[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased catalytic activity of cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) was recently shown to mediate vasodilation of the cerebral microcirculation, which is initiated within minutes after the onset of acute hypoxia. To test whether chronic hypoxia was a stimulus for increased CBS expression, U87-MG human glioblastoma and PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells were exposed to 1% or 20% O2 for 24 to 72 h. CBS mRNA and protein expression were increased in hypoxic cells. Hypoxic induction of CBS expression was abrogated in cells transfected with vector encoding short hairpin RNA targeting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1alpha or 2alpha. Exposure of rats to hypobaric hypoxia (0.35 atm) for 3 d induced increased Cbs mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, which was blocked by administration of the HIF inhibitor digoxin. HIF binding sites, located 0.8 and 1.2 kb 5' to the transcription start site of the human CBS and rat Cbs genes, respectively, were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. A 49-bp human sequence, which encompassed an inverted repeat of the core HIF binding site, functioned as a hypoxia response element in luciferase reporter transcription assays. Thus, HIFs mediate tissue-specific CBS expression, which may augment cerebral vasodilation as an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of Rho kinase 1 (ROCK1) and the G protein RhoA is implicated in breast cancer progression, but oncogenic mutations are rare, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie increased ROCK1 and RhoA expression have not been determined. RhoA-bound ROCK1 phosphorylates myosin light chain (MLC), which is required for actin-myosin contractility. RhoA also activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Together, these pathways are critical determinants of the motile and invasive phenotype of cancer cells. We report that hypoxia-inducible factors coordinately activate RhoA and ROCK1 expression and signaling in breast cancer cells, leading to cell and matrix contraction, focal adhesion formation, and motility through phosphorylation of MLC and FAK. Thus, intratumoral hypoxia acts as an oncogenic stimulus by triggering hypoxia-inducible factor → RhoA → ROCK1 → MLC → FAK signaling in breast cancer cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality in breast cancer patients ultimately results from the dissemination of breast cancer cells (BCCs) from the primary tumor to distant organs (metastasis). The proliferation of BCCs leads to areas of decreased oxygen availability (intratumoral hypoxia), which drives breast cancer pathogenesis through the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In this review, we outline emerging HIF-dependent molecular mechanisms that promote the metastatic dissemination of hypoxic BCCs through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. We show that HIFs contribute to key aspects of metastatic progression through the transcriptional activation of target genes in BCCs, lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and supporting stromal cells within the primary tumor. Finally, we discuss the pharmacological inhibition of HIFs as a novel therapeutic approach to block breast cancer metastasis and improve patient survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted therapy against triple-negative breast cancers, which lack expression of the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors, is not available and the overall response to cytotoxic chemotherapy is poor. One of the molecular hallmarks of triple-negative breast cancers is increased expression of genes that are transcriptionally activated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are implicated in many critical aspects of cancer progression including metabolism, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and stem cell maintenance. Ganetespib is a second-generation inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone that is essential for the stability and function of multiple client proteins in cancer cells including HIF-1α. In this study, human MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 triple-negative breast cancer cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice that received weekly intravenous injections of ganetespib or vehicle following the development of palpable tumors. Ganetespib treatment markedly impaired primary tumor growth and vascularization, and eliminated local tissue invasion and distant metastasis to regional lymph nodes and lungs. Ganetespib treatment also significantly reduced the number of Aldefluor-positive cancer stem cells in the primary tumor. Primary tumors of ganetespib-treated mice had significantly reduced levels of HIF-1α (but not HIF-2α) protein and of HIF-1 target gene mRNAs encoding proteins that play key roles in angiogenesis, metabolism, invasion, and metastasis, thereby providing a molecular basis for observed effects of the drug on the growth and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) respond poorly to available chemotherapy. TNBCs overexpress genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Ganetespib induces degradation of HSP90 client proteins, including HIF-1α. Ganetespib inhibited TNBC orthotopic tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Ganetespib inhibited expression of HIF-1 target genes involved in TNBC progression.