Øystein Bruserud

University of Bergen, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway

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Publications (265)920.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: STAT3 is important for transcriptional regulation in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). STAT3 has thousands of potential DNA binding sites but usually shows cell type specific binding preferences to a limited number of these. Furthermore, AML is a very heterogeneous disease, and studies of the prognostic impact of STAT3 in human AML have also given conflicting results. A more detailed characterization of STAT3 functions and the expression of various isoforms in human AML will therefore be required before it is possible to design clinical studies of STAT3 inhibitors in this disease, and it will be especially important to investigate whether the functions of STAT3 differ between patients. Several other malignancies also show extensive biological heterogeneity, and the present discussion and the suggested scientific approaches may thus be relevant for other cancer patients.
    Expert Review of Hematology 11/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The FLT3-ITD mutation is frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis. In such patients, FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are only partially effective and do not eliminate the leukemia stem cells (LSCs) that are assumed to be the source of treatment failure. Here, we show that the NAD-dependent SIRT1 de-acetylase is selectively overexpressed in primary human FLT3-ITD AML LSCs. This SIRT1 overexpres-sion is related to enhanced expression of the USP22 deubiquitinase induced by c-MYC, leading to reduced SIRT1 ubiquitination and enhanced stability. Inhibition of SIRT1 expression or activity reduced the growth of FLT3-ITD AML LSCs and significantly enhanced TKI-mediated killing of the cells. There-fore, these results identify a c-MYC-related network that enhances SIRT1 protein expression in human FLT3-ITD AML LSCs and contributes to their mainte-nance. Inhibition of this oncogenic network could be an attractive approach for targeting FLT3-ITD AML LSCs to improve treatment outcomes. INTRODUCTION
    Cell Stem Cell 10/2014; · 25.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The malignant cell population of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) includes a small population of stem/progenitor cells with long-term in vitro proliferation. We wanted to compare long-term AML cell proliferation for unselected patients, investigate the influence of endothelial cells on AML cell proliferation and identify biological characteristics associated with clonogenic capacity. Methods: Cells were cultured in medium supplemented with recombinant growth factors FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, stem cell factor, IL-3, G-CSF and thrombopoietin. The colony-forming unit assay was used to estimate the number of progenitors in AML cell populations after 35 days of culture, and microarray was used to study global gene expression profiles between AML patients. Results: Long-term cell proliferation was observed in 7 of 31 patients, whereas 3 additional patients showed long-term proliferation after endothelial cell coculture. Patient-specific differences in constitutive cytokine release were maintained during cell culture. Patients with long-term proliferation showed altered expression in six cell cycle-related genes (HMMR, BUB1, NUSAP1, AURKB, CCNF, DLGAP5), two genes involved in DNA replication (TOP2A, RFC3) and one gene with unknown function (LHFPL2). Conclusion: We identified a subset of AML patients characterized by long-term in vitro cell proliferation and altered expression of cell cycle regulators that may be potential candidates for treatment of AML.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 09/2014; · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an immunomodulatory alternative for treatment of graft versus host disease (GVHD). The blood is then separated into its various components through apheresis; buffy coat cells are thereafter treated with 8-methoxypsoralen before exposure to ultraviolet light and finally reinfused into the patient. There is a general agreement that this treatment has an anti-GVHD effect, but the mechanisms of action behind this effect are only partly understood. However, altered maturation of dendritic cells (DC) and thereby indirect modulation of T-cell reactivity seems to be one important mechanism together with DC-presentation of antigens derived from apoptotic donor T cells and induction of regulatory T cells. The treatment has been best studied in patients with chronic GVHD (both pediatric and adult patients), but most studies are not randomized and it is difficult to know whether the treatment is more effective than the alternatives. The clinical studies of ECP in adults with acute GVHD are few and not randomized; it is not possible to judge whether this treatment should be a preferred second- or third-line treatment. There is no evidence for increased risk of leukemia relapse or suppression of specific graft versus leukemia reactivity by this treatment, so specific antileukemic immunotherapy may still be possible. Thus, even though the treatment seems effective in patients with GVHD, further clinical (especially randomized) as well as biological studies with careful standardization of the treatment are needed before it is possible to conclude how ECP should be used in acute and chronic GVHD.
    Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As a direct consequence of the high diversity of the aggressive blood cancer acute myeloid leukemia (AML), proteomic samples from patients are strongly heterogeneous, rendering their accurate relative quantification challenging. In the present study, we investigated the benefits of using a super-SILAC mix of AML derived cell lines as internal standard for quantitative shotgun studies. The Molm-13, NB4, MV4–11, THP-1, and OCI-AML3 cell lines were selected for their complementarity with regard to clinical, cytogenetic and molecular risk factors used for prognostication of AML patients. The resulting internal standard presents a high coverage of the AML proteome compared to single cell lines allied with high technical reproducibility, thus enabling its use for AML patient comparison. This was confirmed by comparing the protein regulation between the five cell lines and applying the internal standard to patient material: we were able to reproduce specific functional regulations known to be related to disease progression and molecular genetic abnormalities. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000441.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Proteomics 07/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that stabilize folding and conformation of mature proteins. HSPs are, therefore, considered as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of human cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This strategy offers the possibility of targeting several oncogenic proteins or several intracellular signaling pathways through the use of a single therapeutic agent. Areas covered: Several specific HSP70 inhibitors have now been developed. We describe: i) the molecular structure of HSP70 and the molecular interactions especially with its co-chaperones; ii) the immunoregulatory functions of HSP70; iii) the expression and function of HSP70 in human AML cells; iv) the molecular and pharmacological characteristics of potential HSP70 inhibitors; and v) the clinical and experimental studies of HSP70 inhibition in human AML. Our review is based on careful selection of relevant publications identified in the PubMed database. Expert opinion: HSP70 inhibitors have antileukemic activity in human AML. However, additional experimental studies using in vitro models as well as animal models are required, including detailed toxicology studies, as a scientific basis for the optimal design of future clinical studies.
    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The small-molecule MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3 has proved to be an effective p53 activating therapeutic compound in several preclinical cancer models, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We and others have previously reported a vigorous acetylation of the p53 protein by nutlin-treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the functional role of this p53 acetylation in nutlin-sensitivity, and further to explore if nutlin-induced protein acetylation in general could indicate novel targets for the enhancement of nutlin-based therapy.
    Molecular cancer. 05/2014; 13(1):116.
  • Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række. 05/2014; 134(10):1058-61.
  • Håkon Reikvam, Randi Hovland, Oystein Bruserud
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with unique biological and clinical features and unique therapeutic requirements. The article provides a brief description of the development, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of APL.METHOD The article is based on the authors' own experience and reviews of key articles and national and international guidelines.RESULTS The disease is caused by a single genetic event, namely the translocation t(15;17), which gives rise to the oncoprotein PML-RARA. Clinical and morphological characteristics arouse suspicion of the disease, and the diagnosis is verified by detecting the translocation. At the time of diagnosis most patients have severe coagulopathy and the predominant clinical manifestation is bleeding. Early mortality is due to severe haemorrhage, usually intracranial. Early treatment start with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on suspicion of APL is essential to reduce this early mortality. ATRA is also an important part of continued treatment, in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and possibly arsenic. After this treatment, the prognosis for disease-free long-term survival is > 90 %. There are also safe and effective treatment options for elderly patients with complex comorbidities.INTERPRETATION With APL it is particularly important to start disease-targeting therapy in the form of ATRA quickly because of the high risk of serious haemorrhages and high early mortality. If serious haemorrhages are avoided, the prognosis is very good.
    Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række. 05/2014; 134(10):1052-5.
  • Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 02/2014; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These cells express several molecules that can be detected as biologically active soluble forms; serum levels of these molecules may thereby reflect the functional status of endothelial cells. Furthermore, acute GVHD is an inflammatory reaction and endothelial cells function as local regulators of inflammation. We therefore investigated whether differences in preconditioning/pretransplant serum levels of endothelium-expressed molecules (i.e., endocan, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin) were associated with a risk of posttransplant GVHD. Our study should be regarded as a population-based study of consecutive and thereby unselected patients (n = 56). Analysis of this pretreatment endothelium biomarker profile by unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a subset of patients with increased early nonrelapse mortality. Furthermore, low endocan levels were significantly associated with acute GVHD in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, whereas high VCAM-1 levels were associated with acute GVHD in the skin only. Our study suggests that the preconditioning/pretransplant status of endothelial cells (possibly through altered trafficking of immunocompetent cells) is important for the risk and the organ involvement of later acute GVHD.
    Journal of transplantation. 01/2014; 2014:404096.
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    ABSTRACT: The cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) phosphatases include CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C. These three molecules are important regulators of several steps in the cell cycle, including the activation of various cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDC25s seem to have a role in the development of several human malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML); and CDC25 inhibition is therefore considered as a possible anticancer strategy. Firstly, upregulation of CDC25A can enhance cell proliferation and the expression seems to be controlled through PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling, a pathway possibly mediating chemoresistance in human AML. Loss of CDC25A is also important for the cell cycle arrest caused by differentiation induction of malignant hematopoietic cells. Secondly, high CDC25B expression is associated with resistance against the antiproliferative effect of PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors in primary human AML cells, and inhibition of this isoform seems to reduce AML cell line proliferation through effects on NFκB and p300. Finally, CDC25C seems important for the phenotype of AML cells at least for a subset of patients. Many of the identified CDC25 inhibitors show cross-reactivity among the three CDC25 isoforms. Thus, by using such cross-reactive inhibitors it may become possible to inhibit several molecular events in the regulation of cell cycle progression and even cytoplasmic signaling, including activation of several CDKs, through the use of a single drug. Such combined strategies will probably be an advantage in human cancer treatment.
    Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 01/2014; 19(11):18414-18447.
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    ABSTRACT: The initial evaluation of patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis includes the use of biomarkers reflecting activation of the coagulation system. However, the thromboembolic process and neighboring inflammatory responses also affect endothelial cells, and endothelial cell markers may therefore be altered by the disease. In the present population-based single-center study, we investigated the plasma levels of the endothelium-specific biomarkers soluble E-selectin and endocan in a consecutive and unselected group of 120 patients admitted to hospital for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Blood samples were collected when patients arrived at the hospital. DVT patients showed evidence for an acute phase reaction with increased serum C-reactive protein levels, but this was similar to many other patients admitted with suspected but not verified thrombosis. Plasma endocan and E-selectin levels did not differ between patients with thrombosis, healthy controls and the patients without verified thrombosis (i.e. patients with other causes of their symptoms, including various inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions). However, the combined use of endothelial biomarkers, C-reactive protein and D-dimer could be used to identify patient subsets with different frequencies of venous thrombosis. Thus, analysis of plasma biomarker profiles including endothelial cell markers may be helpful in the initial evaluation of patients with deep vein thrombosis.
    SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:571.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy. Intracellular signalling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important for regulation of cellular growth and metabolism, and inhibitors of this pathway is considered for AML treatment. Primary human AML cells, derived from 96 consecutive adult patients, were examined. The effects of two mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, temsirolimus) and two PI3K inhibitors (GDC-0941, 3-methyladenine) were studied, and we investigated cytokine-dependent proliferation, regulation of apoptosis and global gene expression profiles. Only a subset of patients demonstrated strong antiproliferative effects of PI3K-mTOR inhibitors. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis identified two main clusters of patients; one subset showing weak or absent antiproliferative effects (59%) and another group showing a strong growth inhibition for all drugs and concentrations examined (41%). Global gene expression analyses showed that patients with AML cell resistance against PI3K-mTOR inhibitors showed increased mRNA expression of the CDC25B gene that encodes the cell cycle regulator Cell Division Cycle 25B. The antileukaemic effect of PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibition varies between patients, and resistance to these inhibitors is associated with the expression of the cell cycle regulator CDC25B, which is known to crosstalk with the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and mediate rapamycin resistance in experimental models.
