[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although intestinal microbiota are essential for the development of T cell-mediated colitis, it remains undetermined whether they enhance or suppress the chronic extraintestinal inflammation that often complicates inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, we investigate the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of colitis and extraintestinal manifestations in a mouse model in which colitis was induced in SCID mice by adoptive transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. Under specific pathogen-free conditions, these mice developed both colitis and extraintestinal interstitial pneumonia, whereas mice given a mixture of antibiotics did not develop colitis, but, surprisingly, developed Th1/Th17-mediated IP. Irrespective of antibiotic treatment, cotransfer of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppressed the development of pneumonitis and colitis, with all local CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cell-derived cells converted to CD44(high)CD62L(-)IL-7Rα(high) effector-memory T cells. Retransfer of CD4(+) effector-memory T cells from the lungs of antibiotic-treated mice with IP not only induced IP in both antibiotic-treated and -untreated recipients but also induced colitis in the untreated recipients. In summary, we have established a unique model of Th1/Th17-mediated IP in microbiota-free and antibiotic-treated mice. This model may be valuable in investigating the immunological mechanisms underlying extraintestinal disorders in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2013; 190(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202930 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) plays crucial roles in the differentiation of intestinal epithelium cells. Although we have reported that the Atoh1 protein was degraded in colon cancer by aberrant Wnt signaling, a recent study has indicated that the Atoh1 protein is expressed in mucinous colon cancer (MC) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). However, the roles of the Atoh1 protein in MC are unknown. To mimic MC, a mutated Atoh1 protein was stably expressed in undifferentiated colon cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed the acquisition of not only the differentiated cell form, but also malignant potential by Atoh1 protein stabilization. In particular, Atoh1 enhanced Wnt signaling, resulting in the induction of Lgr5 as a representative stem cell marker with the enrichment of cancer stem cells. Moreover, the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator system with time-lapse live imaging demonstrated cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase by Atoh1 protein stabilization. In conclusion, the Atoh1 protein regulates malignant potential rather than the differentiation phenotype of MC, suggesting the mechanism by which MC and SRCC are more malignant than non-mucinous adenocarcinoma.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2013; 432(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.01.034 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Interleukin (IL)-7 is mainly produced in bone marrow (BM) that forms the niche for B cells. We previously demonstrated that BM also retains pathogenic memory CD4 T cells in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unknown whether BM-derived IL-7 is sufficient for the development of IBD and which cells form the niche for colitogenic memory CD4 T cells in BM.
To address these questions, we developed mice in which IL-7 expression was specific for BM, and identified colitis-associated IL-7-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the BM.
IL-7–/–×RAG-1–/– mice injected with BM cells from IL-7+/+×RAG-1–/– mice, but not from IL-7–/–×RAG-1–/– mice, expressed IL-7 in BM, but not in their colon, and developed colitis when injected with CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells. Cultured BM MSC stably expressed a higher level of IL-7 than that of primary BM cells. IL-7-sufficient, but not IL-7-deficient, BM MSC supported upregulation of Bcl-2 in, and homeostatic proliferation of, colitogenic memory CD4 T cells in vitro. Notably, IL-7–/–×RAG-1–/– mice transplanted with IL-7-sufficient, but not IL-7-deficient, BM MSC expressed IL-7 in BM, but not in their colon, and developed colitis when transplanted with CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells.
We demonstrate for the first time that BM MSC are a major source of IL-7 and play a pathological role in IBD by forming the niche for colitogenic CD4 memory T cells in BM.
Gut 11/2012; 62(8). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302029 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Applications of double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) have expanded widely to areas beyond small-intestine endoscopy. Two endoscopists are required for standard insertion, but it is preferable to have DBE carried out by one endoscopist to optimize control of the procedure and because of human resources issues. We previously reported on the Single-Operator Method, but here we describe newly modified insertion techniques that facilitate and enhance the performance of DBE by a single endoscopist. Our new technique consists of Hooking Technique, Outside Support, Grasp Scope and Overtube, Continuous Overtube Infusion and Double-Overtube Method. These new techniques make it easier to carry out the Single-Operator Method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Inverted Meckel’s diverticulum has usually been misdiagnosed in the cases based on computed tomography images presented in the literature. The final diagnosis was made intra-operatively or by pathology reports after surgery. Despite this, preoperative diagnosis could be made successfully by using endoscopic ultrasound with double-balloon endoscopy prior to surgery.
A 60-year-old Japanese woman with severe anemia complained of several episodes of black stool over the preceding 2 years. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3.0-cm low-density tumor in the ileum, suggesting a diagnosis of intestinal lipoma. Examination of the tumor by endoscopic ultrasound with double-balloon endoscopy revealed a hypo-echoic layer corresponding to the muscularis propria, and a hyper-echoic layer corresponding to the fat tissue. These findings, which suggested that the tumor included areas outside the intestinal serosa, are not typical for a lipoma, despite the existence of a hyper-echoic layer corresponding to fatty tissue. We then considered a diagnosis of inverted Meckel’s diverticulum.
Lipoma and inverted Meckel’s diverticulum are difficult to differentially diagnose by computed tomography. Polypectomy is the preferred therapeutic approach when a lipoma is present; however, polypectomy in a patient with Meckel’s diverticulum requires full-thickness resection. Situations where polypectomy is performed without preparing for full-thickness resection can be avoided by first making a precise diagnosis using double-balloon endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 09/2012; 6(1):328. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-6-328
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that IL-7(-/-)RAG(-/-) mice receiving naive T cells failed to induce colitis. Such abrogation of colitis may be associated with not only incomplete T cell maintenance due to the lack of IL-7, but also with the induction of colitogenic CD4(+) T cell apoptosis at an early stage of colitis development. Moreover, NK cells may be associated with the suppression of pathogenic T cells in vivo, and they may induce apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. To further investigate these roles of NK cells, RAG(-/-) and IL-7(-/-)RAG(-/-) mice that had received naive T cells were depleted of NK cells using anti-asialo GM1 and anti-NK1.1 Abs. NK cell depletion at an early stage, but not at a later stage during colitogenic effector memory T cell (T(EM)) development, resulted in exacerbated colitis in recipient mice even in the absence of IL-7. Increased CD44(+)CD62L(-) T(EM) and unique CD44(-)CD62L(-) T cell subsets were observed in the T cell-reconstituted RAG(-/-) recipients when NK cells were depleted, although Fas, DR5, and IL-7R expressions in this subset differed from those in the CD44(+)CD62L(-) T(EM) subset. NK cell characteristics were the same in the presence or absence of IL-7 in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that NK cells suppress colitis severity in T cell-reconstituted RAG(-/-) and IL-7(-/-)RAG(-/-) recipient mice through targeting of colitogenic CD4(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) T(EM) and, possibly, of the newly observed CD4(+)CD44(-)CD62L(-) subset present at the early stage of T cell development.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(6):2524-36. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1100371 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult stem-cell therapy holds promise for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we describe methods for long-term expansion of colonic stem cells positive for leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5(+) cells) in culture. To test the transplantability of these cells, we reintroduced cultured GFP(+) colon organoids into superficially damaged mouse colon. The transplanted donor cells readily integrated into the mouse colon, covering the area that lacked epithelium as a result of the introduced damage in recipient mice. At 4 weeks after transplantation, the donor-derived cells constituted a single-layered epithelium, which formed self-renewing crypts that were functionally and histologically normal. Moreover, we observed long-term (>6 months) engraftment with transplantation of organoids derived from a single Lgr5(+) colon stem cell after extensive in vitro expansion. These data show the feasibility of colon stem-cell therapy based on the in vitro expansion of a single adult colonic stem cell.
