Philip A McFarlane

St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (72)352.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) who require dialysis are at increased risk for cardiovascular events and bone fractures. To assist in economic evaluations, this study aimed to estimate the disutility of these events beyond the impact of CKD and SHPT. A basic one-year health state was developed describing CKD and SHPT requiring dialysis. Further health states added acute events (cardiovascular events, fractures, and surgical procedures) or chronic post-event effects. Acute health states described a year including an event, and chronic health states described a year subsequent to an event. General population participants in Canada completed time trade-off interviews from which utilities were derived. Pairwise comparisons were made between the basic state and event, and between comparable health states. A total of 199 participants (54.8% female; mean age = 46.3 years) completed interviews. Each health state had ≥130 valuations. The mean (SD) utility of the basic health state was 0.60 (0.34). For acute events, mean utility differences versus the basic state were: myocardial infarction, -0.06; unstable angina, -0.05; peripheral vascular disease (PVD) with amputation, -0.33; PVD without amputation, -0.11; heart failure, -0.14; stroke, -0.30; hip fracture, -0.14; arm fracture, -0.04; parathyroidectomy, +0.02; kidney transplant, +0.06. Disutilities for chronic health states were: stable angina, -0.09; stroke, -0.27; PVD with amputation, -0.30; PVD without amputation, -0.12; heart failure, -0.14. Cardiovascular events and fractures were associated with lower utility scores, suggesting a perceived decrease in quality of life beyond the impact of CKD and SHPT.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 06/2015; 13(1):90. DOI:10.1186/s12955-015-0266-9 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common potentially life-threatening monogenic disorder in humans, characterized by progressive development and expansion of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Ongoing cyst growth leads to progressive kidney enlargement, whereas kidney function remains stable for decades as a result of hyperfiltration and compensation by unaffected nephrons. Kidney function irreversibly declines only in the late stages of the disease, when most of the parenchyma is lost to cystic and fibrotic tissue and the remaining compensatory capacity is overwhelmed. Hence, conventional kidney function measures, such as glomerular filtration rate, do not adequately assess disease progression in ADPKD, especially in its early stages. Given the recent development of potential targeted therapies in ADPKD, it has become critically important to identify relevant biomarkers that can be used to determine the degree of disease progression and evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions on the course of the disease. We review the current evidence to provide an informed perspective on whether total kidney volume (TKV) is a suitable biomarker for disease progression and whether TKV can be used as an efficacy end point in clinical trials. We conclude that because cystogenesis is the central factor leading to kidney enlargement, TKV appears to be an appropriate biomarker and is gaining wider acceptance. Several studies have identified TKV as a relevant imaging biomarker for monitoring and predicting disease progression and support its use as a prognostic end point in clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 05/2015; 66(4). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.01.030 · 5.90 Impact Factor
  • Philip A McFarlane ·
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    ABSTRACT: Routine quantification of urinary albumin levels is recommended for all Canadians with diabetes, yet many controversies remain when interpreting these tests. Elevated levels of albuminuria have traditionally been labeled as either microalbuminuria, representing 30 to 300 mg of albuminuria per day (a range not reliably picked up by conventional urine dipsticks), or as overt nephropathy, representing more than 300 mg per day and usually identifiable by dipstick. The random urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a convenient test that can predict reliably the total daily protein excretion. The 30 mg per day upper limit of normal was selected to be a threshold far above the normal albumin excretion seen in healthy people. However, recent studies have shown that elevations of albumin excretion below the microalbuminuria threshold are associated with increased cardiorenal risk, suggesting that the 30 mg per day level may be set too high. Recently, the Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines changed the threshold for abnormal urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios to be 2.0 mg/mmol for both men and women. As a result, more women will be identified as having abnormal levels of albuminuria. However, these women will be correctly identified as having increased cardiorenal risk. It is important to note that people with diabetes who have abnormal levels of albuminuria are among patients at the highest risk for cardiorenal disease. These risks can be reduced by using the strategies outlined in the guidelines put forth by the Canadian Diabetes Association.
    Canadian Journal of Diabetes 10/2014; 38(5):372-375. DOI:10.1016/j.jcjd.2014.07.221 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over 40% of patients with end stage renal disease in the United States were treated with home hemodialysis (HHD) in the early 1970's. However, this number declined rapidly over the ensuing decades so that the overwhelming majority of patients were treated in-centre 3 times per week on a 3-4 hour schedule. Poor outcomes for patients treated in this fashion led to a renewed interest in home hemodialysis, with more intensive dialysis schedules including short daily (SDHD) and nocturnal (NHD). The relative infancy of these treatment schedules means that there is a paucity of data on 'how to do it'. We undertook a systematic survey of home hemodialysis programs in Canada to describe current practice patterns. Development and deployment of a qualitative survey instrument. Community and academic HHD programs in Canada. Physicians, nurses and technologists. Programmatic approaches to patient selection, delivery of dialysis, human resources available, and follow up. We developed the survey instrument in three phases. A focus group of Canadian nephrologists with expertise in NHD or SDHD discussed the scope the study and wrote questions on 11 domains. Three nephrologists familiar with all aspects of HHD delivery reviewed this for content validity, followed by further feedback from the whole group. Multidisciplinary teams at three sites pretested the survey and further suggestions were incorporated. In July 2010 we distributed the survey electronically to all renal programs known to offer HHD according to the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry. We compiled the survey results using qualitative and quantitative methods, as appropriate. Of the academic and community programs that were invited to participate, 80% and 63%, respectively, completed the survey. We observed wide variation in programmatic approaches to patient recruitment, human resources, equipment, water, vascular access, patient training, dialysis prescription, home requirements, patient follow up, medications, and the approach to non-adherent patients. Cross-sectional survey, unable to link variation to outcomes. Competition for patients between HHD and home peritoneal dialysis means that case mix for HHD may also vary between centres. There is wide variation between programs in all domains of HHD delivery in Canada. We plan further study of the extent to which differences in approach are related to outcomes.
    06/2014; 1(1):11. DOI:10.1186/2054-3581-1-11
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    ABSTRACT: AimThe financial burden of the increasing dialysis population challenges healthcare resources internationally. Home haemodialysis offers many benefits over conventional facility dialysis including superior clinical, patient-centered outcomes and reduced cost. This review updates a previous review, conducted a decade prior, incorporating contemporary home dialysis techniques of frequent and nocturnal dialysis.We sought comparative cost-effectiveness studies of home versus facility haemodialysis (HD) for people with end-stage kidney failure (ESKF).Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from January 2000 – March 2014. Studies were included if they provided comparative information on the costs, health outcomes and cost-effectiveness ratios of home HD and facility HD. We searched medical and health economic databases using MeSH headings and text words for economic evaluation and haemodialysis.ResultsSix studies of economic evaluations that compared home to facility HD were identified. Two studies compared home nocturnal HD, one home nocturnal and daily home HD, and three compared contemporary home HD to facility HD. Overall these studies suggest that contemporary home HD modalities are less costly and more effective than facility HD. Home HD start-up costs tend to be higher in the short term, but these are offset by cost savings over the longer term.Conclusions Contemporaneous dialysis modalities including nocturnal and daily home haemodialysis are cost-effective orcost-saving compared to facility-based haemodialysis. This result is largely driven by lower staff costs, and better health outcomes for survival and quality of life. Expanding the proportion of haemodialysis patients managed at home is likely to produce cost savings.
    Nephrology 04/2014; 19(8). DOI:10.1111/nep.12269 · 2.08 Impact Factor

  • The Canadian journal of cardiology 01/2014; 30:485-501. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    A. Young · S. Joseph Kim · A. X. Garg · A. Huang · G. Knoll · G.V. Ramesh Prasad · D. Treleaven · C. E. Lok · J. Arnold · N. Boudville · [...] · P. McFarlane · M. Monroy-Cuadros · N. Muirhead · I. Nevis · C. Y. Nguan · C. Parikh · E. Poggio · L. Storsley · K. Taub · S. Thomas ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background Kidney transplants from living donors with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 80 mL/min per 1.73 m2 may be at risk for increased graft loss compared with a recipient who receives a kidney from a living donor with a higher eGFR.Methods This retrospective cohort study considered 2057 living kidney donors and their recipients from July 1993 to March 2010 at five centres in Ontario, Canada, and linked them to population-based, universal healthcare databases. Recipients were divided into five groups based on their donor's baseline eGFR. The median (inter-quartile range) for the lowest eGFR group was 73 (68-77) mL/min per 1.73 m2. Subjects were followed for a median of 6 years (IQR: 3-10 years).ResultsThere was no significant difference in the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for graft loss when comparing recipients in each eGFR category to the referent group (≥110 mL/min per 1.73 m2). The adjusted HRs (95% CI) from the lowest (<80 mL/min per 1.73 m2) to highest (100-109.9 mL/min per 1.73 m2) eGFR categories were 1.27 (0.84-1.92), 1.43 (0.96-2.14), 1.23 (0.86-1.77) and 1.23 (0.85-1.77), respectively. Similar results were observed when dichotomizing the baseline donor eGFR using a cut-point of 80 mL/min per 1.73 m2-adjusted HR 1.01 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) (0.76-1.44)].Conclusions Further research in this setting should clarify whether additional tests (i.e. measured GFR) should be performed in potential donors whose eGFR is considered borderline, whether eGFR values should be standardized to body surface area, and the outcomes for donors after nephrectomy.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 01/2014; 29(1):188-195. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gft239 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 11/2013; 16(7):A634. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2013.08.1891 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Practices in vascular access management with intensive hemodialysis may differ from those used in conventional hemodialysis. We conducted a systematic review to inform clinical practice guidelines for the provision of intensive hemodialysis. Adult patients receiving maintenance (>3 months) intensive hemodialysis (frequent [≥5 hemodialysis treatments per week] and/or long [>5.5 hours per hemodialysis treatment]). We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE (1990-2011) for randomized and observational studies. We also searched conference proceedings (2007-2011). (1) Central venous catheter (CVC) versus arteriovenous (AV) access, (2) buttonhole versus rope-ladder cannulation, (3) topical antimicrobial cream versus none in buttonhole cannulation, and (4) closed connector devices among CVC users. Access-related infection, survival, hospitalization, patency, access survival, intervention rates, and quality of life. We included 23, 7, and 5 reports describing effectiveness by access type, buttonhole cannulation, and closed connector device, respectively. No study directly compared CVC with AV access. On average, bacteremia and local infection rates were higher with CVC compared with AV access. Access intervention rates were higher with more frequent hemodialysis, but access survival did not differ. Buttonhole cannulation was associated with bacteremia rates similar to those seen with CVCs in some series. Topical mupirocin seemed to attenuate this effect. No direct comparisons of closed connector devices versus standard luer-locking devices were found. Low rates of actual or averted (near misses) air embolism and bleeding were reported with closed connector devices. Overall, evidence quality was very low. Limited direct comparisons addressing main review questions, small sample sizes, selective outcome reporting, publication bias, and residual confounding were major factors. This review highlights several differences in the management of vascular access in conventional and intensive hemodialysis populations. We identify a need for standardization of vascular access outcome reporting and a number of priorities for future research.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 07/2013; 62(1):112-31. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.03.028 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the cardiometabolic risk (CMR) assessment and management patterns for individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Canadian primary care practices. Methods: Between April 2011 and March 2012, physicians from 9 primary care teams and 88 traditional non-team practices completed a practice assessment on the management of 2461 patients >40 years old with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and diagnosed with at least one of the following risk factor-T2DM, dyslipidaemia or hypertension. Results: There were 1304 individuals with T2DM and 1157 without. Pharmacotherapy to manage hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension was widely prescribed. Fifty-eight percent of individuals with T2DM had a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤7.0%. Amongst individuals with dyslipidaemia, median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 1.8 mmol/l for those with T2DM and 2.8 mmol/l for those without. Amongst individuals with hypertension, 30% of those with T2DM achieved the <130/80 mmHg target, whereas 60% of those without met the <140/90 mmHg target. The composite glycaemic, LDL-C and blood pressure (BP) target outcome was achieved by 12% of individuals with T2DM. Only 17% of individuals with T2DM and 11% without were advised to increase their physical activity. Dietary modifications were recommended to 32 and 10% of those with and without T2DM, respectively. Conclusions: Patients at elevated CMR were suboptimally managed in the primary care practices surveyed. There was low attainment of recommended therapeutic glycaemic, lipid and BP targets. Advice on healthy lifestyle changes was infrequently dispensed, representing a missed opportunity to educate patients on the long-term benefits of lifestyle modification.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 05/2013; 15(12). DOI:10.1111/dom.12134 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients treated with conventional hemodialysis (HD) develop disorders of mineral metabolism that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. More frequent and longer HD has been associated with improvement in hyperphosphatemia that may improve outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis to inform the clinical practice guideline on intensive dialysis for the Canadian Society of Nephrology. SETTING & POPULATION: Adult patients receiving outpatient long (≥5.5 hours/session; 3-4 times per week) or long-frequent (≥5.5 hours/session, ≥5 sessions per week) HD. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: We included clinical trials, cohort studies, case series, case reports, and systematic reviews. INTERVENTIONS: Dialysate calcium concentration ≥1.5 mmol/L and/or phosphate additive. OUTCOMES: Fragility fracture, peripheral arterial and coronary artery disease, calcific uremic arteriolopathy, mortality, intradialytic hypotension, parathyroidectomy, extraosseous calcification, markers of mineral metabolism, diet liberalization, phosphate-binder use, and muscle mass. RESULTS: 21 studies were identified: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 reanalyses of data from the randomized controlled trials, and 17 observational studies. Dialysate calcium concentration ≥1.5 mmol/L for patients treated with long and long-frequent HD prevents an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and a decline in bone mineral density without causing harm. Both long and long-frequent HD were associated with a reduction in serum phosphate level of 0.42-0.45 mmol/L and a reduction in phosphate-binder use. There was no direct evidence to support the use of a dialysate phosphate additive. LIMITATIONS: Almost all the available information is related to changes in laboratory values and surrogate outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Dialysate calcium concentration ≥1.5 mmol/L for most patients treated with long and long-frequent dialysis prevents an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and decline in bone mineral density without increased risk of calcification. It seems prudent to add phosphate to the dialysate for patients with a low predialysis phosphate level or very low postdialysis phosphate level until more evidence becomes available.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2013; 62(1). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.02.357 · 5.90 Impact Factor

  • PharmacoEconomics 04/2013; 31(5). DOI:10.1007/s40273-013-0046-5 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intensive (longer and more frequent) hemodialysis has emerged as an alternative to conventional hemodialysis for the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, given the differences in dialysis delivery and models of care associated with intensive dialysis, alternative approaches to patient management may be required. The purpose of this work was to develop a clinical practice guideline for the Canadian Society of Nephrology. We applied the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach for guideline development and performed targeted systematic reviews and meta-analysis (when appropriate) to address prioritized clinical management questions. We included studies addressing the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease with short daily (≥5 days per week, <3 hours per session), long (3-4 days per week, ≥5.5 hours per session), or long-frequent (≥5 days per week, ≥5.5 hours per session) hemodialysis. We included clinical trials and observational studies with or without a control arm (1990 and later). Based on a prioritization exercise, 6 interventions of interest included optimal vascular access type, buttonhole cannulation, antimicrobial prophylaxis for buttonhole cannulation, closed connector devices, and dialysate calcium and dialysate phosphate additives for patients receiving intensive hemodialysis. We developed 6 recommendations addressing the interventions of interest. Overall quality of the evidence was very low and all recommendations were conditional. We provide detailed commentaries to guide in shared decision making. The main limitation was the very low overall quality of evidence that precluded strong recommendations. Most included studies were small single-arm observational studies. Three randomized controlled trials were applicable, but provided only indirect evidence. Published information for patient values and preference was lacking. In conclusion, we provide 6 recommendations for the practice of intensive hemodialysis. However, due to very low-quality evidence, all recommendations were conditional. We therefore also highlight priorities for future research.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2013; 62(1). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.02.351 · 5.90 Impact Factor
  • Philip McFarlane · Richard E. Gilbert · Lori MacCallum · Peter Senior ·

    Canadian Journal of Diabetes 04/2013; 37:S129–S136. DOI:10.1016/j.jcjd.2013.01.037 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Canadian Hypertension Education Program reviews the hypertension literature annually and provides detailed recommendations regarding hypertension diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment. This report provides the updated evidence-based recommendations for 2015. This year, 4 new recommendations were added and 2 existing recommendations were modified. A revised algorithm for the diagnosis of hypertension is presented. Two major changes are proposed: (1) measurement using validated electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices is preferred over auscultation for accurate office blood pressure measurement; (2) if the visit 1 mean blood pressure is increased but < 180/110 mm Hg, out-of-office blood pressure measurements using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (preferably) or home blood pressure monitoring should be performed before visit 2 to rule out white coat hypertension, for which pharmacologic treatment is not recommended. A standardized ambulatory blood pressure monitoring protocol and an update on automated office blood pressure are also presented. Several other recommendations on accurate measurement of blood pressure and criteria for diagnosis of hypertension have been reorganized. Two other new recommendations refer to smoking cessation: (1) tobacco use status should be updated regularly and advice to quit smoking should be provided; and (2) advice in combination with pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be offered to all smokers. The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Canadian journal of cardiology 03/2013; 31(5). DOI:10.1016/j.cjca.2013.01.005 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We evaluated the risk assessment and management patterns employed by primary care physicians in patients at elevated cardiometabolic risk. Methods: Between April 2011 and March 2012, multiple physicians from 9 Primary Care Teams (PCTs) and 88 physicians from traditional nonteam (Solo) practices completed a practice assessment on the management of 2461 patients > 40 years old with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and diagnosed with at least 1 of the following: dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), or hypertension. Results: Individuals with dyslipidemia, T2DM, or hypertension tended to have a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Waist circumference measurements, obtained for only 392/829 (47.0%) Solo patients, revealed that 88.9% of these individuals were abdominally obese and that at least 52.2% of Solo patients had metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular risk, determined by the physicians for 83.5% of all patients without T2DM and typically performed using traditional risk engines, was often miscalculated (43.2% PCTs, 58.8% Solo; P = 0.0007). Healthy behavioural modifications were infrequently recommended (< 50%). Pharmacotherapy was widely used (> 70%) but treatment targets were infrequently met. The composite outcome of guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemic, and blood pressure targets was met by 9.0% and 8.1% of patients managed by PCT and Solo physicians respectively. Conclusions: Obesity and cardiovascular risk were underassessed and the latter often underestimated. Patients were infrequently counselled on the benefits of healthy behavioural changes. A paradigm change in assessing and managing obesity and cardiovascular risk via aggressive lifestyle interventions is warranted in individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk.
    The Canadian journal of cardiology 02/2013; 29(8). DOI:10.1016/j.cjca.2012.12.001 · 3.94 Impact Factor

  • 01/2013; 33(1):96-9. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2012.00022
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundSTARRT recently demonstrated that many patients experience suboptimal dialysis starts (defined as initiation as an inpatient and/or with a central venous catheter), even when followed by a nephrologist for >12 months (NDT 2011). However, STARRT did not identify the factors associated with suboptimal initiation of dialysis. The objectives of this study were to extend the results of STARRT by ascertaining the factors leading to suboptimal initiation of dialysis in patients who were referred at least 12 months prior to commencement of dialysis.Methods At each of the three Toronto centers, charts of consecutive incident RRT patients were identified from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010, with predetermined data extracted.ResultsA total of 436 incident RRT patients were studied; 52.4% were followed by a nephrologist for >12 months prior to the initiation of dialysis. Suboptimal starts occurred in 56.4% of these patients. No attempt at arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) prior to initiation was made in 65% of these starts. Factors contributing to suboptimal starts despite early referral included patient-related delays (31.25%), acute-on-chronic kidney disease (31.25%), surgical delays (16.41%), late decision-making (8.59%) and others (12.50%). The percentage of optimal starts with early referral among 14 nephrologists ranged from 33 to 72%.Conclusions Most patients started dialysis in a suboptimal manner, despite an extended period of pre-dialysis care. Nephrologists should take responsibility for suboptimal initiation of dialysis despite early referral and test methods that attempt to prevent this.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 12/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfs431 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) refers to the collective consideration of traditional and emerging risk factors that amplify the potential of developing atherogenic cardiovascular disease, as well as the emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cumulative data suggest that the metabolic syndrome confers a 5-fold increase in risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and also increases the cardiovascular risk calculated by conventional algorithms by an additional 1.5- to 2.0-fold. This article is a summary of the recently published position article on cardiometabolic risk by the nationally represented inter-disciplinary Cardiometabolic Risk Working Group (Can J Cardiol. 2011;27:e1–e33). The objective of this article is to review what the emerging risk factors are, how to determine if individuals at risk for or with type 2 diabetes mellitus have elevated CMR and the steps that should be taken to optimally manage and reduce CMR in these patients.
    Canadian Journal of Diabetes 12/2012; 36(6):320-326. DOI:10.1016/j.jcjd.2012.08.009 · 2.00 Impact Factor

  • Canadian Journal of Diabetes 10/2012; 36(5):S39-S40. DOI:10.1016/j.jcjd.2012.07.340 · 2.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
352.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2014
    • Christus St. Michaels' Hospital
      텍사캐나, Arkansas, United States
  • 2004-2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences
      London, Ontario, Canada