Simon Roussel

Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Caen, Lower Normandy, France

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Publications (50)217.8 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few effective therapeutic interventions are available to limit brain damage and functional deficits after ischaemic stroke. Within this context, mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapy carries minimal risks while remaining efficacious by the secretion of trophic, protective, neurogenic and angiogenic factors. The limited survival rate of MSCs restricts their beneficial effects. The usefulness of a three-dimensional support, such as pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) on the survival of MSCs, during hypoxia has been shown in vitro, especially when the PAMs were loaded with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the present study, the effect of MSCs attached to laminin-PAMs (LM-PAMs), releasing or not VEGF, was evaluated in vivo in a model of transient stroke. The following parameters were assessed: infarct volume, functional recovery and endogenous cellular reactions. LM-PAMs induced both in vitro and in vivo the expression of neuronal markers by the MSCs. Moreover, the prolonged release of VEGF increased angiogenesis around the site of implantation of the LM-PAMs and facilitated the migration of immature neurons towards the ischaemic tissue. Nonetheless, MSCs/LM-PAMs-VEGF failed to improve sensorimotor functions. The use of LM-PAMs to convey MSCs and to deliver growth factors could be an effective strategy to repair the brain damaged following stroke. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible genes may contribute to therapy resistance in glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive and hypoxic brain tumours. It has been recently reported that erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are involved in glioma growth. We now investigated whether EPOR signalling may modulate the efficacy of the GBM current treatment based on chemotherapy (temozolomide, TMZ) and radiotherapy (X-rays). Using RNA interference, we showed on glioma cell lines (U87 and U251) that EPOR silencing induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest, consistent with the slowdown of glioma growth induced by EPOR knock-down. In vivo, we also reported that EPOR silencing combined with TMZ treatment is more efficient to delay tumour recurrence and to prolong animal survival compared to TMZ alone. In vitro, we showed that EPOR silencing not only increases the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ as well as X-rays but also counteracts the hypoxia-induced chemo- and radioresistance. Silencing EPOR on glioma cells exposed to conventional treatments enhances senescence and induces a robust genomic instability that leads to caspase-dependent mitotic death by increasing the number of polyploid cells and cyclin B1 expression. Overall these data suggest that EPOR could be an attractive target to overcome therapeutic resistance toward ionising radiation or temozolomide.
    Oncotarget 12/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Despite multiple advances in cancer therapies, patients with glioblastoma (GBM) still have a poor prognosis. Numerous glioma models are used not only for the development of innovative therapies but also to optimize conventional ones. Given the significance of hypoxia in drug and radiation resistance and that hypoxia is widely observed among GBM, the establishment of a reliable method to map hypoxia in preclinical human models may contribute to the discovery and translation of future and more targeted therapies. The aim of this study was to compare the hypoxic status of two commonly used human orthotopic glioma models (U87 and U251) developed in rats and studied by noninvasive hypoxia imaging with 3-[18F]fluoro-1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol-micro-positron emission tomography ([18F]-FMISO-μPET). In parallel, because of the relationships between angiogenesis and hypoxia, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histology, and immunohistochemistry to characterize the tumoral vasculature. Although all tumors were detectable in T2-weighted MRI and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose-μPET, only the U251 model exhibited [18F]-FMISO uptake. Additionally, the U251 tumors were less densely vascularized than U87 tumors. Our study demonstrates the benefits of noninvasive imaging of hypoxia in preclinical models to define the most reliable one for translation of future therapies to clinic based on the importance of intratumoral oxygen tension for the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
    Biological Chemistry 04/2013; 394(4):529-39. DOI:10.1515/hsz-2012-0318 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal models constitute an indispensable tool to investigate human pathology. Here we describe the procedure to induce permanent and transient cerebral ischemia in the mouse and the rat. The model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is performed by the insertion of an occlusive filament until the origin of the MCA while the permanent occlusion described in the mice is performed by a distal electrocoagulation of the MCA. Those models allow evaluating the efficiency of therapeutic strategy of ischemia from tissular aspect to behavioral and cognitive impairment assessment. They were widely used in the literature to evaluate the efficiency of different drugs including the cytokines and especially erythropoietin (EPO) or its derivatives.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 982:79-101. DOI:10.1007/978-1-62703-308-4_5 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most forms of cerebral ischemia are characterized by damage to the entire neurovascular unit, which leads to an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In response to permanent focal cerebral ischemia in mice, we detected an early concomitant increase in the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key inducer of vascular leakage and pathological blood vessel growth, and of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), which is closely associated with VEGF in vascular remodeling. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Ang2 alone, or in combination with VEGF, in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. The effect of these angiogenic factors on the ischemic lesion volume was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. We observed that timely administration of VEGF exacerbates ischemic damage. In contrast, Ang2 decreases the ischemic volume and this beneficial effect is maintained in the presence of VEGF. This investigation reports, for the first time, a protective role of Ang2 following cerebral ischemia, an action associated with a reduced BBB permeability. We propose that Ang2 represents a pertinent molecular target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia since acute brain damage may be limited by a pharmacological protection of the vascular compartment.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 5 December 2012; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.178.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2012; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.178 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The individualized care of glioma patients ought to benefit from imaging biomarkers as precocious predictors of therapeutic efficacy. Contrast enhanced MRI and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET are routinely used in clinical settings; their ability to forecast the therapeutic response is controversial. The objectives of our preclinical study were to analyze sensitive µMRI and/or µPET imaging biomarkers to predict the efficacy of anti-angiogenic and/or chemotherapeutic regimens. Human U87 and U251 orthotopic glioma models were implanted in nude rats. Temozolomide and/or bevacizumab were administered. µMRI (anatomical, diffusion, and microrheological parameters) and µPET ([(18)F]-FDG and [(18)F]-fluoro-l-thymidine [FLT]-PET) studies were undertaken soon (t(1)) after treatment initiation compared with late anatomical µMRI evaluation of tumor volume (t(2)) and overall survival. In both models, FDG and FLT uptakes were attenuated at t(1) in response to temozolomide alone or with bevacizumab. The distribution of FLT, reflecting intratumoral heterogeneity, was also modified. FDG was less predictive for treatment efficacy than was FLT (also highly correlated with outcome, P < .001 for both models). Cerebral blood volume was significantly decreased by temozolomide + bevacizumab and was correlated with survival for rats with U87 implants. While FLT was highly predictive of treatment efficacy, a combination of imaging biomarkers was superior to any one alone (P < .0001 in both tumors with outcome). Our results indicate that FLT is a sensitive predictor of treatment efficacy and that predictability is enhanced by a combination of imaging biomarkers. These findings may translate clinically in that individualized glioma treatments could be decided in given patients after PET/MRI examinations.
    Neuro-Oncology 10/2012; DOI:10.1093/neuonc/nos260 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury occurring during the perinatal period is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We assessed the impact of maternal hypertension, the most common medical disorder of pregnancy, on the anatomical and functional consequences of HI insult in the immature brain. Rat pups from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (Wistar Kyoto - WKY) dams were subjected to HI brain damage at post-natal day 7 (P7). Brain lesion and functional deficits were analyzed from 10 min to 35 days after HI, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), sensorimotor and cognitive tests. MRI data revealed that SHR pups displayed less brain damage than WKY, attested by an initial smaller lesion followed by a reduced tissue loss at chronic stage (57.1±21.6 and 31.1±27% ipsilateral hemisphere atrophy in WKY and SHR, respectively). Behavioral analyses showed less HI-induced behavioral deficits in motor coordination (rotarod test) and spatial learning (Morris water maze test) in pups from hypertensive dams compared to those from normotensive ones. The data suggest that maternal hypertension causes prenatal stress that may render the immature brain more resistant to subsequent hypoxia-ischemia, related to a preconditioning phenomenon.
    Experimental Neurology 10/2011; 233(1):264-72. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.10.014 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.