Nature medicine 03/2012; 18(4):618-23. DOI:10.1038/nm.2695 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter that regulates bioavailability of orally administered drugs at the intestinal epithelium. To develop an in vitro experimental model that mimics P-gp-mediated intestinal drug transport in vivo, we employed normal intestinal epithelium three-dimensionally cultured. Physiological expression of P-gp mRNA and the expression of its protein at the apical membrane were observed in the small intestinal epithelium grown as cystic organoids. Rhodamine123 (Rh123), a substrate for P-gp, was actively transported in the basoapical direction and accumulated in the luminal space, while the epithelial integrity was kept intact. Furthermore, we were able to monitor the whole process of Rh123 transport and its inhibition by verapamil in real-time, from which kinetic parameters for Rh123 transport could be estimated by a mathematical modeling. The method here described to evaluate the dynamics of P-gp-mediated transport in primary intestinal epithelial cells would be instrumental in investigating the physiological function of P-gp and its inhibitors/inducers in vitro.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(2):238-43. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.01.155 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Atoh1/Hath1 plays crucial roles in the differentiation program of human intestinal epithelium cells (IECs). Although previous studies have indicated that the Notch signal suppresses the differentiation program of IEC, the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. This study shows that the undifferentiated state is maintained by the suppression of the Hath1 gene in human intestine.
To assess the effect of Notch signaling, doxycycline-induced expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Hes1 cells were generated in LS174T. Hath1 gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hath1 promoter region targeted by HES1 was determined by both reporter analysis and ChIP assay. Expression of Hath1 protein in ulcerative colitis (UC) was examined by immunohistochemistry.
Hath1 mRNA expression was increased by Notch signal inhibition. However, Hath1 expression was suppressed by ectopic HES1 expression alone even under Notch signal inhibition. Suppression of the Hath1 gene by Hes1, which binds to the 5' promoter region of Hath1, resulted in suppression of the phenotypic gene expression for goblet cells. In UC, the cooperation of aberrant expression of HES1 and the disappearance of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) caused Hath1 suppression, resulting in goblet cell depletion.
The present study suggests that Hes1 is essential for Hath1 gene suppression via Notch signaling. Moreover, the suppression of Hath1 is associated with goblet cell depletion in UC. Understanding the regulation of goblet cell depletion may lead to the development of new therapy for UC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The egress of memory T cells from peripheral tissues, such as lung and skin, into the draining lymph nodes requires their expression of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). In the intestine, resident memory T cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) do not express CCR7, indicating that they are tissue bound and do not exit the intestine.
We developed a cell transfer system, using rectal administration of lymphocytes to C57BL/6 mice. Lymphotoxin α-deficient mice were crossed with RAG-2(-/-) (recombination-activating gene-2) mice to generate lymphotoxin α-deficient × RAG-2(-/-) mice.
Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) or RAG-2(-/-) mice given rectal administration of splenic CD4(+) T cells from normal mice developed colitis; the cells proliferated not only in the LP but also in spleen. SCID or RAG-2(-/-) mice given rectal administrations of CD4(+) T cells that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)CD4(+) T cells) localized to the LP within 6 hours but were not found in the spleen until 24 hours after administration. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses detected CD4(+) T cells in the intraepithelial space just 3 hours after intrarectal administration. However, neither CCR7 deficiency nor the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist Fingolimod impaired the egress of CD4(+) T cells from LP to systemic circulation.
