Paula M Trief

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States

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Publications (37)123.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the relationships between elevated depression symptoms (EDS) or stress and weight loss in SHINE, a telephonic, primary-care based, translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program.MethodsN = 257 adults with metabolic syndrome were randomized to individual (IC) or group (CC) phone participation. Weight, depression, anti-depressant use (ADMs), and stress (baseline, 6 months, 1 and 2 years) were assessed. Univariate analyses used linear and logistic regression, t tests for continuous variables and exact tests for categorical variables. Stratified analyses assessed modifiers of effects of depression/stress on weight loss.ResultsApproximately 35% reported EDS, with no change over time. Approximately 28% of all participants used ADMs. Participants with EDS had lower mean % weight loss and a smaller % who achieved ≥5% weight loss. Participants with EDS were less likely to be “completers” (40.1% vs. 61.5%, P = 0.002), coached (48.0% vs. 60.7%, P = 0.049), or log diet/activity (19.4% vs. 42.7%, P < 0.001), behaviors related to weight loss. Results were similar for high stress. ADM use had no independent effect on weight loss.Conclusions Individuals with metabolic syndrome and EDS and/or high stress were less likely to lose significant weight. Pre-intervention depression and stress screening to intervene may improve weight loss.
    Obesity 09/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Little is known about the frequency of depression in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or its relationship to diabetes outcomes. The T1D Exchange clinic registry allowed us to explore depression in a large, heterogeneous sample. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants ≥18 years old (N = 6,172; median age 34 years; median diabetes duration 16 years; 55% female; and 89% non-Hispanic white) completed the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), a validated, reliable measure of current depression. Probable major depression was defined in four ways: PHQ-8 ≥10, PHQ-8 ≥12, per diagnostic algorithm, and as a continuous variable. Characteristics and clinical outcomes of those with and without depression were compared using logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS A total of 4.6–10.3% of participants were classified as probable major depression depending on how defined. Participants classified as depressed were more likely female, nonwhite race/ethnicity, to have a lower household income and lower education level, to exercise less often, to miss insulin doses, and to have one or more complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, treatment for retinopathy, or cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease) (all P < 0.01). HbA1c was higher in the depressed versus not depressed groups (8.4 ± 1.7% [68 ± 8.6 mmol/mol] vs. 7.8 ± 1.4% [62 ± 15.3 mmol/mol]; P < 0.001). Occurrence of one or more diabetic ketoacidosis events (11 vs. 4%; P < 0.001) and one or more severe hypoglycemic events (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.001) in the past 3 months was higher among depressed participants. CONCLUSIONS In the T1D Exchange clinic registry, adults with probable major depression have worse clinical outcomes than those not depressed. Whether identification and treatment of depression improves diabetes outcomes requires study. Depression is common in T1D, and better identification and treatment of this comorbid condition is needed.
    Diabetes Care 06/2014; 37(6):1563-1572. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p < .001, parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p < .001; diabetes: adjusted R2 = 0.47, p < .001). Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Families Systems & Health 02/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims We investigated the longitudinal association of depression, with and without cognitive dysfunction, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in a predominantly minority cohort. Methods There were 613 participants. Presence of depression was defined by a score ≥ 7 on the Short-CARE depression scale. We tested participants for executive dysfunction using the Color Trails Test (CTT), Part 2, and for memory dysfunction using the total recall task of the Selective Reminding Test (TR-SRT). We classified performance in these tests as abnormal based on standardized score cutoffs (< 16th percentile and one standard deviation below the sample mean). Random effects models were used to compare repeated measures of the diabetes control measures between those with depression versus those without depression and ever versus never cognitively impaired. Results Baseline depression was present in 36% of participants. Over a median follow-up of 2 years, depression was not related to worse HbA1c, SBP, or LDL. The presence of (1) abnormal performance on a test of executive function and depression (n = 57) or (2) abnormal performance on a test of verbal recall and depression (n = 43) was also not associated with clinically significant worse change in diabetes control. Conclusions Depression, with or without low performance in tests of executive function and memory, may not affect clinically significant measures of diabetes control in the elderly.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A telephone delivered translation of the DPP weight loss program, delivered by trained primary care staff over 2 years, resulted in significant weight loss for patients with metabolic syndrome. Participants in groups (conference calls) continued to lose weight a full year after the program ended, while those called individually regained.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intensive lifestyle intervention resulted in significant weight loss, reducing the development of diabetes, but needs to be adapted to primary care provider (PCP) practices. To compare a DPP-translation using individual (IC) vs. conference (CC) calls delivered by PCP staff for the outcome of percent weight loss over 2 years. Randomized clinical trial. Five PCP sites. Obese patients with metabolic syndrome, without diabetes (IC, n = 129; CC, n = 128). Telephone delivery of the DPP Lifestyle Balance intervention [16-session core curriculum in year 1, 12-session continued telephone contact in year 2 plus telephone coaching sessions (dietitians). Weight (kg), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Baseline data: age = 52 years, BMI = 39 kg/m(2), 75 % female, 85 % non-Hispanic White, 13 % non-Hispanic Black, and 48 % annual incomes <$40,000/year. In the intention-to-treat analyses at year 2, mean percent weight loss was -5.6 % (CC, p < 0.001) and -1.8 % (IC, p = 0.046) and was greater for CC than for IC (p = 0.016). At year 2, mean weight loss was 6.2 kg (CC) and 2.2 kg (IC) (p < 0.001). There was similar weight loss at year 1, but between year 1 and year 2 CC participants continued to lose while IC participants regained. At year 2, 52 % and 43 % (CC) and 29 % and 22 % (IC) of participants lost at least 5 % and 7 % of initial weight. BMI also decreased more for CC than IC (-2.1 kg/m(2) vs. -0.8 kg/m(2) p < 0.001). Waist circumference decreased by 3.1 cm (CC) and 2.4 cm (IC) at year 2. Completers (≥9 of 16 sessions; mean 13.3 sessions) lost significantly more weight than non-completers (mean 4.3 sessions). PCP staff delivery of the DPP lifestyle intervention by telephone can be effective in achieving weight loss in obese people with metabolic syndrome. Greater weight loss may be attained with a group telephone intervention.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 07/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Little is known about the psychosocial challenges of adults living with type 1 diabetes or its impact on partner relationships. This qualitative study was undertaken to gain better understanding of these issues.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Four focus groups were held, two with adult type 1 diabetic patients (n = 16) and two with partners (n = 14). Two broad questions were posed: "What are the emotional and interpersonal challenges you have experienced because you have (your partner has) type 1 diabetes?" and "How does the fact that you have (your partner has) type 1 diabetes affect your relationship with your partner, positively and/or negatively?" Sessions were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed by a team of four researchers, using constant comparative methods to identify core domains and concepts.RESULTSFour main domains were identified: 1) impact of diabetes on the relationship, including level of partner involvement, emotional impact of diabetes on the relationship, and concerns about child-rearing; 2) understanding the impact of hypoglycemia; 3) stress of potential complications; and 4) benefits of technology. Themes suggest that, although partner involvement varies (very little to significant), there exists significant anxiety about hypoglycemia and future complications and sources of conflict that may increase relationship stress. Partner support is highly valued, and technology has a positive influence.CONCLUSIONS Adults with type 1 diabetes face unique emotional and interpersonal challenges. Future research should focus on gaining a better understanding of how they cope and the effect of psychosocial stressors and coping on adherence, quality of life, and glycemic control.
    Diabetes care 03/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Adherence to diabetes self care is poor for Hispanic American and African-American patients. This study examined the change in adherence over time and in response to a telemedicine intervention for elderly diabetes patients in these groups compared to white diabetes patients. We also examined whether adherence mediated the effect of the intervention on glycemic control (A1c). Design. The Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine project randomized medically underserved Medicare patients (n=1665) to telemedicine case management (televideo educator visits, individualized goal-setting/problem solving) or usual care. Hispanic and African-American educators delivered the intervention in Spanish if needed. Main outcome measures. Annual assessment included A1c and self-reported adherence (Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scale). A simple model (only time and group terms) and a model with covariates (e.g., age) were examined for baseline and 5 years of follow-up. SAS PROC Mixed was used with non-linear terms to examine mediating effects of adherence on A1c, by performing tests of the mediating path coefficients. Results. Over time, self-reported adherence improved for the treatment group compared to usual care (p<0.001). There was no significant interaction with racial/ethnic group membership, i.e., all groups improved. However, minority subjects were consistently less adherent than whites. Also, greater comorbidity and diabetes symptoms predicted poorer adherence, greater duration of diabetes and more years of education predicted better adherence. Adherence was a significant mediator of A1c (p<0.001). Conclusions. A unique, tailored telemedicine intervention was effective in achieving improved adherence to diabetes self care. However, African-American and Hispanic American participants were less adherent than white participants at all time points despite an individualized and accessible intervention. The finding that adherence did mediate glycemic control suggests that unique interventions for minority groups may be needed to overcome this disparity.
    Ethnicity and Health 07/2012; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study objective was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and relationships to quality of life and demographics in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study's large, ethnically diverse youth with type 2 diabetes. A total of 704 youth with type 2 diabetes <2 years' duration, aged 10-17 years, and BMI ≥85th percentile completed depressive symptoms and quality of life measures. Some 14.8% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms, and older girls had significantly higher rates than older boys. Rates of significant depressive symptoms were similar to those of healthy adolescents and lower than those of teens with type 1 diabetes. Elevated depressive symptoms, particularly in older girls, suggest clinicians assess vulnerability.
    Diabetes care 08/2011; 34(10):2205-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a couples focused diabetes intervention in which a collaborative problem-solving approach to diabetes self-care was promoted. Couples (N = 44), in which one partner had Type 2 diabetes and was in poor blood glucose control were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a couples intervention, an individual intervention, or individual diabetes education. The intervention included goal-setting, dietary behavior change, and a focus on emotions. For those in the couples arm, this was done within the framework of promoting collaborative communication between the partners. All intervention contacts were over the telephone to increase reach. Results showed that both the individual and couples interventions yielded meaningful clinical improvements in medical outcomes. Diabetes education also resulted in improved blood glucose control. Despite the small number, mixed-model regression analyses found statistically significant treatment effects for total cholesterol. This pilot demonstrates the feasibility and potential efficacy of a telephone intervention for Type 2 diabetes patients and their partners. Information from implementing this pilot led to refinement and further development of the intervention, which is being assessed in a larger, more comprehensive trial.
    Families Systems & Health 07/2011; 29(3):253-61. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve nutrition and physical activity of county employees and promote weight loss. Random assignment to begin the program when first offered or after 3 months ("wait control" group). Worksite. Onondaga County employees (n = 45) at risk for diabetes (n = 35) or with diabetes (n = 10). Mean (±SD) age = 51.2 (± 8.0) years and body mass index (BMI) = 37.3 ± (6.8 kg/m). Twelve weekly healthy lifestyle sessions based on the Diabetes Prevention Program curriculum, followed by monthly sessions for up to 12 months. Medical: Weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid, and hemoglobin A1c levels. Psychosocial/behavioral: Health-related quality of life Short Form-12, Impact of Weight on Quality of Life Scale), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), eating behavior (3-Factor Eating Questionnaire, National Cancer Institute Fat Screener), job satisfaction. The intervention group lost significant weight compared to the wait control group over the first 3 months (mean [95% CI], -2.23 kg [-3.5 to 0.97]) vs [+ 0.73 kg (+0.17 to +1.28)], with a decrease in BMI (P < .001) and waist circumference (P = .004), an increase in physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, P = .011) and lower dietary fat intake (P = .018). Over 12 months, 22.5% (9/40) lost more than 5% body weight and 12.5% (5/40) lost more than 7% body weight. After the first 3 months, there was gradual partial weight regain but reduction in waist circumference was maintained. The intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life Scale (P < .001), 3-Factor Eating (cognitive restraint P < .001, uncontrolled eating P = .003, and emotional eating P = .001), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (P = .011), and Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (P = .048). No improvements were observed in blood pressure, lipid, hemoglobin A1c, or glucose levels. Job satisfaction was inversely related to BMI at baseline (P = .001) with a trend for improvement with the modest weight loss. A worksite intervention program can help government employees adopt healthier lifestyles and achieve modest weight loss.
    Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 04/2011; 17(3):233-41. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the use of telemedicine for setting goals for behavior change and examine the success in achieving these goals in rural underserved older adults with diabetes. Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes living in rural upstate New York who were enrolled in the telemedicine intervention of the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) project (n = 610) participated in home televisits with nurse and dietitian educators every 4-6 weeks for 2-6 years. Behavior change goals related to nutrition, physical activity, monitoring, diabetes health maintenance, and/or use of the home telemedicine unit were established at the conclusion of each televisit and assessed at the next visit. Collaborative goal setting was employed during 18,355 televisits (mean of 33 goal-setting televisits/participant). The most common goals were related to monitoring, followed by diabetes health maintenance, nutrition, exercise, and use of the telemedicine equipment. Overall, 68% of behavioral goals were rated as "improved" or "met." The greatest success was achieved for goals related to proper insulin injection technique and daily foot care. These elderly participants had the most difficulty achieving goals related to use of the computer. No gender differences in goal achievement were observed. Televisits can be successfully used to collaboratively establish behavior change goals to help improve diabetes self-management in underserved elderly rural adults.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 05/2010; 16(4):405-16. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telehealth interventions are feasible and efficacious. While patients are the focus of both quantitative and qualitative studies that assess their response to telehealth, little is known about the view of providers of telehealth services. The purpose of this study was to better understand the experiences of providers and the factors that they perceive to contribute to the success of telehealth interventions as well as to their own satisfaction. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted with 10 diabetes educators (nurses and dietitians) who served as providers of a telemedicine case management intervention for older adults who have diabetes. Qualitative analyses revealed that providers were very satisfied with their experience and felt their efforts with patients were generally successful. Providers also identified a number of unique benefits to telehealth interventions. These included opportunities for more frequent contact with patients, greater relaxation and information due to the ability to interact with the patients in their own homes, increased ability to reach the underserved, more timely and accurate medical monitoring, and improved management of data. The primary disadvantages of telehealth they identified were technology problems and a concern about the lack of physical contact with patients. Findings illustrate providers' perspectives on the unique advantages of telehealth and offer insight as to how to make telehealth interventions more effective, as well as more satisfying for those who do the day-to-day work of providing the interventions.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 09/2009; 15(8):742-50. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: with increasing prevalence of diabetes in older people, it is important to understand factors that affect their outcomes. The Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) project is a demonstration project to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of telemedicine with diverse, medically underserved, older diabetes patients. Subjects were randomised to telemedicine case management or usual care. This intervention has been shown to result in improved medical outcomes and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to one's belief that (s)he can successfully engage in a behaviour. Self-efficacy has been shown to relate to behaviour change and glycaemic control in middle-aged individuals, but not studied in older individuals. to assess whether (a) diabetes self-efficacy relates to the primary medical outcome of glycaemic control, and to secondary outcomes (blood pressure and cholesterol), and (b) whether, after an intervention, change in diabetes self-efficacy relates to change in these medical outcomes in a group of older, ethnically diverse individuals. three waves of longitudinal data from participants in IDEATel were analysed. diabetes self-efficacy at baseline correlated with glycaemic control, blood pressure and cholesterol. An increase in diabetes self-efficacy over time was related to an improvement in glycaemic control (P < 0.0001), but not in blood pressure and lipid levels. The intervention was significantly related to improved self-efficacy over time (P < 0.0001), and both directly (P = 0.022) and indirectly through self-efficacy (P < 0.001) to improved glycaemic control. The mediation effect of self-efficacy was also significant (P< 0.004). diabetes self-efficacy is a relevant construct for older diabetes patients. Thus, interventions that target enhanced self-efficacy may also result in improved glycaemic control.
    Age and Ageing 02/2009; 38(2):219-25. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This qualitative research focuses on understanding the experiences of elderly patients with diabetes who participated in a telemedicine case management intervention, to better understand the barriers to success of telemedicine with the elderly. Telephone interviews were conducted with elderly patients with diabetes prior to and 6 and 12 months after participating in a case management intervention delivered via a computer that allowed them to teleconference with a nurse and dietitian, upload blood glucose and blood pressure data, and access educational materials. Qualitative analyses revealed that patients enrolled primarily because healthcare providers encouraged them. Their goals were to improve diabetes control, with few expectations of an effect on emotional health or family relationships. After involvement, they particularly valued the emphasis on monitoring of health outcomes and supportive contact with diabetes staff to encourage, remind, and answer questions. Findings illustrate the potential value of telemedicine with elderly patients with diabetes, if supported by primary care providers and including consistent, supportive interactions with knowledgeable diabetes healthcare providers.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 10/2008; 14(7):647-55. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Couple research has shown spousal support is associated with better treatment adherence, illness adaptation and blood sugar control in studies of individuals with diabetes. However, few studies have investigated gender differences and how they impact spousal supporting behaviors. In this study, seventy-four individuals (patients and spouses) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding spousal support relating to diabetes management. Transcripts of these interviews were rigorously coded and analyzed by a team of researchers. A sampling of quotes is provided illustrating gender differences in the areas of dietary and regimen specific support as well as perceptions of nagging behavior. Potential explanations for differences and implications for clinicians are discussed including the role of marital therapists on collaborative treatment teams.
    Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy: Innovations in Clinical and Educational Interventions. 09/2008; 5(2):23-42.
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    Paula M Trief, Richard A Ellison
    Archives of internal medicine 05/2008; 168(8):799-802; discussion 802-3. · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes care 06/2007; 30(5):1266-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of comorbid diabetes and Post-Traumatic Stress disorder(PTSD)and potential relationships between PTSD and diabetes outcomes. Male patients enrolled in a VA primary care database (N = 73,270) were classified as having diabetes from pharmacy records (N = 14,438) and grouped into those with diagnoses of PTSD with depression (N = 649), PTSD-only (N = 480), Depression-only (N = 1696), Other psychiatric diagnosis (N = 736), or No psychiatric diagnosis (N = 10,877) based on the Purpose of Visit diagnoses in the medical record. Outcomes included glycemic control (HbA1c), cholesterol and triglycerides. Correlates were age, substance use disorder, other psychiatric diagnosis, number of primary care encounters, and medications. The prevalence of comorbid diabetes and PTSD was 8% (n = 1129). Of these, 57% (n = 649) had comorbid depression. Patients with PTSD and depression had higher rates of substance use disorder and higher cholesterol and LDL. Patients with depression had poorer glycemic control. Patients with PTSD and depression weighed more and had higher BMI than patients with neither diagnosis. Thus, male diabetes patients with PTSD and depression may be vulnerable to substance use disorders and to weight/lipid problems that can affect health. Depression is a likely contributor to poor glycemic control. Careful screening for mental health comorbidities is needed for diabetes patients.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 11/2006; 29(5):411-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective. To assess whether patients with poorer emotional health before fusion surgery will have worse pain and function after surgery, and to identify patient variables that predict fusion outcomes. A systematic review of fusion outcomes studies reported an average of 68% "satisfactory" outcomes. The persistence of pain and functional limitations leads to emotional and financial costs. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that affect fusion outcome. Research has explored psychosocial factors (e.g., depression, anxiety) as being important outcome predictors. Data from subjects enrolled in a multisite trial of 2 fusion systems were analyzed. Subjects completed measures of health-related quality of life (SF-36), pain (visual analog scale), and function (Oswestry Disability Index). A total of 160 subjects completed measures before fusion, 155 completed measures 12 months after fusion, and 115 completed measures 24 months after fusion. Subject variables (i.e., age, gender, smoking, workers' compensation, and second surgery status) and presurgical pain/function were regressed on pain/function outcomes after surgery. This model was compared to one that included presurgical Mental Component Scores (MCSs), which is a SF-36 derived measure of emotional health, to determine whether MCS data significantly improved the prediction of pain/function. Higher presurgical MCS (i.e., better emotional health) predicted less back and leg pain after surgery. Similarly, higher presurgical MCS predicted better physical function after surgery. Other important predictors of pain and function were presurgical pain and function, workers' compensation, and smoking status. The associations were modest (2% to 9% of independent variance accounted for), but significant. Presurgical emotional status is one significant predictor of pain and function outcomes up to 2 years after fusion. Other significant predictors included workers' compensation status, smoking status, and presurgical pain/function. Studies to identify and intervenewith patients with poorer emotional status will clarify whether presurgical mental health intervention can improve pain and function outcomes after surgery or whether these patients are not candidates for surgery.
    Spine 05/2006; 31(7):823-30. · 2.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

639 Citations
123.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • • Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 2009
    • Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
      • School of Family Life
      Provo, UT, United States