Nita H Salzman

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (47)347.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Establishment of a statistical association between microbiome features and clinical outcomes is of growing interest because of the potential for yielding insights into biological mechanisms and pathogenesis. Extracting microbiome features that are relevant for a disease is challenging and existing variable selection methods are limited due to large number of risk factor variables from microbiome sequence data and their complex biological structure. We propose a tree-based scanning method, Selection of Models for the Analysis of Risk factor Trees (referred to as SMART-scan), for identifying taxonomic groups that are associated with a disease or trait. SMART-scan is a model selection technique that uses a pre-defined taxonomy to organize the large pool of possible predictors into optimized groups, and hierarchically searches and determines variable groups for association test. We investigate the statistical properties of SMART-scan through simulations, in comparison to a regular single-variable analysis and three commonly-used variable selection methods, stepwise regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and classification and regression tree (CART). When there are taxonomic group effects in the data, SMART-scan can significantly increase power by using bacterial taxonomic information to split large numbers of variables into groups. Through an application to microbiome data from a vervet monkey diet experiment, we demonstrate that SMART-scan can identify important phenotype-associated taxonomic features missed by single-variable analysis, stepwise regression, LASSO and CART. Availability: The SMART-scan approach is implemented in R and is available at CONTACT: © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Bioinformatics 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu855 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial (poly)peptides (AMPs) are ancient key effector molecules of innate host defense and have been identified in mammals, insects, plants, and even fungi (Nakatsuji and Gallo, J Invest Dermatol, 132: 887-895, 2012). They exhibit a cationic net charge at physiological pH and are rich in hydrophobic amino acids (Dufourc et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 13: 620-631, 2012). Their mode of action has been best investigated in bacteria. When assuming secondary structure the cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are sequestered creating a bipartitioned molecule in which the cationic amino acids mediate initial electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged bacterial surface and the hydrophobic amino acids mediate embedding into the bacterial membranes followed by a multitude of effects interfering with bacterial viability (Nicolas, FEBS J, 276: 6483-6496, 2009; Padovan et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 11: 210-219, 2010). However, immunomodulatory, antitumor, and other effects have been added to the ever increasing list of AMP functions (Pushpanathan et al., Int J Pept, 2013: 675391, 2013). Several classes of AMPs have been distinguished based on structure, namely anti-parallel beta-sheet, alpha-helical, circular, as well as disulfide bridge connectivity (Bond and Khalid, Protein Pept Lett, 17: 1313-1327, 2010). Many of the AMPs undergo posttranslational modification including further proteolysis. Biochemical analysis at the protein level is of great interest for a wide range of scientists and important when studying host-pathogen interaction, for example Salmonella invasion of the small intestine. Acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) followed by Western immunoblotting is an important tool for the identification and quantification of cationic AMPs. The protocol for these procedures outlined here describes, in detail, the necessary steps; including pouring the AU-gels, preparing the test samples, performing the electrophoretic separation and protein transfer to the membrane, and conducting the immunodetection using an alkaline phosphatase/NBT/BCIP system. A standard SDS-PAGE in comparison with AU-PAGE and the corresponding Western immunoblot are depicted in Fig. 1.
    Methods in Molecular Biology 01/2015; 1225:105-15. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-1625-2_7 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Nita H Salzman
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 12/2014; 113(6):593-598. DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2014.08.020 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that intestinal inflammation plays a major role in gastrointestinal symptoms in cystic fibrosis (CF). Fecal calprotectin is a marker that is elevated in several gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, but little is known about its value in CF. We aimed to look for associations of elevated fecal calprotectin among CF patients and whether its level correlates with the clinical manifestations of CF.
    BMC Pediatrics 05/2014; 14(1):133. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-14-133 · 1.92 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • Nita H Salzman, Charles L Bevins
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    ABSTRACT: The complex community of colonizing microbes inhabiting the mucosal surfaces of mammals is vital to homeostasis and normal physiology in the host. When the composition of this microbiota is unfavorably altered, termed dysbiosis, the host is rendered more susceptible to a variety of chronic diseases. In the mammalian small intestine, specialized secretory epithelial cells, named Paneth cells, produce a variety of secreted antimicrobial peptides that fundamentally influence the composition of the microbiota. Recent investigations have identified numerous genetic and environmental factors that can disrupt normal Paneth cell function, resulting in compromised antimicrobial peptide secretion and consequent dysbiosis. These findings suggest that Paneth cell dysfunction should be considered a common cause of dysbiosis.
    Seminars in Immunology 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.09.006 · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study regulatory T (Treg) cell control of chronic autoimmunity in a lymphoreplete host, we created and characterized a new model of autoimmune lung inflammation that targets the medium and small airways. We generated transgenic mice that express a chimeric membrane protein consisting of hen egg lysozyme and a hemoglobin epitope tag under the control of the Clara cell secretory protein promoter, which largely limited transgene expression to the respiratory bronchioles. When Clara cell secretory protein-membrane hen egg lysozyme/hemoglobin transgenic mice were crossed to N3.L2 TCR transgenic mice that recognize the hemoglobin epitope, the bigenic progeny developed dense, pseudo-follicular lymphocytic peribronchiolar infiltrates that resembled the histological pattern of follicular bronchiolitis. Aggregates of activated IFN-γ- and IL-17A-secreting CD4(+) T cells as well as B cells surrounded the airways. Lung pathology was similar in Ifng(-/-) and Il17a(-/-) mice, indicating that either cytokine is sufficient to establish chronic disease. A large number of Ag-specific Treg cells accumulated in the lesions, and Treg cell depletion in the affected mice led to an interstitial spread of the disease that ultimately proved fatal. Thus, Treg cells act to restrain autoimmune responses, resulting in an organized and controlled chronic pathological process rather than a progressive disease.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2013; 191(11). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301576 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2013; 51(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1352615 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variants of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1/ABCB1) have been associated with increased susceptibility to severe ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the role of TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways including the common adaptor MyD88 in the pathogenesis of chronic colonic inflammation in MDR1A deficiency. Double- or triple-null mice lacking TLR2, MD-2, MyD88, and MDR1A were generated in the FVB/N background. Deletion of TLR2 in MDR1A deficiency resulted in fulminant pancolitis with early expansion of CD11b(+) myeloid cells and rapid shift toward TH1-dominant immune responses in the lamina propria. Colitis exacerbation in TLR2/MDR1A double-knockout mice required the unaltered commensal microbiota and the LPS coreceptor MD-2. Blockade of IL-1β activity by treatment with IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra; Anakinra) inhibited colitis acceleration in TLR2/MDR1A double deficiency; intestinal CD11b(+)Ly6C(+)-derived IL-1β production and inflammation entirely depended on MyD88. TLR2/MDR1A double-knockout CD11b(+) myeloid cells expressed MD-2/TLR4 and hyperresponded to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli or LPS with reactive oxygen species production and caspase-1 activation, leading to excessive cell death and release of proinflammatory IL-1β, consistent with pyroptosis. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species-mediated lysosome degradation suppressed LPS hyperresponsiveness. Finally, active UC in patients carrying the TLR2-R753Q and MDR1-C3435T polymorphisms was associated with increased nuclear expression of caspase-1 protein and cell death in areas of acute inflammation, compared with active UC patients without these variants. In conclusion, we show that the combined defect of two UC susceptibility genes, MDR1A and TLR2, sets the stage for spontaneous and uncontrolled colitis progression through MD-2 and IL-1R signaling via MyD88, and we identify commensally induced pyroptosis as a potential innate immune effector in severe UC pathogenesis.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2013; 190(11). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1201592 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with mutations in several genes that have roles in the functioning of Paneth cells (PCs). PCs produce and secrete antimicrobial peptides and proteins, which are critical for host defense against pathogens and regulation of intestinal homeostasis, notably in regulating the composition of the small intestinal biota. We hypothesize that a significant subset of patients with CD carry susceptibility genes that cause PC dysfunction, resulting in decreased expression of PC antimicrobials, leading to intestinal dysbiosis. We tested this by evaluating a cohort of pediatric patients with CD and non-IBD controls, for genotype, PC gene expression, and microbiota composition.METHODS: We recruited patients <19 years age from Children's hospital of Wisconsin. We obtained clinical data for disease phenotyping. We genotyped subjects for known CD susceptibility gene mutations by Immunochip. Total RNA was isolated from biopsy tissue and analyzed by RTqPCR for levels of PC product gene expression, including defensins HD5 and HD6, lysozyme, sPLA2, and RegIIIgamma. We evaluated differences in PC gene expression among patients with CD and non-inflamed controls. We also characterized the ileal microbiota for bacterial composition and diversity using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to determine associations between PC antimicrobial expression and biome composition.RESULTS: We recruited a total