    Experimental Cell Research 10/2011; 317(16):2321-32. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.06.011 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No direct proof has been brought to light in a link between hypoxic changes in glioma models and the effects of antiangiogenic treatments. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of the detection of hypoxia through the use of (18)F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography ([(18)F]-FMISO PET) in response to the evolution of the tumor and its vasculature. Orthotopic glioma tumors were induced in rats after implantation of C6 or 9L cells. Sunitinib was administered from day (D) 17 to D24. At D17 and D24, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to characterize tumor growth and vasculature. Hypoxia was assessed by [(18)F]-FMISO PET. We showed that brain hypoxic volumes are related to glioma volume and its vasculature and that an antiangiogenic treatment, leading to an increase in cerebral blood volume and a decrease in vessel permeability, is accompanied by a decrease in the degree of hypoxia. We propose that [(18)F]-FMISO PET and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging are pertinent complementary tools in the evaluation of the effects of an antiangiogenic treatment in glioma.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 08/2011; 38(6):781-93. DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2011.01.010 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of stroke on white matter is poorly described in preclinical investigations mainly based on rodents with a low white (WM)/gray matter ratio. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we evaluated WM alterations and correlated them with sensorimotor deficits after stroke in the marmoset, a nonhuman primate that displays a WM/gray matter ratio close to that of humans. Marmosets underwent a transient brain ischemia (3-hour). Eight serial MRI examinations were made during ischemia and up to 45 days after reperfusion. The sensorimotor deficits were evaluated weekly over 45 days. To assess WM alterations, the SD of the angle of the first eigenvector projection was calculated in the cortex and in the internal and external capsules. The fiber-tracking approach was used to measure the number and the length of bundles. Changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient and the fractional anisotropy values were similar during the temporal evolution of the lesion in the marmoset model of ischemia to that reported in patients with stroke. Despite an absence of visible lesions on T2-MRI and diffusion tensor imaging at the chronic stage, diffusion tensor MRI evidenced alterations in WM by the increase in the standard deviation of the angle of the first eigenvector projection in the cortex, internal and external capsules, and the decrease in the number of bundles of fibers tracked. The disruption of WM was strongly correlated with the chronic sensorimotor deficits. Despite an absence of a visible ischemic lesion at the chronic stage, diffusion tensor MRI revealed disorganization of WM, which probably underlies the persistence of functional deficits.
    Stroke 03/2011; 42(5):1412-9. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.596650 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although chronic arterial hypertension (CAH) increases the risk of stroke and the severity of the resultant lesion, it is rarely integrated in preclinical studies. Here, we analyzed the impact of CAH on the acute spatiotemporal evolution of the ischemic penumbra as defined by the perfusion-weighted imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging mismatch. Sequential 7T-MRI examinations were performed from 30 minutes up to 4 hours after permanent cerebral ischemia in genetically hypertensive rats (spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR), renovascular-hypertensive rats (RH-WKY), and their normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rats, WKY). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-defined lesion was larger in hypertensive rats than in normotensive animals as early as 30 minutes after the ischemia. The ischemic penumbra was smaller in both genetically and renovascular-hypertensive rats (at 30 minutes; SHR=66±25 mm(3), RH-WKY=55±17 mm(3) versus WKY=117±14 mm(3); P<0.008) and there was no significant difference between the perfusion deficit and ADC lesion (mismatch definition of penumbra) as early as 90 minutes after the occlusion. Genetic hypertension and induced renovascular hypertension resulted in larger lesion and smaller penumbra that vanished rapidly. These data support the need to integrate CAH in preclinical studies relative to the treatment of stroke, as failure to do so may lead to preclinical results nonpredictive of clinical trials, which include hypertensive patients.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 02/2011; 31(2):504-13. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.118 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation is involved in stroke pathophysiology and might be imaged using radioligands targeting the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO). We studied microglial reaction in brain areas remote from the primary lesion site in two rodent models of focal cerebral ischaemia (permanent or transient) using [125I]-CLINDE, a promising TSPO single photon emission computed tomography radioligand. In a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), ex vivo autoradiographic studies demonstrated, besides in the ischaemic territory, accumulation of [125I]-CLINDE in the ipsilateral thalamus with a binding that progressed up to 3 weeks after MCAO. [125I]-CLINDE binding markedly decreased in animals pre-injected with either unlabelled CLINDE or PK11195, while no change was observed with flumazenil pre-treatment, demonstrating TSPO specificity. In rats subjected to transient MCAO, [125I]-CLINDE binding in the ipsilateral thalamus and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) was significantly higher than that in contralateral tissue. Moreover, [125I]-CLINDE binding in the thalamus and SNr was quantitatively correlated to the ischaemic volume assessed by MRI in the cortex and striatum, respectively. Clinical consequences of secondary neuronal degeneration in stroke might be better treated thanks to the discrimination of neuronal processes using in vivo molecular imaging and potent TSPO radioligands like CLINDE to guide therapeutic interventions.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2010; 37(12):2371-80. DOI:10.1007/s00259-010-1598-7 · 4.53 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 06/2010; 8(5):21-22. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(10)70891-0 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), behavioral, and immunohistochemical analyses, we examined pathological changes at the acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages, induced by permanent or temporary ischemia in the common marmoset. Animals underwent either permanent (pMCAO) or 3-h transient (tMCAO) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) by the intraluminal thread approach. MRI scans were performed at 1 h, 8, and 45 days after MCAO. Sensorimotor deficits were assessed weekly up to 45 days after MCAO. Immunohistological studies were performed to examine neuronal loss, astrogliosis, and neurogenesis. Remote lesions were analyzed using retrograde neuronal tracers. At day 8 (D8), the lesion defined on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-MRI and T2-MRI was significantly larger in pMCAO as compared with that in the tMCAO group. At D45, the former still displayed abnormal signals in T2-MRI. Post-mortem analyses revealed widespread neuronal loss and associated astrogliosis to a greater extent in the pMCAO group. Neurogenesis was increased in both groups in the vicinity of the lesion. Disconnections between the caudate and the temporal cortex, and between the parietal cortex and the thalamus, were observed. Sensorimotor impairments were more severe and long-lasting in pMCAO relative to tMCAO. The profile of brain damage and functional deficits seen in the marmoset suggests that this model could be suitable to test therapies against stroke.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 09/2009; 30(2):273-85. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.209 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inspired from preconditioning studies, ischemic postconditioning, consisting of the application of intermittent interruptions of blood flow shortly after reperfusion, has been described in cardiac ischemia and recently in stroke. It is well known that ischemic tolerance can be achieved in the brain not only by ischemic preconditioning, but also by hypoxic preconditioning. However, the existence of hypoxic postconditioning has never been reported in cerebral ischemia. Adult mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion underwent chronic intermittent hypoxia starting either 1 or 5 days after ischemia and brain damage was assessed by T2-weighted MRI at 43 days. In addition, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of hypoxia applied after oxygen glucose deprivation in primary neuronal cultures. The present study shows for the first time that a late application of hypoxia (5 days) after ischemia reduced delayed thalamic atrophy. Furthermore, hypoxia performed 14 hours after oxygen glucose deprivation induced neuroprotection in primary neuronal cultures. We found that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression as well as those of its target genes erythropoietin and adrenomedullin is increased by hypoxic postconditioning. Further studies with pharmacological inhibitors or recombinant proteins for erythropoietin and adrenomedullin revealed that these molecules participate in this hypoxia postconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Altogether, this study demonstrates for the first time the existence of a delayed hypoxic postconditioning in cerebral ischemia and in vitro studies highlight hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and its target genes, erythropoietin and adrenomedullin, as potential effectors of postconditioning.
    Stroke 08/2009; 40(10):3349-55. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.557314 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (dMCAo), which closely mimics human stroke, is one of the most used animal models. However, although assessment of histological and functional outcome is increasingly recommended for preclinical studies, the latter is often excluded because of the high difficulties to estimate, especially in mice, behavioral impairments. The aim of our study was to deeply screen functional consequences of distal permanent MCAo in mice to target relevant behaviors for future studies. A set of sensorimotor and cognitive tests were performed during 3 weeks postsurgery in 2 groups of mice. Afterward, brain infarctions were estimated by histological staining or magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, while no long-term functional impairments could be detected, the adhesive removal was the only test showing a deficit. Interestingly, this sensorimotor impairment was correlated to cortical damage 3 weeks after surgery. In conclusion, despite the fact that dMCAo-induced deficits could not be evidenced by most of our behavioral tests, the authors showed that the adhesive removal test was the only one, sensitive enough, to highlight a long-term deficit. This result suggests therefore that this mouse model of ischemia is relevant to efficiently assess therapeutic strategies with histological but also behavioral analysis, provided that relevant tests are used.
    Behavioral Neuroscience 03/2009; 123(1):224-30. DOI:10.1037/a0014157 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite treatment efforts, the median survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form of glioma, does not extend beyond 12-15 months. One of the major pathophysiological characteristics of these tumors is their ability to induce active angiogenesis. Thus, based on the lack of efficient therapies, agents that inhibit angiogenesis are particularly attractive as a therapeutic option. However, it has been recently proposed that although specifically targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, the main angiogenic factor, certainly leads to significant tumor regression, it could also be followed by tumor relapses. In this case, angiogenesis is driven by alternate pathways that include other angiogenic factors. One possible strategy to overcome this therapeutic obstacle is to overexpress antivascular factors such as angiopoietin-2 (Ang2). Here, by using MRI and histological analysis, we studied the vascular events involved in glioma growth impairment induced by Ang2 overexpression. Our results show that an increase in Ang2 expression, during the tumor growth, leads to a significant decrease in tumor growth ( approximately 86%) along with an increase in the survival median ( approximately 70%) but does not modify the tumor vascular area or cerebral blood volume. However, tumor Ang2-derived blood vessels display an abnormal, enlarged morphology. We show that the presence of Ang2 leads to an enhancement of tumor perfusion and a decrease in tumor vessel permeability. Based on our MR image evaluations of hemodynamic tumor vessel changes, we propose that Ang2-derived tumor vessels lead to an inadequate oxygenation of the tumor tissue, leading to impairment in tumor growth.
    Neuro-Oncology 02/2009; 11(5):488-502. DOI:10.1215/15228517-2008-117 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The understanding of mechanisms involved in ischaemic brain tolerance may provide new therapeutical targets for stroke. In vivo genomic studies revealed an up-regulation of adrenomedullin expression by hypoxic pre-conditioning. Furthermore, adrenomedullin reduced ischaemia-induced brain damage in rodents. However, whether adrenomedullin is involved in hypoxic pre-conditioning-induced tolerance and whether adrenomedullin protects directly neurons against ischaemia remain unknown. Using a neuronal model of hypoxic pre-conditioning and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), we showed that 0.1% or 0.5% of O2 pre-conditioning reduced the OGD-induced neuronal death, whereas 1% or 2% of O2 pre-treatment did not induce neuroprotection. Adrenomedullin expression increased following the hypoxic period, and following OGD only in pre-conditioned (0.1% or 0.5% of O2) neurons. Adrenomedullin pre-treatment and post-treatment reduced the OGD-induced neuronal death, partly through PI3kinase-dependent pathway. However, adrenomedullin antagonism during hypoxic pre-conditioning failed to inhibit the neuroprotection whereas adrenomedullin antagonism following OGD abolished the hypoxic pre-conditioning-induced neuroprotection. Finally, we showed that adrenomedullin is involved in neuroprotection induced by endothelial cells and microglia. In contrast, neuroprotection induced by astrocytes occurred through adrenomedullin-independent mechanisms. Altogether, our results suggest that adrenomedullin is an effector of the hypoxic pre-conditioning-induced neuronal tolerance and a potent autocrine and paracrine neuroprotective factor during cerebral ischaemia.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2008; 106(3):1388-403. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05494.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 07/2008; 6(9):73-74. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(08)71458-7 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study has shown that murine monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) can be labeled simply and efficiently with large, green-fluorescent, micrometer-sized particles of iron-oxide (MPIO). Neither size nor proliferation rate of the Mo/Ma is significantly affected by this labeling. The labeled Mo/Ma have been administered intravenously to rats that had developed a glioma following stereotactic injection of C6 cells. The labeled Mo/Ma were shown to target the brain tumors, a process that could be monitored non-invasively using T2*-weighted MRI. MRI observations were confirmed by Prussian blue staining, lectin staining and fluorescence histology. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the use of Mo/Ma may be envisaged in the clinic for vectorizing therapeutic agents toward gliomas.
    NeuroImage 05/2008; 40(2):973-83. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.004 · 6.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
217.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Université de Caen Basse-Normandie
      • Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale (GMPc)
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2000–2012
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2009
    • Cyceron
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2003
    • University Hospital Estaing of Clermont-Ferrand
      Clermont, Auvergne, France
  • 1995
    • Royal College of Surgeons of England
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom