Ji Joong Cho

Gyeongsang National University, Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea

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Publications (13)18.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was done to determine the efficacy of waste bottom ash as an effective microbial carrier. Bottom ash found to be a suitable microbial carrier. The average of viable cells of Paenibacillus polymyxa GS01 (as a test biocontrol agent) in bottom ash samples was about 10(8) cfu/10 ± 2 mg. The surface of bottom ash coated with 5% PVA w/v was most effective for improvement of cell viability. TSB medium containing 50 mg/L of MnSO(4) · H(2)O was the best for spore production of P. polymyxa GS01. Thus waste bottom ash coating with 5% PVA is likely to be suitable for use as a microbial carrier.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 11/2011; 75(11):2264-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a major metabolite of the insecticide chlorpyrifos and is hazardous to human and animal health. A gene encoding a TCP degrading enzyme was cloned from a metagenomic library prepared from cow rumen. The gene (tcp3A) is 2.5 kb in length, encoding a protein (Tcp3A) of 599 amino acid residues. Tcp3A has a potential signal sequence, as well as a putative ATP/GTP binding site, and a likely amidation site. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 62 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Comparison of Tcp3A with the NCBI database using BLASTP revealed homology to amidohydrolase proteins. Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the tcp3A gene could utilize TCP as the sole source of carbon. TLC and HPLC revealed that TCP was degraded by recombinant E. coli harboring tcp3A. This is the first report of a gene encoding a TCP degrading enzyme.
    Biodegradation 07/2010; 21(4):565-73. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus brevis WCP902 that is capable of biodegrading chlorpyrifos was isolated from kimchi. The opdB gene cloned from this strain revealed 825 bp, encoding 274 aa, and an enzyme molecular weight of about 27 kDa. OpdB contains the same Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly motif found in most bacterial and eukaryotic esterase, lipase, and serine hydrolases, yet it is a novel member of the GDSVG family of esterolytic enzymes. Its conserved serine residue, Ser82, is significantly involved with enzyme activity that may have application for removing some pesticides. Optimum organophosphorus hydrolase (OpdB) activity appeared at pH 6.0 and 35 degrees C and during degradation of chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, diazinon, methylparathion, and parathion.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2010; 58(9):5380-6. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is widely cultivated vegetable and used as a remedy for asthma in East Asia. Experiments were conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria from 1-, 3-, and 6-year-old balloon flower roots and to analyze the enzymatic, antifungal, and anti-human pathogenic activities of the potential endophytic biocontrol agents obtained. Total 120 bacterial colonies were isolated from the interior of all balloon flower roots samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the population of 'low G + C gram-positive bacteria' (LGCGPB) gradually increased 60.0-80.0% from 1 to 6 years balloon flower sample. On the other hand, maximum hydrolytic enzyme activity showing endophytic bacteria was under LGCGPB, among the bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. (BF1-1 and BF3-8), Bacillus sp. (BF1-2 and BF3-5), and Bacillus sp. (BF1-3, BF3-6, and BF6-4) showed maximum enzyme activities. Besides, Bacillus licheniformis (BF3-5 and BF6-6) and Bacillus pumilus (BF6-1) showed maximum antifungal activity against Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium ultimum. Moreover, Bacillus licheniformis was found in 3 and 6 years balloon flower roots, but Bacillus pumilus was found only in 6 years sample. It is presumed that older balloon flower plants invite more potential antifungal endophytes for there protection from plant diseases. In addition, Bacillus sp. (BF1-2 and BF3-5) showed maximum anti-human pathogenic activity. So, plant age is presumed to influence diversity of balloon flower endophytic bacteria.
    Current Microbiology 03/2010; 61(4):346-56. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Archaeal diversity during the composting process of pig manure and mushroom culture waste using a field-scale composter was investigated by a culture-independent approach. Metagenomes were isolated from six sampling sites at various stages and the 16S rRNA fragments were amplified with archaea-specific primers. Based on their rRNA sequences, a total of 180 clones, 30 clones from each site, could be divided into seven groups. Among them, group I to group V were assigned to the phylum Euryarchaeota, and group VI and group VII to the phylum Crenarchaeota. All the clones of group I (uncultured archaeon clone AE34) and group II (uncultured archaeon clone AS17) belonged to the class Methanomicrobia and the closest neighboring species was allocated to the Methanomicrobium mobile, a methanogen. Two major methanogen groups, I and II, were predominantly present at the initial stage and at the mid to late stages, respectively. The quantified values of their prevalence were 45.0% (81 out of a total of 180 clones) and 47.8% (86 of 180 clones), respectively. Group VI (an uncultured archaeon) and group VII (uncultured archaeon clone AF15) were minor groups and belonged to the class Thermoprotei. Little change in the methanogenic archaeal diversity was observed compared to that of the bacterial and fungal diversity. The results may help to gain information about CH4 production from composting and to improve the fieldscale composter system, since the diversity would be dependent on the maturation and composition of the compost.
    Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 01/2010; 53(2). · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metagenomic analyses were conducted to evaluate the biodiversity of oyster shell bacteria, under storage conditions, on the basis of 16s rDNA sequences. Temperature was recorded during a one year storage period, and the highest temperature (about 60 degrees C) was observed after five months ofstorage. Bacterial diversity was greatest in the initial stage sample, with 33 different phylotypes classified under seven phyla (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and unclassified bacteria), with 42.22% ofphylotypes belonging to Proteobacteria. The lowest diversity was found in the high temperature (fermentation) stage sample, with 10 different phylotypes belonging to Firmicutes (78.57%) and Bacteroidetes. In the final stage sample, bacteria were found belonging to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, and some were unclassified bacteria. Of the bacteria constituting the final stage metagenome, 69.70% belonged to Firmicutes. Our results show that bacteria belonging to phylum Firmicutes were predominant during fermentation, and during the final stages of oyster shell storage, which suggests that these bacteria supposed to be the key players for oyster shell biodegradation.
    Mikrobiologiia 01/2010; 79(4):532-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus licheniformis CBFOS-03 is a chitinase producing bacteria isolated from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) shell waste. We have cloned and expressed the chi18B gene of B. licheniformis CBFOS-03, which encodes a glycohydrolase family 18 chitinase (GH18). Chi18B is a predicted 598 amino acid protein that consists of a catalytic domain (GH18), a fibronectin type III domain (Fn3), and a chitin binding domain (CBD). Purified Chi18B showed optimum chitinase activity at pH 9 and 55 degrees C, and activity was stimulated with 25 mM Mn2+. In kinetic analysis, Chi18B showed Km values of 9.07 +/- 0.65 microM and 129.27 +/- 0.38 microM with the substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-N'-diacetylchitobiose and alpha-chitin, respectively. Studies of C-terminal deletion constructs revealed that the GH18 domain with one amino acid in C-terminal region was sufficient for chitinase activity; however, fusions of full length and CBD-deleted constructs to green florescent protein (GFP) and yellow florescent protein (YFP) suggest that the C-terminus is supposedly important in binding to shell powder. Full length Chi18B with GFP showed green fluorescence with oyster shell powder, but GH18+Fn3 with GFP did not. Similarly, full length Chi18B with YFP showed yellow fluorescence with clam (Chamelea gallina) shell and disk abalone (Haliotis discus) shell powder, but GH18+Fn3 with YFP construct did not. So, the CBD domain of Chi18B appears to play an important role in binding of oyster and other marine shells. It is likely to be used as a probe to identify the presence of chitin in marine shells like oyster shell, clam shell, and disk abalone shell using fusions of Chi18B with fluorescent proteins.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2009; 86(1):119-29. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in β-glycosidase, esterase activities, isoflavone, flavanols and phenolic acid during the fermentation of Korean whole soybean fermented food cheonggukjang by Bacillus pumilus HY1 were investigated. The levels of aglycones, flavanols and gallic acid increased, while the β-glucosidase activity, esterase activity, glycosides content (except for acetylglycosides) and flavanol gallates decreased. Total isoflavone content slightly decreased after 60 h of fermentation, while total flavanol and phenolic acid content increased. The highest levels of daidzein (aglycone type) and acetyldaidzin (glycoside type) were recorded after 48 h of fermentation. The levels of catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid also increased during fermentation. However, total contents of glycosides, malonylglycosides and flavanol gallates decreased by about 80%, 90% and 60% during 60 h of fermentation, respectively. In addition, total phenolic content increased markedly during fermentation, while levels of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity increased. Hence, it would be beneficial for the food industry if components of cheonggukjang could be separated and developed into functional products.
    Food Chemistry. 05/2009; 114(2):413-419.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CP) during kimchi fermentation. During the fermentation of kimchi, 30 mg L(-1) of CP was added and its stability assayed during fermentation. CP was degraded rapidly until day 3 (83.3%) and degraded completely by day 9. Four CP-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from kimchi fermentation in the presence of 200 mg L(-1) CP and were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides WCP907, Lactobacillus brevis WCP902, Lactobacillus plantarum WCP931, and Lactobacillus sakei WCP904. CP could be utilized by these four strains as the sole source of carbon and phosphorus. Coumaphos (CM), diazinon (DZ), parathion (PT), and methylparathion (MPT) were also degraded by WCP907, WCP902, WCP931, and WCP904 when provided as sole sources of carbon and phosphorus.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2009; 57(5):1882-9. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial diversity and the composition of individual communities during the composting process of swine and mushroom cultural wastes in a field-scale composter (Hazaka system) were examined using a PCR-based approach. The composting process was divided into six stages based on recorded temperature changes. Phylogenetic analysis of eighty 16S rRNA sequences from uncultured composting bacterial groups revealed the presence of representatives from three divisions, including plant pathogenic bacteria, high-molecule-degrading bacteria and spore-forming bacteria. The plant pathogen A. tumefaciens gradually decreased in abundance during the composting process and eventually disappeared during the thermophilic and cooling stage. A bacterium homologous to Bacillus humi first appeared at the early thermophilic stage and was established at the intermediate thermophilic, post-thermophilic, and cooling stages. It was not possible to isolate the B. humi during any of the stages using general culture techniques.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2009; 18(12):1874-83. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new strain of Bacillus pumilus, designated HY1, was isolated from Korean soybean sauce (kanjang). This classification was based on morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic features of the organism that identified it as a Gram-positive bacillus, and confirmed by 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis. Strain HY1 showed strong antifungal activity against the aflatoxin-producing fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, two common contaminants of fermented soybean foods. MALDI-TOF mass analysis revealed that the antifungal compound was similar to the known lipopeptide iturin. Iturin purified from strain HY1 had three isoforms with protonated masses of m/z 1,043.4, 1,057.4, and 1,071.4, and different structures in combination with Na+ ion using MALDI-TOF MS. Purified iturin from HY1 also exhibited antifungal activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus.
    Food Control. 01/2009; 20(4):402-406.
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, and used it to examine the LAB species involved in kimchi fermentation. The LAB profile during kimchi fermentation varied with pH and acidity. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed during early fermentation (pH 5.64-4.27 and acidity 0.48-0.89%), and Lactobacillus sakei become dominant later in fermentation (pH <or=4.15 and acidity >or=0.98%). The efficiency of the multiplex PCR ranged from 86.5% at day 0 (pH 6.17 and acidity 0.24%) to 100% at day 96 (pH 4.16 and acidity 1.14). This multiplex PCR assay will facilitate study of the microbial ecosystem of kimchi and its impact on kimchi fermentation.
    Molecular and Cellular Probes 12/2008; 23(2):90-4. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18) gene was isolated from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum LY34. The branching enzyme gene, glgB, consists of an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,178 bp encoding a protein of 725 amino acids (calculated molecular weight of 83,891 Da). The ORF of the glgB gene starts with an ATG codon and ends with a TAA stop codon 3 bp upstream of glgX. The deduced amino acid sequence of GlgB has 40 to 95% similarity to known bacterial branching enzyme sequences. The enzyme is most similar to GlgB of Escherichia coli and contains the four regions conserved in the α-amylase family. The enzyme GlgB was purified and the molecular weight of the enzyme is estimated to be about 84 kDa. The glycogen branching enzyme is optimally active at pH 7 and 40°C.
    Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 53(1). · 0.43 Impact Factor