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2013; · 4.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human breast tumors contain regions of hypoxia in which cells that are located far from a functional blood vessel have significantly reduced oxygen concentrations when compared with normal mammary tissue. Breast cancer cells adapt to hypoxic conditions by increasing levels of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which induce the expression of multiple genes involved in angiogenesis, glucose utilization, resistance to oxidative stress, cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, invasion and metastasis. Breast cancer patients with increased HIF expression levels in primary tumor biopsies are at increased risk of metastasis. This is an important finding since 90% of breast cancer deaths are the result of metastasis, primarily to the bone, lungs, liver, brain and regional lymph nodes. Although the prognostic significance of reduced oxygen levels in primary breast tumors of cancer patients is well recognized, the mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced, HIF-dependent breast cancer metastasis are just beginning to be uncovered. Recent studies have implicated HIF target genes in every step of the metastatic process. Drugs, such as digoxin, show the potential therapeutic effects of blocking HIF activity by decreasing primary tumor growth, vascularization, invasion and metastasis in animal models of breast cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway tissue ischemia and hypoxia in human lung transplantation is a consequence of the sacrifice of the bronchial circulation during the surgical procedure and is a major risk factor for the development of airway anastomotic complications. Augmented expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α promotes microvascular repair and alleviates allograft ischemia and hypoxia. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is an FDA-approved iron chelator which has been shown to upregulate cellular HIF-1α. Here, we developed a nanoparticle formulation of DFO that can be topically applied to airway transplants at the time of surgery. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant (OTT) model, the DFO nanoparticle was highly effective in enhancing airway microvascular perfusion following transplantation through the production of the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PLGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1. The endothelial cells in DFO treated airways displayed higher levels of p-eNOS and Ki67, less apoptosis, and decreased production of perivascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to vehicle-treated airways. In summary, a DFO formulation topically-applied at the time of surgery successfully augmented airway anastomotic microvascular regeneration and the repair of alloimmune-injured microvasculature. This approach may be an effective topical transplant-conditioning therapy for preventing airway complications following clinical lung transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DXR) and daunorubicin (DNR) inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activity by blocking its binding to DNA. Intraocular injections of DXR or DNR suppressed choroidal and retinal neovascularization (NV), but also perturbed retinal function as demonstrated by electroretinograms (ERGs). DXR was conjugated to novel copolymers of branched polyethylene glycol and poly(sebacic acid) (DXR-PSA-PEG3) and formulated into nanoparticles that when placed in aqueous buffer, slowly released small DXR-conjugates. Intraocular injection of DXR-PSA-PEG3 nanoparticles (1 or 10 μg DXR content) reduced HIF-1-responsive gene products, strongly suppressed choroidal and retinal NV, and did not cause retinal toxicity. In transgenic mice that express VEGF in photoreceptors, intraocular injection of DXR-PSA-PEG3 nanoparticles (10 μg DXR content) suppressed NV for at least 35 days. Intraocular injection of DXR-PSA-PEG3 nanoparticles (2.7 mg DXR content) in rabbits resulted in sustained DXR-conjugate release with detectable levels in aqueous humor and vitreous for at least 105 days. This study demonstrates a novel HIF-1-inhibitor-polymer conjugate formulated into controlled-release particles that maximizes efficacy and duration of activity, minimizes toxicity, and provides a promising new chemical entity for treatment of ocular NV.