CD4(+) T cells not only penetrate from the luminal side of the intestine to the LP but also actively egress from the LP into the circulation. We developed a rectal administration system that might be used to further investigate cell trafficking in intestinal mucosa and to develop enema-based therapeutics for intestinal diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substitution of amino acids 70 and 91 in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core region is a significant predictor of poor responses to peginterferon-plus-ribavirin therapy, while their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigated these differences in the response to alpha interferon (IFN) by using HCV cell culture with R70Q, R70H, and L91M substitutions. IFN treatment of cells transfected or infected with the wild type or the mutant HCV clones showed that the R70Q, R70H, and L91M core mutants were significantly more resistant than the wild type. Among HCV-transfected cells, intracellular HCV RNA levels were significantly higher for the core mutants than for the wild type, while HCV RNA in culture supernatant was significantly lower for these mutants than for the wild type. IFN-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 and expression of the interferon-inducible genes were significantly lower for the core mutants than for the wild type, suggesting cellular unresponsiveness to IFN. The expression level of an interferon signal attenuator, SOCS3, was significantly higher for the R70Q, R70H, and L91M mutants than for the wild type. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which upregulates SOCS3, was significantly higher for the R70Q, R70H, and L91M mutants than for the wild type, suggesting interferon resistance, possibly through IL-6-induced, SOCS3-mediated suppression of interferon signaling. Expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins were significantly higher in cells transfected with a core mutant than in those transfected with the wild type. In conclusion, HCV R70 and L91 core mutants were resistant to interferon in vitro, and the resistance may be induced by IL-6-induced upregulation of SOCS3. Those mechanisms may explain clinical interferon resistance of HCV core mutants.
Journal of Virology 06/2011; 85(12):5986-94. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02583-10 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed novel magnetic resonance enterocolonography (MREC) for simultaneously evaluating both small and large bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MREC by comparing results of this procedure to those of endoscopies for evaluating the small and large bowel lesions of patients with CD.
Thirty patients with established CD were prospectively examined by newly developed MREC. Patients underwent ileocolonoscopy (ICS) (24 procedures) or double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) (10 procedures) after MREC on the same day. Two gastroenterologists and two radiologists who were blinded to the results of another study evaluated endoscopy and MREC findings, respectively.
In colonic lesions the sensitivities of the MREC for deep mucosal lesions (DML), all CD lesions, and stenosis were 88.2, 61.8, and 71.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 98.1, 95.3, and 97.7%, respectively. In small intestinal lesions, MREC sensitivities for DML, all CD lesions, and stenosis were 100, 85.7, and 100%, respectively, while specificities were 100, 90.5, and 93.1%, respectively. Endoscopic scores were significantly correlated with MREC scores. Eleven (46%) of the 24 patients who were clinically not suspected to show stricture were observed to demonstrate stricture by radiologists.
Our results demonstrated that MREC can simultaneously detect the CD lesions of the small and large intestine. MREC can be performed without radiation exposure, the use of enema, or the placement of a naso-jejunal catheter. MREC and endoscopy have comparable abilities for evaluating mucosal lesions of patients with CD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lack of patient response to alpha interferon (α-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment is a major problem in eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV). We screened chemical libraries for compounds that enhanced cellular responses to α-IFN and identified a triterpenoid, toosendanin (TSN). Here, we studied the effects and mechanisms of action of TSN on HCV replication and its effect on α-IFN signaling. We treated HCV genotype 1b replicon-expressing cells and HCV-J6/JFH-infected cells with TSN, with or without α-IFN, and the level of HCV replication was quantified. To study the effects of TSN on α-IFN signaling, we detected components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and STAT2 by Western blotting analysis; expression levels of mRNA of interferon regulatory factor 9 using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR); and interferon-stimulated response element reporter activity and measured the expression levels of interferon-inducible genes for 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, MxA, protein kinase R, and p56 using real-time RT-PCR. TSN alone specifically inhibited expression of the HCV replicon (50% effective concentration = 20.6 nM, 50% cytotoxic concentration > 3 μM, selectivity index > 146). Pretreatment with TSN prior to α-IFN treatment was more effective in suppressing HCV replication than treatment with either drug alone. Although TSN alone did not activate the α-IFN pathway, it significantly enhanced the α-IFN-induced increase of phosphorylated STATs, interferon-stimulated response element activation, and interferon-stimulated gene expression. TSN significantly increased baseline expression of interferon regulatory factor 9, a component of interferon-stimulated gene factor 3. Antiviral effects of treatment with α-IFN can be enhanced by pretreatment with TSN. Its mechanisms of action could potentially be important to identify novel molecular targets to treat HCV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Studies of the complete hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have become possible with the development of a HCV-JFH1 cell culture system.
Methods: In this study, we constructed two fluorescence protein-tagged recombinant JFH1 virus clones, JFH1-EYFP and JFH1-AsRed, as well as two corresponding clones with adaptive mutations, JFH1-EYFP mutant and JFH1-AsRed mutant, that and were as effective as JFH1 in producing infectious virus particles, and investigated their viral infection life cycles.
Results: After infection of the fluorescence-tagged mutant viruses, infected cells increased exponentially. In cells, EYFP or AsRed and NS5A were expressed as a fusion protein and co-localized in core proteins. The rate of the cell–cell spread was dependent on the cell densities with a maximum of 102.5/day. Treatment of cells with interferon or a protease inhibitor suppressed expansion of virus-positive cells.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that fluorescence-tagged HCV is a useful tool to study virus infection life cycles and to assist in the search for novel antiviral compounds.
Hepatology Research 03/2011; 41(3):258-69. DOI:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2010.00771.x · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that IL-7 is essential for the persistence of colitis as a survival factor of colitogenic IL-7Rα-expressing memory CD4(+) T cells. Because IL-7Rα is broadly expressed on various immune cells, it is possible that the persistence of colitogenic CD4(+) T cells is affected by other IL-7Rα-expressing non-T cells. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two adoptive transfer colitis experiments using IL-7Rα(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) donor cells and IL-7Rα(-/-) × RAG-2(-/-) recipient mice, respectively. First, IL-7Rα expression on colitic lamina propria (LP) CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher than on normal LP CD4(+) T cells, whereas expression on other colitic LP immune cells, (e.g., NK cells, macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells) was conversely lower than that of paired LP cells in normal mice, resulting in predominantly higher expression of IL-7Rα on colitogenic LP CD4(+) cells, which allows them to exclusively use IL-7. Furthermore, RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with IL-7Rα(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells did not develop colitis, although LP CD4(+) T cells from mice transferred with IL-7Rα(-/-) CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells were differentiated to CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(-) effector-memory T cells. Finally, IL-7Rα(-/-) × RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells developed colitis similar to RAG-2(-/-) mice transferred with CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. These results suggest that IL-7Rα expression on colitogenic CD4(+) T cells, but not on other cells, is essential for the development of chronic colitis. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting the IL-7/IL-7R signaling pathway in colitogenic CD4(+) T cells may be feasible for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2011; 186(4):2623-32. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1000057 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double balloon endoscopy (DBE) enables the observation and collection of viable specimens from the entire intestine, thereby allowing more detailed investigation of how the structure and function of the human small intestine are regulated. The present study aimed to elucidate the regulation of cell formation in the human small intestine using biopsy specimens collected from an entire individual small intestine by DBE.
The expression and the localization of representative genes for the differentiation program were analyzed in the entire small intestine of 10 patients. The functional correlation between Hath1 and Klf4 was analyzed in an intestinal cell line by using a Tet-On system.
In longitudinal cell formation in the small intestine, it was shown that goblet cells, but not Paneth cells, increased toward the ileum in each individual small intestine. Immunohistochemistry showed that Hath1-expressing cells migrated from the base of the crypt to the top of the villi in the terminal ileum, while Klf4-expressing cells migrated from the top of the villus, resulting in the colocalization of Hath1 and Klf4 in the terminal ileum. Coexpression of Hath1 and Klf4 upregulated the expression of phenotypic genes for goblet cells following the downregulation of those for Paneth cells.
Using mapping biopsy by DBE, we have demonstrated, for the first time, the molecular basis of the villus structure in the entire human small intestine in vivo. The present study showed that longitudinal cell formation was regulated by the colocalization of Hath1 and Klf4 that converted Paneth cell differentiation into goblet cell differentiation.
Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2011; 46(2):191-202. DOI:10.1007/s00535-010-0346-x · 4.52 Impact Factor