of 70 CD patients and 192 non-IBD controls. Control patients skewed younger than disease cohorts. There was male preponderance in CD cohort. Immunochip analysis, subsequently validated by qPCR SNP typing, demonstrated statistically significant correlations between SNP mutations and CD, most notably with the NOD2 insertion mutant (SNP13) (P = 0.0001272). Microbiota analysis showed no significant differences in alpha diversity between control and CD, however there were notable differences in composition. Various sub species of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetesare all reduced in CD samples compared to Control. Veillonellaceae (Firmicutes), Alcaligenaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pasteurellaceae (Proteobacteria) are all increased in CD samples. PCA analysis suggested that Lachnospira and Enterobacteria are the main determinants of variance, with a smaller contribution by Prevotella. The relative abundance of bacterial families was significantly different in CD patients compared to controls (Adonis analysis, P < 0.001). The abundance of Lachnospiraceae is consistently higher in controls than CD, while the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae is consistently lower in controls than in CD samples. Ileal samples from CD patients show significantly altered expression of HD6, PSP/REG, and Lysozyme, when compared to controls (Kruskal-Wallis Test).CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant correlations between SNP mutations and CD, most notably with the NOD2 insertion mutant (SNP13). The ileal microbiota composition of CD samples differs significantly from control samples. Expression of PC antimicrobial peptides is dysregulated in CD ileal samples compared to controls, with significantly altered expression of human defensin 6, PSP/REG and lysozyme, which may contribute to dysbiosis at the ileal surface. PC morphology and location are abnormal in CD ileal samples compared to controls, which may contribute to abnormalities in mRNA expression.(C) Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2013; 19:S119. DOI:10.1097/ · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: "Natural" regulatory T cells (nTregs) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 and produce IL-10 are required for systemic immunological tolerance. "Induced" regulatory T cells (iTregs) are nonredundant and essential for tolerance at mucosal surfaces, yet their mechanisms of suppression and stability are unknown. We investigated the role of iTreg-produced IL-10 and iTreg fate in a treatment model of inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis was induced in Rag1(-/-) mice by the adoptive transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells carrying a nonfunctional Foxp3 allele. At the onset of weight loss, mice were treated with both iTregs and nTregs where one marked subset was selectively IL-10 deficient. Body weight assessment, histological scoring, cytokine analysis, and flow cytometry were used to monitor disease activity. Transcriptional profiling and TCR repertoire analysis were used to track cell fate. When nTregs were present but IL-10 deficient, iTreg-produced IL-10 was necessary and sufficient for the treatment of disease, and vice versa. Invariably, ∼85% of the transferred iTregs lost Foxp3 expression (ex-iTregs) but retained a portion of the iTreg transcriptome, which failed to limit their pathogenic potential upon retransfer. TCR repertoire analysis revealed no clonal relationships between iTregs and ex-iTregs, either within mice or between mice treated with the same cells. These data identify a dynamic IL-10-dependent functional reciprocity between regulatory T cell subsets that maintains mucosal tolerance. The niche supporting stable iTregs is limited and readily saturated, which promotes a large population of ex-iTregs with pathogenic potential during immunotherapy.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; 189(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1200936 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Article: Response.
    The FASEB Journal 11/2012; 26(11):4388-9. DOI:10.1096/fj.12-1103LTR · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P66 is a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with β(3) integrin binding and channel forming activities. In this study, the role of P66 in mammalian and tick infection was examined. B. burgdorferiΔp66 strains were not infectious in wild-type, TLR2(-/-) - or MyD88(-/-) -deficient mice. Strains with p66 restored to the chromosome restored near wild-type infectivity, while complementation with p66 on a shuttle vector did not restore infectivity. Δp66 mutants are cleared quickly from the site of inoculation, but analyses of cytokine expression and cellular infiltrates at the site of inoculation did not reveal a specific mechanism of clearance. The defect in these mutants cannot be attributed to nutrient limitation or an inability to adapt to the host environment in vivo as Δp66 bacteria were able to survive as well as wild type in dialysis membrane chambers in the rat peritoneum. Δp66 bacteria were able to survive in ticks through the larva to nymph moult, but were non-infectious in mice when delivered by tick bite. Independent lines of evidence do not support any increased susceptibility of the Δp66 strains to factors in mammalian blood. This study is the first to define a B. burgdorferi adhesin as essential for mammalian, but not tick infection.
    Molecular Microbiology 07/2012; 85(6):1105-1118. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08160.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that contribute broadly to innate immunity, including protection of mucosal tissues. Human α-defensin (HD) 6 is highly expressed by secretory Paneth cells of the small intestine. However, in contrast to the other defensins, it lacks appreciable bactericidal activity. Nevertheless, we report here that HD6 affords protection against invasion by enteric bacterial pathogens in vitro and in vivo. After stochastic binding to bacterial surface proteins, HD6 undergoes ordered self-assembly to form fibrils and nanonets that surround and entangle bacteria. This self-assembly mechanism occurs in vivo, requires histidine-27, and is consistent with x-ray crystallography data. These findings support a key role for HD6 in protecting the small intestine against invasion by diverse enteric pathogens and may explain the conservation of HD6 throughout Hominidae evolution.
    Science 06/2012; 337(6093):477-81. DOI:10.1126/science.1218831 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection.
    Infection and immunity 06/2012; 80(9):3018-33. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00520-12 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for rapid, accurate, and sensitive diagnostic platforms to confirm exposure to radiation and estimate the dose absorbed by individuals subjected to acts of radiological terrorism, nuclear power plant accidents, or nuclear warfare. Clinical symptoms and physical dosimeters, even when available, do not provide adequate diagnostic information to triage and treat life-threatening radiation injuries. We hypothesized that intestinal microbiota act as novel biomarkers of prior radiation exposure. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 5/group) received single or multiple fraction total-body irradiation of 10.0 Gy and 18.0 Gy, respectively. Fresh fecal pellets were obtained from each rat prior to (day 0) and at days 4, 11, and 21 post-irradiation. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using microarray and quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analyses. The radiation exposure biomarkers consisted of increased 16S rRNA levels of 12 members of the Bacteroidales, Lactobacillaceae, and Streptococcaceae after radiation exposure, unchanged levels of 98 Clostridiaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae, and decreased levels of 47 separate Clostridiaceae members; these biomarkers are present in human and rat feces. As a result of the ubiquity of these biomarkers, this biomarker technique is non-invasive; microbiota provide a sustained level of reporting signals that are increased several-fold following exposure to radiation, and intestinal microbiota that are unaffected by radiation serve as internal controls. We conclude that intestinal microbiota serve as novel biomarkers of prior radiation exposure, and may be able to complement conventional chromosome aberrational analysis to significantly enhance biological dose assessments.
    Radiation Research 03/2012; 177(5):573-83. DOI:10.2307/41545112 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B cells are important for the regulation of autoimmune responses. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), B cells are required for spontaneous recovery in acute models. Production of IL-10 by regulatory B cells has been shown to modulate the severity EAE and other autoimmune diseases. Previously, we suggested that B cells regulated the number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Treg) in the CNS during EAE. Because Treg suppress autoimmune responses, we asked whether B cells control autoimmunity by maintenance of Treg numbers. B cell deficiency achieved either genetically (μMT) or by depletion with anti-CD20 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of peripheral but not thymic Treg. Adoptive transfer of WT B cells into μMT mice restored both Treg numbers and recovery from EAE. When we investigated the mechanism whereby B cells induce the proliferation of Treg and EAE recovery, we found that glucocorticoid-induced TNF ligand, but not IL-10, expression by B cells was required. Of clinical significance is the finding that anti-CD20 depletion of B cells accelerated spontaneous EAE and colitis. Our results demonstrate that B cells play a major role in immune tolerance required for the prevention of autoimmunity by maintenance of Treg via their expression of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR ligand.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2012; 188(7):3188-98. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103354 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paneth cell α-defensins mediate host defense and homeostasis at the intestinal mucosal surface. In mice, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) converts inactive pro-α-defensins (proCrps) to bactericidal forms by proteolysis at specific proregion cleavage sites. MMP7(-/-) mice lack mature α-defensins in Paneth cells, accumulating unprocessed precursors for secretion. To test for activation of secreted pro-α-defensins by host and microbial proteinases in the absence of MMP7, we characterized colonic luminal α-defensins. Protein extracts of complete (organ plus luminal contents) ileum, cecum, and colon of MMP7-null and wild-type mice were analyzed by sequential gel permeation chromatography/acid-urea polyacrylamide gel analyses. Mature α-defensins were identified by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry and characterized in bactericidal assays. Abundance of specific bacterial groups was measured by qPCR using group specific 16 S rDNA primers. Intact, native α-defensins, N-terminally truncated α-defensins, and α-defensin variants with novel N termini due to alternative processing were identified in MMP7(-/-) cecum and colon, and proteinases of host and microbial origin catalyzed proCrp4 activation in vitro. Although Paneth cell α-defensin deficiency is associated with ileal microbiota alterations, the cecal and colonic microbiota of MMP7(-/-) and wild-type mice were not significantly different. Thus, despite the absence of MMP7, mature α-defensins are abundant in MMP7(-/-) cecum and colon due to luminal proteolytic activation by alternative host and microbial proteinases. MMP7(-/-) mice only lack processed α-defensins in the small intestine, and the model is not appropriate for studying effects of α-defensin deficiency in cecal or colonic infection or disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(14):11205-12. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.333559 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Signals from the intestinal microbiota are important for normal host physiology; alteration of the microbiota (dysbiosis) is associated with multiple disease states. We determined the effect of antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis on circulating cytokine levels and severity of ischemia/reperfusion injury in the heart. Treatment of Dahl S rats with a minimally absorbed antibiotic vancomycin, in the drinking water, decreased circulating leptin levels by 38%, resulted in smaller myocardial infarcts (27% reduction), and improved recovery of postischemic mechanical function (35%) as compared with untreated controls. Vancomycin altered the abundance of intestinal bacteria and fungi, measured by 16S and 18S ribosomal DNA quantity. Pretreatment with leptin (0.12 μg/kg i.v.) 24 h before ischemia/reperfusion abolished cardioprotection produced by vancomycin treatment. Dahl S rats fed the commercially available probiotic product Goodbelly, which contains the leptin-suppressing bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, also resulted in decreased circulating leptin levels by 41%, smaller myocardial infarcts (29% reduction), and greater recovery of postischemic mechanical function (23%). Pretreatment with leptin (0.12 μg/kg i.v.) abolished cardioprotection produced by Goodbelly. This proof-of-concept study is the first to identify a mechanistic link between changes in intestinal microbiota and myocardial infarction and demonstrates that a probiotic supplement can reduce myocardial infarct size.
    The FASEB Journal 02/2012; 26(4):1727-35. DOI:10.1096/fj.11-197921 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paneth cells residing at the base of the small intestinal crypts contribute to the mucosal intestinal first line defense by secreting granules filled with antimicrobial polypeptides including lysozyme. These cells derive from the columnar intestinal stem cell located at position 0 and the transit amplifying cell located at position +4 in the crypts. We have previously shown that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST), a leading cause of gastrointestinal infections in humans, effects an overall reduction of lysozyme in the small intestine. To extend this work, we examined small-intestinal tissue sections at various time points after ST infection to quantify and localize expression of lysozyme and assess Paneth cell abundance, apoptosis, and the expression of Paneth cell differentiation markers. In response to infection with ST, the intestinal Paneth cell-specific lysozyme content, the number of lysozyme-positive Paneth cells, and the number of granules per Paneth cell decreased. However, this was accompanied by increases in the total number of Paneth cells and the frequency of mitotic events in crypts, by increased staining for the proliferation marker PCNA, primarily at the crypt side walls where the transit amplifying cell resides and not at the crypt base, and by apoptotic events in villi. Furthermore, we found a time-dependent upregulation of first β-catenin, followed by EphB3, and lastly Sox9 in response to ST, which was not observed after infection with a Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 mutant deficient in type III secretion. Our data strongly suggest that, in response to ST infection, a Paneth cell differentiation program is initiated that leads to an expansion of the Paneth cell population and that the transit amplifying cell is likely the main progenitor responder. Infection-induced expansion of the Paneth cell population may represent an acute intestinal inflammatory response similar to neutrophilia in systemic infection.
    Infection and immunity 01/2012; 80(1):266-75. DOI:10.1128/IAI.05638-11 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    Charles L Bevins, Nita H Salzman
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    ABSTRACT: Animals, ranging from basal metazoans to primates, are host to complex microbial ecosystems; engaged in a symbiotic relationship that is essential for host physiology and homeostasis. Epithelial surfaces vary in the composition of colonizing microbiota as one compares anatomic sites, developmental stages and species origin. Alterations of microbial composition likely contribute to susceptibility to several distinct diseases. The forces that shape the colonizing microbial composition are the focus of much current investigation, and it is evident that there are pressures exerted both by the host and the external environment to mold these ecosystems. The focus of this review is to discuss recent studies that demonstrate the critical importance of host factors in selecting for its microbiome. Greater insight into host-microbiome interactions will be essential for understanding homeostasis at mucosal surfaces, and developing useful interventions when homeostasis is disrupted.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2011; 68(22):3675-85. DOI:10.1007/s00018-011-0830-3 · 5.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
347.25 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2015
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2014
    • Children's Hospital of Wisconsin
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology
      Davis, CA, United States
    • Davis School District
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Microbiology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Division of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States