Journal of Controlled Release 10/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both preclinical and clinical studies suggest that brief cycles of ischemia and reperfusion in the arm or leg may protect the heart against injury following prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, a phenomenon known as remote ischemic preconditioning. Recent studies in mice indicate that increased plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels play an important role in remote ischemic preconditioning induced by clamping the femoral artery for 5 min followed by 5 min of reperfusion for a total of three cycles. In this study, we demonstrate that remote ischemic preconditioning increases plasma IL-10 levels and decreases myocardial infarct size in wild-type mice but not in littermates that are heterozygous for a knockout allele at the locus encoding hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. Injection of a recombinant adenovirus encoding a constitutively active form of HIF-1α into mouse hind limb muscle was sufficient to increase plasma IL-10 levels and decrease myocardial infarct size. Exposure of C2C12 mouse myocytes to cyclic hypoxia and reoxygenation rapidly increased levels of IL-10 mRNA, which was blocked by administration of the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine or by expression of short hairpin RNA targeting HIF-1α or HIF-1β. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that binding of HIF-1 to the Il10 gene was induced when myocytes were subjected to cyclic hypoxia and reoxygenation. Taken together, these data indicate that HIF-1 activates Il10 gene transcription and is required for remote ischemic preconditioning.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress inflammatory immune responses and autoimmunity caused by self-reactive T cells. The key Treg cell transcription factor Foxp3 is downregulated during inflammation to allow for the acquisition of effector T cell-like functions. Here, we demonstrate that stress signals elicited by proinflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides lead to the degradation of Foxp3 through the action of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Stub1. Stub1 interacted with Foxp3 to promote its K48-linked polyubiquitination in an Hsp70-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous Stub1 or Hsp70 prevented Foxp3 degradation. Furthermore, the overexpression of Stub1 in Treg cells abrogated their ability to suppress inflammatory immune responses in vitro and in vivo and conferred a T-helper-1-cell-like phenotype. Our results demonstrate the critical role of the stress-activated Stub1-Hsp70 complex in promoting Treg cell inactivation, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for the intervention against autoimmune disease, infection, and cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac function is required for blood circulation and systemic oxygen delivery. However, the heart has intrinsic oxygen demands that must be met to maintain effective contractility. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in all metazoan species. HIF-1 controls oxygen delivery, by regulating angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, and oxygen utilization, by regulating glucose metabolism and redox homeostasis. Analysis of animal models suggests that by activation of these homeostatic mechanisms, HIF-1 plays a critical protective role in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease and pressure-overload heart failure. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology Volume 76 is February 10, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Annual Review of Physiology 08/2013; · 19.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vision loss from ischemic retinopathies commonly results from the accumulation of fluid in the inner retina [macular edema (ME)]. Although the precise events that lead to the development of ME remain under debate, growing evidence supports a role for an ischemia-induced hyperpermeability state regulated, in part, by VEGF. Monthly treatment with anti-VEGF therapies is effective for the treatment of ME but results in a major improvement in vision in a minority of patients, underscoring the need to identify additional therapeutic targets. Using the oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model for ischemic retinopathy, we provide evidence showing that hypoxic Müller cells promote vascular permeability by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and secreting angiogenic cytokines. Blocking HIF-1α translation with digoxin inhibits the promotion of endothelial cell permeability in vitro and retinal edema in vivo. Interestingly, Müller cells require HIF-but not VEGF-to promote vascular permeability, suggesting that other HIF-dependent factors may contribute to the development of ME. Using gene expression analysis, we identify angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) as a cytokine up-regulated by HIF-1 in hypoxic Müller cells in vitro and the ischemic inner retina in vivo. ANGPTL4 is critical and sufficient to promote vessel permeability by hypoxic Müller cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of retinal tissue from patients with diabetic eye disease shows that HIF-1α and ANGPTL4 localize to ischemic Müller cells. Our results suggest that ANGPTL4 may play an important role in promoting vessel permeability in ischemic retinopathies and could be an important target for the treatment of ME.