    British Journal of Haematology 01/2014; 164(2):200-11. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combined use of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), the retinoic acid receptor- α agonist all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase- α inhibitor cytarabine (Ara-C) is now considered for disease-stabilizing treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemogenesis and leukemia cell chemoresistance seem to be supported by neighbouring stromal cells in the bone marrow, and we have therefore investigated the effects of these drugs on primary human endothelial cells and the osteoblastic Cal72 cell line. The results show that VPA and Ara-C have antiproliferative effects, and the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect of Ara-C was seen at low concentrations corresponding to serum levels found during low-dose in vivo treatment. Furthermore, in functional assays of endothelial migration and tube formation VPA elicited an antiangiogenic effect, whereas ATRA elicited a proangiogenic effect. Finally, VPA and ATRA altered the endothelial cell release of angiogenic mediators; ATRA increased levels of CXCL8, PDGF-AA, and VEGF-D, while VPA decreased VEGF-D and PDGF-AA/BB levels and both drugs reduced MMP-2 levels. Several of these mediators can enhance AML cell proliferation and/or are involved in AML-induced bone marrow angiogenesis, and direct pharmacological effects on stromal cells may thus indirectly contribute to the overall antileukemic activity of this triple drug combination.
    Leukemia research and treatment. 01/2014; 2014:143479.
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    ABSTRACT: Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under non-homeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during intestinal protozoan infections. RNA expression analyses of major arginine-metabolizing enzymes revealed the arginine-utilizing pathways in human IECs (differentiated Caco-2 cells) grown in vitro. Most genes were constant or down-regulated (e.g. arginase 1 and 2) upon interaction with Giardia, whereas inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were up-regulated within 6 h of infection. Giardia was shown to suppress cytokine-induced iNOS expression, thus the parasite has both iNOS inducing and suppressive activities. Giardial arginine consumption suppresses NO production and the NO-degrading parasite protein flavohemoglobin is up-regulated in response to host NO. In addition, the secreted, arginine-consuming giardial enzyme arginine deiminase (GiADI) actively reduces T-cell proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, the effects on NO production and T cell proliferation could be reversed by addition of external arginine or citrulline. Giardia affects the host's arginine metabolism on many different levels. Many of the effects can be reversed by addition of arginine or citrulline, which could be a beneficial supplement in oral rehydration therapy.
    BMC Microbiology 11/2013; 13(1):256. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proliferative capacity of acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) blasts is important for leukaemogenesis, and we have investigated whether proliferative capacity of primary human AML cells could be used for subclassification of patients. In vitro proliferative capacity of AML cells derived from two independent groups was investigated. Cells were cultured under highly standardized conditions and proliferation assayed by (3) H-thymidine incorporation after seven days culture. Patients were subclassified by clustering models, and gene expression profile was examined by microarray analyses. Based on proliferative capacity of the AML cells, three different patient clusters were identified: (i) autocrine proliferation that was increased by exogenous cytokines; (ii) detectable proliferation only in presence of exogenous cytokines; and (iii) low or undetectable proliferation even in presence of exogenous cytokines. Patients with highest proliferative capacity cells had no favourable prognostic impact by NPM-1 mutation. Analysis of gene expression profiles showed that the most proliferative cells generally had altered expression of genes involved in regulation of transcription/RNA functions, whereas patients with high proliferative capacity and internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in the FLT3 cytokine receptor gene had altered expression of several molecules involved in cytoplasmic signal transduction. In vitro proliferative capacity of primary human AML cells was considerably variable between patients and could be used to identify biologically distinct patient subsets.
    Cell Proliferation 10/2013; 46(5):554-62. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The retinoid-responsive gene CXXC5 localizes to the 5q31.2 chromosomal region and encodes a retinoid-inducible nuclear factor (RINF) that seems important during normal myelopoiesis. We investigated CXXC5/RINF expression in primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells derived from 594 patients, and a wide variation in CXXC5/RINF mRNA levels was observed both in the immature leukemic myeloblasts and in immature acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Furthermore, patients with low-risk cytogenetic abnormalities showed significantly lower levels compared to patients with high-risk abnormalities, and high RINF/CXXC5/ mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival for patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. This association with prognosis was seen both when investigating (i) an unselected patient population as well as for patients with (ii) normal cytogenetic and (iii) core-binding factor AML. CXXC5/RINF knockdown in AML cell lines caused increased susceptibility to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, and regulation of apoptosis also seemed to differ between primary human AML cells with high and low RINF expression. The association with adverse prognosis together with the antiapoptotic effect of CXXC5/RINF suggests that targeting of CXXC5/RINF should be considered as a possible therapeutic strategy, especially in high-risk patients who show increased expression in AML cells compared with normal hematopoietic cells.
    Oncotarget 08/2013; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperleukocytosis is usually defined as leukocyte count >100 × 10(9) L(-1) and can be seen in newly diagnosed leukaemias. Hyperleukocytic leukaemia is associated with a risk of organ failure and early death secondary to leukostasis. Mechanical removal of leukocytes by the apheresis technique, leukocytapheresis, is a therapeutic option in these patients. During a 16-year period, 16 patients were treated with leukocytapheresis (35 apheresis procedures) for hyperleukocytosis/leukostasis. We present our experience, and in addition we review previous studies of hyperleukocytosis/leukocytapheresis in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We used a highly standardised approach for leukocytapheresis in leukaemia patients with hyperleukocytosis. The average leukocytapheresis number for each patient was 2·2 (range 1-6). Median leukocyte count before apheresis was 309 × 10(9) L(-1) (range 104-935); the mean leukocyte count reduction was 71%, corresponding to a mean absolute reduction of 219 × 10(9) L(-1) . No serious side effects were seen during or immediately after apheresis. The data suggest that our standardised technique for leukocytapheresis effectively reduced the peripheral blood leukaemia cell counts. Previous studies in AML also support the conclusion that this is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of a potentially life-threatening complication, but apheresis should always be combined with early chemotherapy.
    Transfusion Medicine 08/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are not fit for intensive and potentially curative therapy due to advanced age or comorbidity. Previous studies have demonstrated that a subset of these patients can benefit from disease-stabilizing therapy based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and valproic acid. Even though complete hematological remission is only achieved for exceptional patients, a relatively large subset of patients respond to this treatment with stabilization of normal peripheral blood cell counts. In this clinical study we investigated the efficiency and safety of combining (i) continuous administration of valproic acid with (ii) intermittent oral ATRA treatment (21.5 mg/m2 twice daily) for 14 days and low-dose cytarabine (10 mg/m2 daily) for 10 days administered subcutaneously. If cytarabine could not control hyperleukocytosis it was replaced by hydroxyurea or 6-mercaptopurin to keep the peripheral blood blast count below 50 x 109/L. The study included 36 AML patients (median age 77 years, range 48 to 90 years) unfit for conventional intensive chemotherapy; 11 patients responded to the treatment according to the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) response criteria and two of these responders achieved complete hematological remission. The most common response to treatment was increased and stabilized platelet counts. The responder patients had a median survival of 171 days (range 102 to > 574 days) and they could spend most of this time outside hospital, whereas the nonresponders had a median survival of 33 days (range 8 to 149 days). The valproic acid serum levels did not differ between responder and nonresponder patients and the treatment was associated with a decrease in the level of circulating regulatory T cells. Treatment with continuous valproic acid and intermittent ATRA plus low-dose cytarabine has a low frequency of side effects and complete hematological remission is seen for a small minority of patients. However, disease stabilization is seen for a subset of AML patients unfit for conventional intensive chemotherapy.
    Clinical epigenetics. 08/2013; 5(1):13.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
920.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • University of Bergen
      • • Institute of Medicine
      • • Section of Haematology
      • • Section of Medical Biochemistry
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 1991–2014
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Dept. of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine
      • • Centre for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2008–2011
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Center for Clinical Heart Research
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2009
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
    • Haraldsplass Deaconess University College
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Stavanger (UiS)
      • Department of Health Studies
      Stavanger, Rogaland Fylke, Norway
  • 1991–2009
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • Sektion für Transplantationsimmunologie und Immunhämatologie
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • NORUT Northern Research Institute
      Tromsø, Troms, Norway
  • 1991–2006
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Eye Hospital
      Tübingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Saint Petersburg State University
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
  • 1998–1999
    • Høgskolen i Bergen
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway