[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrinus erythrinus, a Neotropical fish species of the Erythrinidae family, has a wide distribution in South America. Previous cytogenetic analysis showed that this species presents extensive karyotype diversity, with 4 karyomorphs (A-D) described herein. This study investigated the karyotypic structure of 2 new populations of E. erythrinus from the Brazilian Pantanal region, in order to improve the knowledge of the chromosomal diversity in this species. Both populations showed typical characteristics of karyomorph A, with 2n = 54 chromosomes (6 m + 2 st + 46 a), without differentiation between males and females. In addition, identical supernumerary B chromosomes, appearing as double minute ones, were also found in both the populations. These findings suggest the presence of mitotic instability in view of their high intra and inter-individual numerical variation. The presence of these chromosomes is likely a basal characteristic for this group, since the same kind of Bs also occurs in some other populations and karyomorphs of E. erythrinus. As such, they are important markers of biodiversity found in this nominal species, which probably corresponds to a species complex.
Genetics and molecular research: GMR 02/2014; · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In fish cytogenetics the methods of chromosome preparations still need to be improved in order to obtain good metaphase figures for banding technics and more accurate analysis. In this paper we describe a very fast and simples culture method from solid fish tissues. Results of its application to different species as well as about 5-BrdU incorporation, both for chromosome banding and sister chromatid differentiation are reported. The data emphasized the advantage of this short term culture method wich provide excellent chromosome preparations suitables for basic and applied cytogenetic studies.
Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics. 01/2014; 44(2):161-166.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both males and females of the fish Prochilodus scrofa have a diploid number of 2n = 54. However, with the exception of a single female, all 59 specimens (25 ♀, 34 ♂) studied had 1–5 minutes accessory chromosomes. The unstable behavior of these chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis as well as their heterochromatic nature, as detected by C-banding, are characteristics that emphasize their supernumerary nature. This is the first report of chromosomes of this type in the Osteichthyes (Pisces).
Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics. 01/2014; 36(4):307-314.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neotropical characiform fishes present two main trends of chromosomal evolution: some taxa show a heterogeneous pattern, with an extensive numerical and structural variation while others show a more homogeneous one, with a clear stability in their karyotype macrostructure. The implications of the populational features and some other conditions to these two general paths are discussed.
Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics. 01/2014; 47(3):289-297.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Were citogenetically analyzed 83 fish species from the Paraná-Plata river basin. Diploid numbers range from 36 to 102 chromosomes and three modal numbers were determined 2n=54, 2n=48 and 2n=56 for Characiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes, respectively. Supernumerary chromosomes were observed also, as well as polymorphic B chromosomes, microchromosomes and systems of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW). The present data will be useful for cytotaxonomic and evolutionary studies.
Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics. 01/2014; 56(2):197-204.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hoplias malabaricus represent a clear example of a species complex, including several karyotypic forms with chromosome numbers ranging from 2n=39/40 to 2n=42, including cases of simple and multiple sex chromosome systems. In this work were cytogenetically analyzed two populations of this “species”. The samples were obtained at the first plateau of the Iguaçu river (Paranátate, Brazil). The results show that both populations have the same chromosome number (2n=42) but one of them appears to be characterized by a sex chromosome system with male heterogamety (XX/XY). A such system was also previously described in H. malabaricus from another Brazilian region. Thus, the presence of this differentiated sex chromosome system in this river basin suggests that it was originated before the geographic isolation of the studied populations. The present data represent an additional support for the proposition that Hoplias malabaricus constitutes a species complex.
Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics. 12/2012; 55(3):193-198.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study presents an adaptation of current methodologies for preparing mitotic chromosomes from fishes, optimized for use in the field. The high-quality preparations obtained using this modified methodology is suitable for subsequent chromosomal analysis. Importantly, this method is particularly useful when specimen collection sites are far from research laboratories or when researchers are working with highly sensitive species that do not survive long outside of their natural habitats.
Journal of Fish Biology 07/2012; 81(1):351-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish from the family Labridae elicit considerable ecological interest, especially due to their complex interactions with the reef environment. Different karyoevolutionary tendencies have been identified in the subfamilies Bodianinae, Corinae and Cheilinae. Chromosomal analyses conducted in the Atlantic species Bodianus rufus (2n=48; 6m+12sm+14st+16a, FN=80), Bodianus pulchellus (2n=48; 4m+12sm+14st+18a, FN=78) and Bodianus insularis (2n=48; 4m+12sm+14st+18a, FN=78) identified Ag-NOR/18SrDNA sites located only in the terminal region of the short arm (p) of the largest subtelocentric pair. The 5S rDNA genes were mapped in the terminal region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric pair and the p arm of chromosome 19 in B. insularis. The karyotype of the three species shows an extensive heterochromatic and argentophilic region, exceptionally decondensed, located in the p arm of the second subtelocentric pair. This region does not correspond to a NOR site, since it is not hybridized with 18S rDNA probes, and is not GC-rich, as generally occurs with nucleolus organizer regions of lower invertebrates. Heterochromatin in the three species is reduced and distributed over the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes. The elevated number of two-armed chromosomes in species of Bodianus, in relation to other Labridae, shows karyotype diversification based on pericentric inversions, differentiating them markedly in terms of evolutionary tendencies that occur in subfamilies Corinae and Cheilininae. Structural cytogenetic similarities between B. pulchellus and B. insularis, in addition to the conserved chromosomal location pattern of ribosomal multigenic families, indicate phylogenetic proximity of these species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the evolutionary process of the sex chromosomes, a general principle that arises is that cessation or a partial restriction of recombination between the sex chromosome pair is necessary. Data from phylogenetically distinct organisms reveal that this phenomenon is frequently associated with the accumulation of heterochromatin in the sex chromosomes. Fish species emerge as excellent models to study this phenomenon because they have much younger sex chromosomes compared to higher vertebrates and many other organisms making it possible to follow their steps of differentiation. In several Neotropical fish species, the heterochromatinization, accompanied by amplification of tandem repeats, represents an important step in the morphological differentiation of simple sex chromosome systems, especially in the ZZ/ZW sex systems. In contrast, multiple sex chromosome systems have no additional increase of heterochromatin in the chromosomes. Thus, the initial stage of differentiation of the multiple sex chromosome systems seems to be associated with proper chromosomal rearrangements, whereas the simple sex chromosome systems have an accumulation of heterochromatin. In this review, attention has been drawn to this contrasting role of heterochromatin in the differentiation of simple and multiple sex chromosomes of Neotropical fishes, highlighting their surprising evolutionary dynamism.
Journal of Fish Biology 05/2012; 80(6):2125-39. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish exhibit the greatest diversity of all vertebrates, making this group extremely attractive for the study of a number of evolutionary questions. Fish genomes have intrinsic characteristics that may be responsible for the amazing diversity of fish species observed, but little is known about their structure and organization. A large amount of data from mapping of repetitive DNA sequences of several species has been generated, providing an important source of information for better understanding the involvement of repetitive DNA sequences in chromosomal organization. Almost all classes of repeated DNAs have been mapped in fishes, and all fish genomes analyzed contain at least one, mostly all types of repetitive DNAs. DNA sequence data combined with the chromosomal mapping of these repeated elements by means of cytogenetic techniques can provide a clearer picture of the genome, which is not yet clearly defined, even if already sequenced. In this chapter, we do not aim to analyze all available data on the chromosomal distribution of repetitive DNAs in fish species, but instead wish to draw attention to the impact of repetitive DNA sequences on fish karyotyping and genome evolution, with a particular focus on B chromosome origin and maintenance and on the differentiation of sex chromosomes. We also discuss the integration of chromosome analysis and genomic data, which represents a promising tool for fish cytogenomics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arrangement of 6 repetitive DNA sequences in the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosomes of 2 Erythrinidae fish, namely Hoplias malabaricus and Erythrinus erythrinus, both with a multiple X(1)X(1)X(2)X(2)/X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system, was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The distribution patterns of the repetitive sequences were distinct for each species. While some DNA repeats were species-specific, others were present in the sex chromosomes of both species at different locations. These data, together with the different morphological types of sex chromosomes and the distinct chromosomal rearrangements associated with the formation of the neo-Y chromosomes, support the plasticity of sex chromosome differentiation in the Erythrinidae family. Our present data highlight that the sex chromosomes in fish species may follow diverse differentiation patterns, even in the same type of sex chromosome system present in cofamiliar species.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 06/2011; 134(4):295-302. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distribution of 12 mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellites on the chromosomes of 2 karyomorphs with 2 distinct sex chromosome systems (a simple XX/XY - karyomorph B and a multiple X(1)X(1)X(2)X(2)/X(1)X(2)Y - karyomorph D) in Hoplias malabaricus, commonly referred to as wolf fish, was studied using their physical mapping with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The distribution patterns of different microsatellites along the chromosomes varied considerably. Strong hybridization signals were observed at subtelomeric and heterochromatic regions of several autosomes, with a different accumulation on the sex chromosomes. A massive accumulation was found in the heterochromatic region of the X chromosome of karyomorph B, whereas microsatellites were gathered at centromeres of both X chromosomes as well as in corresponding regions of the neo-Y chromosome in karyomorph D. Our findings are likely in agreement with models that predict the accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences in regions with very low recombination. This process is however in contrast with what was observed in multiple systems, where such a reduction might be facilitated by the chromosomal rearrangements that are directly associated with the origin of these systems.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 01/2011; 132(4):289-96. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of 2 species of giant trahiras, Hopliasintermedius, São Francisco river basin, and Hopliasaimara, Arinos river (Amazon basin), were examined by conventional (C-banding, Ag-NOR, DAPI/CMA(3) double-staining) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S, 18S rDNA probes and cross-species Cot-1 DNA probing. Both species invariably had diploid chromosome number 2n = 50 and identical karyotypes composed of 10 pairs of metacentric and 15 pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. On the other hand, staining with base-specific fluorochromes (CMA(3), DAPI) and FISH mapping of repetitive DNA sequences showed extensive interspecific differences: while the genome of H. aimara had one submetacentric pair bearing CMA(3)-positive (DAPI-negative) sites, that of H. intermedius had 4 such pairs; while FISH with a 5S rDNA probe showed one (likely homologous) signal-bearing pair, that with 18S rDNA displayed one signal-bearing pair in H. intermedius and 2 such pairs in H. aimara. Cross-species FISH probing with Cot-1 DNA prepared from total DNA of both species showed no signals of Cot-1 DNA from H. aimara on chromosomes of H. intermedius but reciprocally (Cot-1 DNA from H. intermedius on chromosomes of H. aimara) displayed signals on at least 4 chromosome pairs. Present findings indicate (i) different composition of repetitive sequences around centromeres, (ii) different NOR phenotypes and (iii) distinct taxonomic status of both giant trahira species.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 10/2010; 132(1-2):71-8. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The processes working on sex chromosome differentiation are still not completely understood. However, the accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences has been shown to be one of the first steps in the early stages of such differentiation. In addition, regions with suppressed or no recombination have a potential to accumulate these DNA sequences and, for this reason, the absence of recombination between the sex chromosomes favors, by itself, the accumulation of repetitive sequences on these chromosomes during evolution. The diversity of sex-determining mechanisms in fish, alongside with the absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in many species, makes this group a useful model to better understand evolutionary processes of sex chromosomes in vertebrates, considering that fish occupy the basal position in the phylogeny of this group. In this review we draw attention to a preferential accumulation and enrichment in repetitive DNAs in sex chromosomes of many neotropical fish species in comparison with autosomes. This phenomenon has been observed between both morphologically differentiated and nascent sex chromosome systems, which highlight the potential role of these sequences in the differentiation of fish sex chromosomes generating differences in morphology and size between them.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 10/2010; 132(3):188-94. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutive heterochromatin represents a substantial portion of the eukaryote genome, and it is mainly composed of tandemly repeated DNA sequences, such as satellite DNAs, which are also enriched by other dispersed repeated elements, including transposons. Studies on the organization, structure, composition and in situ localization of satellite DNAs have led to consistent advances in the understanding of the genome evolution of species, with a particular focus on heterochromatic domains, the diversification of heteromorphic sex chromosomes and the origin and maintenance of B chromosomes. Satellite DNAs can be chromosome specific or species specific, or they can characterize different species from a genus, family or even representatives of a given order. In some cases, the presence of these repeated elements in members of a single clade has enabled inferences of a phylogenetic nature. Genomic DNA restriction, using specific enzymes, is the most frequently used method for isolating satellite DNAs. Recent methods such as C(0)t-1 DNA and chromosome microdissection, however, have proven to be efficient alternatives for the study of this class of DNA. Neotropical ichthyofauna is extremely rich and diverse enabling multiple approaches with regard to the differentiation and evolution of the genome. Genome components of some species and genera have been isolated, mapped and correlated with possible functions and structures of the chromosomes. The 5SHindIII-DNA satellite DNA, which is specific to Hoplias malabaricus of the Erythrinidae family, has an exclusively centromeric location. The As51 satellite DNA, which is closely correlated with the genome diversification of some species from the genus Astyanax, has also been used to infer relationships between species. In the Prochilodontidae family, two repetitive DNA sequences were mapped on the chromosomes, and the SATH 1 satellite DNA is associated with the origin of heterochromatic B chromosomes in Prochilodus lineatus. Among species of the genus Characidium and the Parodontidae family, amplifications of satellite DNAs have demonstrated that these sequences are related to the differentiation of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. The possible elimination of satellite DNA units could explain the genome compaction that occurs among some species of Neotropical Tetraodontiformes. These topics are discussed in the present review, showing the importance of satellite DNA analysis in the differentiation and karyotype evolution of Actinopterygii.
Journal of Fish Biology 04/2010; 76(5):1094-116. · 1.83 Impact Factor