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional activators that function as master regulators of oxygen homeostasis, which is disrupted in disorders affecting the circulatory system and in cancer. The role of HIFs in these diseases has been elucidated by clinical studies and by analyses of mouse models. HIFs play a protective role in the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia due to coronary artery disease, limb ischemia due to peripheral arterial disease, pressure-overload heart failure, wound healing, and chronic rejection of organ transplants. In contrast, HIFs contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension, systemic hypertension associated with sleep apnea, ocular neovascularization, hereditary erythrocytosis, and cancer. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 9 is February 28, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Annual Review of Pathology Mechanisms of Disease 08/2013; · 25.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinal ischemia promotes neovascularization (NV), which can lead to profound vision loss in diabetic patients. Treatment for PDR, panretinal photocoagulation, is inherently destructive and has significant visual consequences. Therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have transformed the treatment of diabetic eye disease, but have proven inadequate for treating NV, prompting exploration for additional therapeutic options for PDR patients. In this regard, extracellular proteolysis is an early and sustained activity strictly required for NV. Extracellular proteolysis in NV is facilitated by the dysregulated activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here we set out to better understand the regulation of MMPs by ischemia in PDR. We demonstrate that accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in Müller cells induces expression of VEGF, which in turn, promotes increased MMP-2 expression and activity in neighboring endothelial cells. MMP-2 expression was detected in endothelial cells in retinal NV tissue from PDR patients while MMP-2 protein levels were elevated in the aqueous of PDR patients compared to controls. Our findings demonstrate a complex interplay among hypoxic Müller cells, secreted angiogenic factors, and neighboring endothelial cells in the regulation of MMP-2 in retinal NV, and identify MMP-2 as a target for the treatment of PDR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microvascular ischemia and infections are associated with the development of chronic rejection following lung transplantation. The von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL) controls protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), regulates vascular repair, and improves tissue perfusion. Here, we studied the role of VHL in microvascular repair by orthotopically transplanting tracheas into mice with VHL haplodeficiency in Tie2 lineage cells. We showed that VHL haplodeficiency prolonged airway microvascular perfusion and promoted tissue blood flow through the production of the angiogenic factors, SDF-1 and angiopoietin 1. VHL-haplodeficient pulmonary endothelial cells exhibited increased angiogenic activity, resistance to serum deprivation-induced cell death, and enhanced microvascular repair. By contrast, in recipient mice with HIF-1α deficiency in Tie2 lineage cells, microvascular repair was significantly diminished and suggested that recipient-derived HIF-1α normally participates in the repair of alloimmune-mediated microvascular damage. To evaluate the translational impact of our findings, we compared VHL-haplodeficient mice with wild-type controls using a model of Aspergillus airway infection. In 83 % of the VHL-haplodeficient recipients, Aspergillus fumigatus was noninvasive in contrast to 75 % of wild-type mice in which the mold was deeply invasive. Our study demonstrated that stabilization of HIF-1α in angiogenic cells, through Tie2 cell VHL haplodeficiency, promoted airway microvascular regeneration and vascular normalization and thereby minimized tissue ischemia and hypoxia. By also mitigating the virulence of A. fumigatus, a common pathogen and itself a risk factor for the development of lung transplant rejection, the selective enhancement of HIF-1α expression has the prospect of offering several novel therapeutic effects to transplant recipients.
Microvascular loss and prolonged ischemia occurs with acute rejection. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein controls hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). In tracheal allografts, VHL haplodeficient Tie2 cells promote neovascularization. Reduced transplant ischemia limits Aspergillus invasion.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2013; · 4.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impaired burn wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator that orchestrates the cellular response to hypoxia. Its actions in dermal wounds promote angiogenesis and improve healing. In a murine burn wound model, aged mice had impaired wound healing associated with reduced levels of HIF-1. When gene therapy with HIF-1 alone did not correct these deficits, we explored the potential benefit of HIF-1 gene therapy combined with the intravenous infusion of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs) cultured with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). DMOG is known to reduce oxidative degradation of HIF-1. The mice treated with a plasmid DNA construct expressing a stabilized mutant form of HIF-1α (CA5-HIF-1α)+BMDACs had more rapid wound closure. By day 17, there were more mice with completely