype diversification based on pericentric inversions, differentiating them markedly in terms of evolutionary tendencies that occur in subfamilies Corinae and Cheilininae. Structural cytogenetic similarities between B. pulchellus and B. insularis, in addition to the conserved chromosomal location pattern of ribosomal multigenic families, indicate phylogenetic proximity of these species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the evolutionary process of the sex chromosomes, a general principle that arises is that cessation or a partial restriction of recombination between the sex chromosome pair is necessary. Data from phylogenetically distinct organisms reveal that this phenomenon is frequently associated with the accumulation of heterochromatin in the sex chromosomes. Fish species emerge as excellent models to study this phenomenon because they have much younger sex chromosomes compared to higher vertebrates and many other organisms making it possible to follow their steps of differentiation. In several Neotropical fish species, the heterochromatinization, accompanied by amplification of tandem repeats, represents an important step in the morphological differentiation of simple sex chromosome systems, especially in the ZZ/ZW sex systems. In contrast, multiple sex chromosome systems have no additional increase of heterochromatin in the chromosomes. Thus, the initial stage of differentiation of the multiple sex chromosome systems seems to be associated with proper chromosomal rearrangements, whereas the simple sex chromosome systems have an accumulation of heterochromatin. In this review, attention has been drawn to this contrasting role of heterochromatin in the differentiation of simple and multiple sex chromosomes of Neotropical fishes, highlighting their surprising evolutionary dynamism.
Journal of Fish Biology 05/2012; 80(6):2125-39. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish exhibit the greatest diversity of all vertebrates, making this group extremely attractive for the study of a number of evolutionary questions. Fish genomes have intrinsic characteristics that may be responsible for the amazing diversity of fish species observed, but little is known about their structure and organization. A large amount of data from mapping of repetitive DNA sequences of several species has been generated, providing an important source of information for better understanding the involvement of repetitive DNA sequences in chromosomal organization. Almost all classes of repeated DNAs have been mapped in fishes, and all fish genomes analyzed contain at least one, mostly all types of repetitive DNAs. DNA sequence data combined with the chromosomal mapping of these repeated elements by means of cytogenetic techniques can provide a clearer picture of the genome, which is not yet clearly defined, even if already sequenced. In this chapter, we do not aim to analyze all available data on the chromosomal distribution of repetitive DNAs in fish species, but instead wish to draw attention to the impact of repetitive DNA sequences on fish karyotyping and genome evolution, with a particular focus on B chromosome origin and maintenance and on the differentiation of sex chromosomes. We also discuss the integration of chromosome analysis and genomic data, which represents a promising tool for fish cytogenomics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arrangement of 6 repetitive DNA sequences in the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosomes of 2 Erythrinidae fish, namely Hoplias malabaricus and Erythrinus erythrinus, both with a multiple X(1)X(1)X(2)X(2)/X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system, was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The distribution patterns of the repetitive sequences were distinct for each species. While some DNA repeats were species-specific, others were present in the sex chromosomes of both species at different locations. These data, together with the different morphological types of sex chromosomes and the distinct chromosomal rearrangements associated with the formation of the neo-Y chromosomes, support the plasticity of sex chromosome differentiation in the Erythrinidae family. Our present data highlight that the sex chromosomes in fish species may follow diverse differentiation patterns, even in the same type of sex chromosome system present in cofamiliar species.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 06/2011; 134(4):295-302. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distribution of 12 mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellites on the chromosomes of 2 karyomorphs with 2 distinct sex chromosome systems (a simple XX/XY - karyomorph B and a multiple X(1)X(1)X(2)X(2)/X(1)X(2)Y - karyomorph D) in Hoplias malabaricus, commonly referred to as wolf fish, was studied using their physical mapping with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The distribution patterns of different microsatellites along the chromosomes varied considerably. Strong hybridization signals were observed at subtelomeric and heterochromatic regions of several autosomes, with a different accumulation on the sex chromosomes. A massive accumulation was found in the heterochromatic region of the X chromosome of karyomorph B, whereas microsatellites were gathered at centromeres of both X chromosomes as well as in corresponding regions of the neo-Y chromosome in karyomorph D. Our findings are likely in agreement with models that predict the accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences in regions with very low recombination. This process is however in contrast with what was observed in multiple systems, where such a reduction might be facilitated by the chromosomal rearrangements that are directly associated with the origin of these systems.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 01/2011; 132(4):289-96. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of 2 species of giant trahiras, Hopliasintermedius, São Francisco river basin, and Hopliasaimara, Arinos river (Amazon basin), were examined by conventional (C-banding, Ag-NOR, DAPI/CMA(3) double-staining) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S, 18S rDNA probes and cross-species Cot-1 DNA probing. Both species invariably had diploid chromosome number 2n = 50 and identical karyotypes composed of 10 pairs of metacentric and 15 pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. On the other hand, staining with base-specific fluorochromes (CMA(3), DAPI) and FISH mapping of repetitive DNA sequences showed extensive interspecific differences: while the genome of H. aimara had one submetacentric pair bearing CMA(3)-positive (DAPI-negative) sites, that of H. intermedius had 4 such pairs; while FISH with a 5S rDNA probe showed one (likely homologous) signal-bearing pair, that with 18S rDNA displayed one signal-bearing pair in H. intermedius and 2 such pairs in H. aimara. Cross-species FISH probing with Cot-1 DNA prepared from total DNA of both species showed no signals of Cot-1 DNA from H. aimara on chromosomes of H. intermedius but reciprocally (Cot-1 DNA from H. intermedius on chromosomes of H. aimara) displayed signals on at least 4 chromosome pairs. Present findings indicate (i) different composition of repetitive sequences around centromeres, (ii) different NOR phenotypes and (iii) distinct taxonomic status of both giant trahira species.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 10/2010; 132(1-2):71-8. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The processes working on sex chromosome differentiation are still not completely understood. However, the accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences has been shown to be one of the first steps in the early stages of such differentiation. In addition, regions with suppressed or no recombination have a potential to accumulate these DNA sequences and, for this reason, the absence of recombination between the sex chromosomes favors, by itself, the accumulation of repetitive sequences on these chromosomes during evolution. The diversity of sex-determining mechanisms in fish, alongside with the absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in many species, makes this group a useful model to better understand evolutionary processes of sex chromosomes in vertebrates, considering that fish occupy the basal position in the phylogeny of this group. In this review we draw attention to a preferential accumulation and enrichment in repetitive DNAs in sex chromosomes of many neotropical fish species in comparison with autosomes. This phenomenon has been observed between both morphologically differentiated and nascent sex chromosome systems, which highlight the potential role of these sequences in the differentiation of fish sex chromosomes generating differences in morphology and size between them.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 10/2010; 132(3):188-94. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutive heterochromatin represents a substantial portion of the eukaryote genome, and it is mainly composed of tandemly repeated DNA sequences, such as satellite DNAs, which are also enriched by other dispersed repeated elements, including transposons. Studies on the organization, structure, composition and in situ localization of satellite DNAs have led to consistent advances in the understanding of the genome evolution of species, with a particular focus on heterochromatic domains, the diversification of heteromorphic sex chromosomes and the origin and maintenance of B chromosomes. Satellite DNAs can be chromosome specific or species specific, or they can characterize different species from a genus, family or even representatives of a given order. In some cases, the presence of these repeated elements in members of a single clade has enabled inferences of a phylogenetic nature. Genomic DNA restriction, using specific enzymes, is the most frequently used method for isolating satellite DNAs. Recent methods such as C(0)t-1 DNA and chromosome microdissection, however, have proven to be efficient alternatives for the study of this class of DNA. Neotropical ichthyofauna is extremely rich and diverse enabling multiple approaches with regard to the differentiation and evolution of the genome. Genome components of some species and genera have been isolated, mapped and correlated with possible functions and structures of the chromosomes. The 5SHindIII-DNA satellite DNA, which is specific to Hoplias malabaricus of the Erythrinidae family, has an exclusively centromeric location. The As51 satellite DNA, which is closely correlated with the genome diversification of some species from the genus Astyanax, has also been used to infer relationships between species. In the Prochilodontidae family, two repetitive DNA sequences were mapped on the chromosomes, and the SATH 1 satellite DNA is associated with the origin of heterochromatic B chromosomes in Prochilodus lineatus. Among species of the genus Characidium and the Parodontidae family, amplifications of satellite DNAs have demonstrated that these sequences are related to the differentiation of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. The possible elimination of satellite DNA units could explain the genome compaction that occurs among some species of Neotropical Tetraodontiformes. These topics are discussed in the present review, showing the importance of satellite DNA analysis in the differentiation and karyotype evolution of Actinopterygii.
Journal of Fish Biology 04/2010; 76(5):1094-116. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neotropical fish, Hoplias malabaricus, is well known for its population-specific karyotypic diversity and the variation of its sex chromosomes. Seven karyomorphs (A to G) have been previously described with an XY, X(1)X(2)Y and XY(1)Y(2) sex chromosome system found in karyomorphs B, D and G, respectively. We compared the chromosomal characteristics of karyomorphs C and D using C-banding, staining with CMA(3) and DAPI, and by mapping the location of 18S rDNA, 5SHindIII-DNA and (TTAGGG)(n) repeat sequences. Our results show conserved karyotypes in both karyomorphs, a nascent XX/XY sex chromosome system in karyomorph C and the origin of neo-Y chromosome in karyomorph D. The X and Y chromosomes of karyomorph C differ only slightly because of the amplification of repetitive sequences on the X chromosome, resulting in a homomorphic condition in all females and a heteromorphic condition in all males examined. Our study showed that chromosomes X and 20 of karyomorph C have similar patterns to the X(1) and X(2) chromosomes of karyomorph D, and are probably homologous. We showed that the neo-Y chromosome of karyomorph D shares similar patterns to the chromosomes Y and 20 of karyomorph C, and probably evolved through tandem fusion between Ypter/20pter. An interstitial site of the satellite 5SHindIII-DNA on the neo-Y reinforces the hypothesized dicentric nature of this chromosome. Our study shows the initial steps in XY chromosome differentiation in H. malabaricus and, in a broader context, contributes to the understanding of the evolutionary pathway leading to a multiple X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system in fishes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wolf fish Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae) presents a high karyotypic diversity, with 7 karyomorphs identified. Karyomorph A is characterized by 2n = 42 chromosomes, without morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. Karyomorph B also has 2n = 42 chromosomes for both sexes, but differs by a distinct heteromorphic XX/XY sex chromosome system. The cytogenetic mapping of 5 classes of repetitive DNA indicated similarities between both karyomorphs and the probable derivation of the XY chromosomes from pair No. 21 of karyomorph A. These chromosomes appear to be homeologous since the distribution of (GATA)(n) sequences, 18S rDNA and 5SHindIII-DNA sites supports their potential relatedness. Our data indicate that the differentiation of the long arms of the X chromosome occurred by accumulation of heterochromatin and 18S rDNA cistrons from the ancestral homomorphic pair No. 21 present in karyomorph A. These findings are further supported by the distribution of the Cot-1 DNA fraction. In addition, while the 18S rDNA cistrons were maintained and amplified on the X chromosomes, they were lost in the Y chromosome. The X chromosome was a clearly preferred site for the accumulation of DNA repeats, representing an unusual example of an X clustering more repetitive sequences than the Y during sex chromosome differentiation in fish.
Sexual Development 01/2010; 4(3):176-85. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sedentary, predatory characin Hoplias malabaricus has one of the widest distributions of freshwater fishes in South America and is characterized by seven karyomorphs (A-G) that occur in sympatric and allopatric populations. Karyotypical patterns of variation in wild populations have been interpreted as evidence of multiple lineages within this nominal species, a possibility that may limit the validity of experimental data for particular karyomorphs. This study used the phylogeographic and genealogical concordance between cytogenetic (N = 49) and molecular (mitochondrial DNA) (N = 73) data on 17 samples, collected in 12 basins from south-eastern and north-eastern Brazil, to assess the systematic value of cytogenetic data. Cytogenetic patterns show a sex chromosome system in the 2n = 40F karyomorph. Molecular and cytogenetic data indicate a long, independent evolutionary history of karyomorphs and a coastal origin of continental populations in south-eastern Brazil. The lack of fit with molecular clock expectations of divergence between groups is likely to be due to strong demographic fluctuations during the evolution of this species complex. The results indicate that karyotypical identification provides a reliable baseline for placing experimental studies on Hoplias spp. in a phylogenetic context.
Journal of Fish Biology 12/2009; 75(9):2326-43. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutive heterochromatin makes up a substantial portion of the genome of eukaryotes and is composed mainly of satellite DNA repeating sequences in tandem. Some satellite DNAs may have been derived from transposable elements. These repetitive sequences represent a highly dynamic component of rapid evolution in genomes. Among the genus Astyanax, the As51 satellite DNA is found in species that have large distal heterochromatic blocks, which may be considered as derived from a transposable DNA element. In the present study, As51 satellite DNA was mapped through in situ fluorescent hybridization in the chromosomes of five species of the genus. The possible roles of this type of saltatory DNA type in the genome of the species are discussed, along with its use for the phylogenetic grouping of the genus Astyanax, together with other shared chromosomal characters. However, the number of As51 clusters is presented as a homoplastic characteristic, thereby indicating evident genomic diversification of species with this type of DNA.
Journal of Fish Biology 08/2009; 75(2):408-21. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Karyotype and chromosomal characteristics from 3 allopatric populations of Hoplias malabaricus, cytogenetically the most studied Erythrinidae taxon, were investigated using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA(3) banding) as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and 5SHindIII satellite DNA sites. The isolation, cloning and characterization of an 18S rDNA probe from H. malabaricus genome were also performed for the first time in order to develop a more specific probe. The 3 populations, named PR, CR, and DR, showed identical karyotypes, with 2n = 42 chromosomes composed of 11 m pairs and 10 sm pairs, without heteromorphic sex chromosomes, which characterize the populations as belonging to karyomorph A. In all populations C-positive heterochromatin was situated in the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes, as well as in the telomeric region of several pairs. A conspicuous proximal heterochromatic block on the long arm of pair No. 16 was the only GC-rich segment in the karyotypes. 5SHindIII satellite DNA was always mapped in the centromeric region of several chromosomes. The 18S rDNA sites were situated on the telomeric or centromeric regions, whereas the 5S rDNA showed an interstitial or proximal location in some pairs. Several chromosomes bearing these repetitive DNA sequences were shared by the 3 populations, alongside with some exclusive chromosomal markers. In this sense, population CR was the most differentiated one, including a syntenic condition for the 18S and 5S rDNA probes, as confirmed by double FISH. Thus, despite their inclusion in the same major karyotypic group, the distinct populations cannot be considered an absolute evolutionary unit, as evidenced by their inner chromosomal differentiations.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2009; 125(2):132-41. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxonomic studies of the genus Astyanax from the Iguaçu River (Brazil) indicate that they may be differentiated into 11 distinct species, some of which have not been formally described and named so for. This study focuses on three of these species, Astyanax sp. B, Astyanax sp. C and Astyanax sp. D from the Upper Iguaçu River Basin. Comparative cytogenetic analyses of C-banding, Ag-NORs (silver nitrate stained nucleolar organizer region) and 18S and 5S rDNA corroborate that they are distinct species. A diploid number of 50 chromosomes and similar karyotypic formulae were observed in the three taxa, with the exception of Astyanax sp. D that differs in the number of submetacentric and subtelocentric chromosomes. However, the NOR silver-staining pattern, the heterochromatic bands (C-bands) and the mapping of the 18S and 5S rDNA sites in the chromosomes showed divergences between all three species under study, supporting the occurrence of distinct evolutionary units.
Journal of Fish Biology 11/2008; 73(8):2012 - 2020. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies about composition of repetitive sequences and their chromosomal location have been helpful to evolutionary studies in many distinct organisms. In order to keep on assessing the possible relationships among different cytotypes of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) in the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo State, Brazil), C-banding, chromomycin A(3) staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with a repetitive DNA sequence (As51) isolated from Astyanax scabripinnis were performed in the present work. The constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in terminal regions on long arms of submetacentric, subtelocentric, and acrocentric chromosomes and in the terminal region on short arms of a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in both standard cytotypes. This latter heterochromatic site was also GC-rich, as revealed by chromomycin A(3) staining, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR), as shown by previous studies. The sites of the satellite As51 DNA were located in terminal regions on long arms of several chromosomes. Some variant karyotypic forms, which diverge from the two standard cytotypes, also presented distinctive chromosomes carrying As51 satellite DNA. It is possible that the standard 2n = 46 cytotype represents an invader population in the Mogi-Guaçu River able to interbreed with the resident standard 2n = 48 cytotype. Therefore, the variant karyotypes would be related to a possible viable offspring, where complementary chromosomal rearrangements could favor new locations of the satellite DNA analyzed.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2008; 122(1):61-6. · 1.84 Impact Factor