[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Atoh1/Hath1 plays crucial roles in the differentiation program of human intestinal epithelium cells (IECs). Although previous studies have indicated that the Notch signal suppresses the differentiation program of IEC, the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. This study shows that the undifferentiated state is maintained by the suppression of the Hath1 gene in human intestine.
To assess the effect of Notch signaling, doxycycline-induced expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Hes1 cells were generated in LS174T. Hath1 gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hath1 promoter region targeted by HES1 was determined by both reporter analysis and ChIP assay. Expression of Hath1 protein in ulcerative colitis (UC) was examined by immunohistochemistry.
Hath1 mRNA expression was increased by Notch signal inhibition. However, Hath1 expression was suppressed by ectopic HES1 expression alone even under Notch signal inhibition. Suppression of the Hath1 gene by Hes1, which binds to the 5' promoter region of Hath1, resulted in suppression of the phenotypic gene expression for goblet cells. In UC, the cooperation of aberrant expression of HES1 and the disappearance of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) caused Hath1 suppression, resulting in goblet cell depletion.
The present study suggests that Hes1 is essential for Hath1 gene suppression via Notch signaling. Moreover, the suppression of Hath1 is associated with goblet cell depletion in UC. Understanding the regulation of goblet cell depletion may lead to the development of new therapy for UC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The egress of memory T cells from peripheral tissues, such as lung and skin, into the draining lymph nodes requires their expression of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). In the intestine, resident memory T cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) do not express CCR7, indicating that they are tissue bound and do not exit the intestine.
We developed a cell transfer system, using rectal administration of lymphocytes to C57BL/6 mice. Lymphotoxin α-deficient mice were crossed with RAG-2(-/-) (recombination-activating gene-2) mice to generate lymphotoxin α-deficient × RAG-2(-/-) mice.
Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) or RAG-2(-/-) mice given rectal administration of splenic CD4(+) T cells from normal mice developed colitis; the cells proliferated not only in the LP but also in spleen. SCID or RAG-2(-/-) mice given rectal administrations of CD4(+) T cells that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)CD4(+) T cells) localized to the LP within 6 hours but were not found in the spleen until 24 hours after administration. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses detected CD4(+) T cells in the intraepithelial space just 3 hours after intrarectal administration. However, neither CCR7 deficiency nor the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist Fingolimod impaired the egress of CD4(+) T cells from LP to systemic circulation.
CD4(+) T cells not only penetrate from the luminal side of the intestine to the LP but also actively egress from the LP into the circulation. We developed a rectal administration system that might be used to further investigate cell trafficking in intestinal mucosa and to develop enema-based therapeutics for intestinal diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substitution of amino acids 70 and 91 in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core region is a significant predictor of poor responses to peginterferon-plus-ribavirin therapy, while their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigated these differences in the response to alpha interferon (IFN) by using HCV cell culture with R70Q, R70H, and L91M substitutions. IFN treatment of cells transfected or infected with the wild type or the mutant HCV clones showed that the R70Q, R70H, and L91M core mutants were significantly more resistant than the wild type. Among HCV-transfected cells, intracellular HCV RNA levels were significantly higher for the core mutants than for the wild type, while HCV RNA in culture supernatant was significantly lower for these mutants than for the wild type. IFN-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 and expression of the interferon-inducible genes were significantly lower for the core mutants than for the wild type, suggesting cellular unresponsiveness to IFN. The expression level of an interferon signal attenuator, SOCS3, was significantly higher for the R70Q, R70H, and L91M mutants than for the wild type. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which upregulates SOCS3, was significantly higher for the R70Q, R70H, and L91M mutants than for the wild type, suggesting interferon resistance, possibly through IL-6-induced, SOCS3-mediated suppression of interferon signaling. Expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins were significantly higher in cells transfected with a core mutant than in those transfected with the wild type. In conclusion, HCV R70 and L91 core mutants were resistant to interferon in vitro, and the resistance may be induced by IL-6-induced upregulation of SOCS3. Those mechanisms may explain clinical interferon resistance of HCV core mutants.
Journal of Virology 06/2011; 85(12):5986-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed novel magnetic resonance enterocolonography (MREC) for simultaneously evaluating both small and large bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MREC by comparing results of this procedure to those of endoscopies for evaluating the small and large bowel lesions of patients with CD.
Thirty patients with established CD were prospectively examined by newly developed MREC. Patients underwent ileocolonoscopy (ICS) (24 procedures) or double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) (10 procedures) after MREC on the same day. Two gastroenterologists and two radiologists who were blinded to the results of another study evaluated endoscopy and MREC findings, respectively.
In colonic lesions the sensitivities of the MREC for deep mucosal lesions (DML), all CD lesions, and stenosis were 88.2, 61.8, and 71.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 98.1, 95.3, and 97.7%, respectively. In small intestinal lesions, MREC sensitivities for DML, all CD lesions, and stenosis were 100, 85.7, and 100%, respectively, while specificities were 100, 90.5, and 93.1%, respectively. Endoscopic scores were significantly correlated with MREC scores. Eleven (46%) of the 24 patients who were clinically not suspected to show stricture were observed to demonstrate stricture by radiologists.
Our results demonstrated that MREC can simultaneously detect the CD lesions of the small and large intestine. MREC can be performed without radiation exposure, the use of enema, or the placement of a naso-jejunal catheter. MREC and endoscopy have comparable abilities for evaluating mucosal lesions of patients with CD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Studies of the complete hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have become possible with the development of a HCV-JFH1 cell culture system. Methods: In this study, we constructed two fluorescence protein-tagged recombinant JFH1 virus clones, JFH1-EYFP and JFH1-AsRed, as well as two corresponding clones with adaptive mutations, JFH1-EYFP mutant and JFH1-AsRed mutant, that and were as effective as JFH1 in producing infectious virus particles, and investigated their viral infection life cycles. Results: After infection of the fluorescence-tagged mutant viruses, infected cells increased exponentially. In cells, EYFP or AsRed and NS5A were expressed as a fusion protein and co-localized in core proteins. The rate of the cell-cell spread was dependent on the cell densities with a maximum of 10(2.5) /day. Treatment of cells with interferon or a protease inhibitor suppressed expansion of virus-positive cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that fluorescence-tagged HCV is a useful tool to study virus infection life cycles and to assist in the search for novel antiviral compounds.
Hepatology Research 03/2011; 41(3):258-69. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lack of patient response to alpha interferon (α-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment is a major problem in eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV). We screened chemical libraries for compounds that enhanced cellular responses to α-IFN and identified a triterpenoid, toosendanin (TSN). Here, we studied the effects and mechanisms of action of TSN on HCV replication and its effect on α-IFN signaling. We treated HCV genotype 1b replicon-expressing cells and HCV-J6/JFH-infected cells with TSN, with or without α-IFN, and the level of HCV replication was quantified. To study the effects of TSN on α-IFN signaling, we detected components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and STAT2 by Western blotting analysis; expression levels of mRNA of interferon regulatory factor 9 using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR); and interferon-stimulated response element reporter activity and measured the expression levels of interferon-inducible genes for 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, MxA, protein kinase R, and p56 using real-time RT-PCR. TSN alone specifically inhibited expression of the HCV replicon (50% effective concentration = 20.6 nM, 50% cytotoxic concentration > 3 μM, selectivity index > 146). Pretreatment with TSN prior to α-IFN treatment was more effective in suppressing HCV replication than treatment with either drug alone. Although TSN alone did not activate the α-IFN pathway, it significantly enhanced the α-IFN-induced increase of phosphorylated STATs, interferon-stimulated response element activation, and interferon-stimulated gene expression. TSN significantly increased baseline expression of interferon regulatory factor 9, a component of interferon-stimulated gene factor 3. Antiviral effects of treatment with α-IFN can be enhanced by pretreatment with TSN. Its mechanisms of action could potentially be important to identify novel molecular targets to treat HCV infection.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2011; 55(6):2537-45. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double balloon endoscopy (DBE) enables the observation and collection of viable specimens from the entire intestine, thereby allowing more detailed investigation of how the structure and function of the human small intestine are regulated. The present study aimed to elucidate the regulation of cell formation in the human small intestine using biopsy specimens collected from an entire individual small intestine by DBE.
The expression and the localization of representative genes for the differentiation program were analyzed in the entire small intestine of 10 patients. The functional correlation between Hath1 and Klf4 was analyzed in an intestinal cell line by using a Tet-On system.
In longitudinal cell formation in the small intestine, it was shown that goblet cells, but not Paneth cells, increased toward the ileum in each individual small intestine. Immunohistochemistry showed that Hath1-expressing cells migrated from the base of the crypt to the top of the villi in the terminal ileum, while Klf4-expressing cells migrated from the top of the villus, resulting in the colocalization of Hath1 and Klf4 in the terminal ileum. Coexpression of Hath1 and Klf4 upregulated the expression of phenotypic genes for goblet cells following the downregulation of those for Paneth cells.
Using mapping biopsy by DBE, we have demonstrated, for the first time, the molecular basis of the villus structure in the entire human small intestine in vivo. The present study showed that longitudinal cell formation was regulated by the colocalization of Hath1 and Klf4 that converted Paneth cell differentiation into goblet cell differentiation.
Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2011; 46(2):191-202. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that IL-7 is essential for the persistence of colitis as a survival factor of colitogenic IL-7Rα-expressing memory CD4(+) T cells. Because IL-7Rα is broadly expressed on various immune cells, it is possible that the persistence of colitogenic CD4(+) T cells is affected by other IL-7Rα-expressing non-T cells. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two adoptive transfer colitis experiments using IL-7Rα(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) donor cells and IL-7Rα(-/-) × RAG-2(-/-) recipient mice, respectively. First, IL-7Rα expression on colitic lamina propria (LP) CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher than on normal LP CD4(+) T cells, whereas expression on other colitic LP immune cells, (e.g., NK cells, macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells) was conversely lower than that of paired LP cells in normal mice, resulting in predominantly higher expression of IL-7Rα on colitogenic LP CD4(+) cells, which allows them to exclusively use IL-7. Furthermore, RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with IL-7Rα(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells did not develop colitis, although LP CD4(+) T cells from mice transferred with IL-7Rα(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells were differentiated to CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(-) effector-memory T cells. Finally, IL-7Rα(-/-) × RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells developed colitis similar to RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. These results suggest that IL-7Rα expression on colitogenic CD4(+) T cells, but not on other cells, is essential for the development of chronic colitis. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting the IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway in colitogenic CD4(+) T cells may be feasible for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2011; 186(4):2623-32. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of difference in interferon sensitivity between hepatitis C virus (HCV) strains have yet to be clarified. Here, we constructed an infectious genotype2b clone and analyzed differences in interferon-alpha sensitivity between HCV-2b and 2a-JFH1 clones using intergenotypic homologous recombination. The HCV-2b/JFH1 chimeric virus able to infect Huh7.5.1 cells and was significantly more sensitive to IFN than JFH1. IFN-induced expression of MxA and 25-OAS was significantly lower in JFH1 than in 2b/JFH1-infected cells. In JFH1-infected cells, expression of SOCS3 and its inducer, IL-6, was significantly higher than in 2b/JFH1-infected cells. The IFN-resistance of JFH1 cells was negated by siRNA-knock down of SOCS3 expression and by pretreatment with anti-IL6 antibody. In conclusion, intergenotypic differences of IFN sensitivity of HCV may be attributable to the sequences of HCV structural proteins and can be determined by SOCS3 and IL-6 expression levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HCV-JFH1 yields subclones that develop cytopathic plaques (Sekine-Osajima Y, et al., Virology 2008; 371:71). Here, we investigated viral amino acid substitutions in cytopathic mutant HCV-JFH1 clones and their characteristics in vitro and in vivo. The mutant viruses with individual C2441S, P2938S or R2985P signature substitutions, and with all three substitutions, showed significantly higher intracellular replication efficiencies and greater cytopathic effects than the parental JFH1 in vitro. The mutant HCV-inoculated mice showed significantly higher serum HCV RNA and higher level of expression of ER stress-related proteins in early period of infection. At 8 weeks post inoculation, these signature mutations had reverted to the wild type sequences. HCV-induced cytopathogenicity is associated with the level of intracellular viral replication and is determined by certain amino acid substitutions in HCV-NS5A and NS5B regions. The cytopathic HCV clones exhibit high replication competence in vivo but may be eliminated during the early stages of infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-2 and IL-7 share a common gamma-chain receptor and are critical for T-cell homeostasis. We aimed to clarify the reciprocal roles of IL-2 and IL-7 in the development and persistence of chronic colitis. We performed a series of adoptive transfers of IL-2(-/-) CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells into RAG-2(-/-) mice and assessed the role of IL-2 in the induction of IL-7R alpha on colitogenic CD4(+) T cells and the development of chronic colitis. RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with WT but not with IL-2(-/-) CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells developed Th1/Th17-mediated colitis. Consistently, re-expression of IL-7R alpha was severely impaired on IL-2(-/-) but not on WT CD4(+) T cells from the transferred mice. To exclude a contribution of the preclinical autoimmunity of IL-2(-/-)mice, WT Ly5.1(+) or IL-2(-/-) Ly5.2(+) CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells from GFP mice previously transplanted with the same number of WT and IL-2(-/-) BM cells were transferred into RAG-2(-/-) mice. RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with IL-2(-/-)-derived CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells did not develop colitis, but their splenic CD4(+) T cells changed from effector-memory to central-memory type. These results show that IL-2 is critically involved in the establishment and maintenance of IL-7-dependent colitogenic memory CD4(+)IL-7R alpha(high) T cells.
European Journal of Immunology 09/2010; 40(9):2423-36. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Splicing of messenger RNAs is regulated by site-specific binding of members of the serine-arginine-rich (SR) protein family, and SR protein kinases (SRPK) 1 and 2 regulate overall activity of the SR proteins by phosphorylation of their RS domains. We have reported that specifically designed SRPK inhibitors suppressed effectively several DNA and RNA viruses in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that an SRPK inhibitor, SRPIN340, suppressed in a dose-dependent fashion expression of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon and replication of the HCV-JFH1 clone in vitro. The inhibitory effects were not associated with antiproliferative or nonspecific cytotoxic effects on the host cells. Overexpression of SRPK1 or SRPK2 resulted in augmentation of HCV replication, while small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of the SRPKs suppressed HCV replication significantly. Immunocytochemistry showed that SRPKs and the HCV core and NS5A proteins colocalized to some extent in the perinuclear area. Our results demonstrate that SRPKs are host factors essential for HCV replication and that functional inhibitors of these kinases may constitute a new class of antiviral agents against HCV infection.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2010; 54(8):3179-86. · 4.57 Impact Factor