closed wounds in the treated group (χ(2), P=0.05). The dermal blood flow measured by laser Doppler showed significantly increased wound perfusion on day 11. Homing of BMDACs to the burn wound was dramatically enhanced by CA5-HIF-1α gene therapy. HIF-1α mRNA expression in the burn wound was increased after transfection with CA5-HIF-1α plasmid. Our findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of burns in the elderly and point to potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 20 June 2013; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) 1 and 2 are heterodimeric proteins composed of an oxygen-regulated HIF-1α or HIF-2α subunit, respectively, and a constitutively expressed HIF-1β subunit that mediate adaptive transcriptional responses to hypoxia. Here we report that Sirtuin-7 (Sirt7) negatively regulates HIF-1α and HIF-2α protein levels by a mechanism that is independent of prolyl hydroxylation and does not involve proteasomal or lysosomal degradation. The effect of Sirt7 was maintained in the presence of the sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide and upon deletion or mutation of its deacetylase domain, indicating a non-catalytic function. Knockdown of Sirt7 led to an increase in protein levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and an increase in HIF-1 and HIF-2 transcriptional activity. Thus, we identify a novel molecular function of Sirt7 as a negative regulator of HIF signaling.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the transition from non-cancerous to metastatic from a physical sciences perspective, the Physical Sciences–Oncology Centers (PS-OC) Network performed molecular and biophysical comparative studies of the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast epithelial cell lines, commonly used as models of cancer metastasis. Experiments were performed in 20 laboratories from 12 PS-OCs. Each laboratory was supplied with identical aliquots and common reagents and culture protocols. Analyses of these measurements revealed dramatic differences in their mechanics, migration, adhesion, oxygen response, and proteomic profiles. Model-based multi-omics approaches identified key differences between these cells’ regulatory networks involved in morphology and survival. These results provide a
multifaceted description of cellular parameters of two widely used cell lines and demonstrate the value of the PS-OC Network approach for integration of diverse experimental observations to elucidate the phenotypes associated with cancer metastasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breathing and blood pressure are under constant homeostatic regulation to maintain optimal oxygen delivery to the tissues. Chemosensory reflexes initiated by the carotid body and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla are the principal mechanisms for maintaining respiratory and cardiovascular homeostasis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Here, we report that balanced activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 is critical for oxygen sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and for their control of cardio-respiratory function. In Hif2α(+/-) mice, partial HIF-2α deficiency increased levels of HIF-1α and NADPH oxidase 2, leading to an oxidized intracellular redox state, exaggerated hypoxic sensitivity, and cardio-respiratory abnormalities, which were reversed by treatment with a HIF-1α inhibitor or a superoxide anion scavenger. Conversely, in Hif1α(+/-) mice, partial HIF-1α deficiency increased levels of HIF-2α and superoxide dismutase 2, leading to a reduced intracellular redox state, blunted oxygen sensing, and impaired carotid body and ventilatory responses to chronic hypoxia, which were corrected by treatment with a HIF-2α inhibitor. None of the abnormalities observed in Hif1α(+/-) mice or Hif2α(+/-) mice were observed in Hif1α(+/-);Hif2α(+/-) mice. These observations demonstrate that redox balance, which is determined by mutual antagonism between HIF-α isoforms, establishes the set point for hypoxic sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and is required for maintenance of cardio-respiratory homeostasis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is the leading cause of death among patients with breast cancer. Understanding the role of the extracellular matrix in the metastatic process may lead to the development of improved therapies for cancer patients. Intratumoral hypoxia is found in the majority of breast cancers and is associated with an increased risk of metastasis and patient mortality. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activates the transcription of genes encoding collagen prolyl hydroxylases that are critical for collagen deposition by breast cancer cells. We show that expression of collagen prolyl hydroxylases promotes cancer cell alignment along collagen fibers, resulting in enhanced invasion and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. We establish the prognostic significance of collagen prolyl hydroxylase mRNA expression in human breast cancer biopsies and demonstrate that ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, decreases tumor fibrosis and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer.