Chris Van Beneden

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (40)219.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Liposuction is one of the most common cosmetic surgery procedures in the United States. Tumescent liposuction, in which crystalloid fluids, lidocaine, and epinephrine are infused subcutaneously before cannula-assisted aspiration of fat, can be performed without intravenous or general anesthesia, often at outpatient facilities. However, some of these facilities are not subject to state or federal regulation and may not adhere to appropriate infection control practices. OBJECTIVE To describe an outbreak of severe group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections among persons undergoing tumescent liposuction at 2 outpatient cosmetic surgery facilities not subject to state or federal regulation. DESIGN Outbreak investigation (including cohort analysis of at-risk patients), interviews using a standardized questionnaire, medical record review, facility assessment, and laboratory analysis of GAS isolates. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Patients undergoing liposuction at 2 outpatient facilities, one in Maryland and the other in Pennsylvania, between July 1 and September 14, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Confirmed invasive GAS infections (isolation of GAS from a normally sterile site or wound of a patient with necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome), suspected GAS infections (inflamed surgical site and either purulent discharge or fever and chills in a patient with no alternative diagnosis), postsurgical symptoms and patient-reported experiences related to his or her procedure, and emm types, T-antigen types, and antimicrobial susceptibility of GAS isolates. RESULTS We identified 4 confirmed cases and 9 suspected cases, including 1 death (overall attack rate, 20% [13 of 66]). One instance of likely secondary GAS transmission to a household member occurred. All confirmed case patients had necrotizing fasciitis and had undergone surgical debridement. Procedures linked to illness were performed by a single surgical team that traveled between the 2 locations; 2 team members (1 of whom reported recent cellulitis) were colonized with a GAS strain that was indistinguishable by laboratory analysis of the isolates from the case patients. Facility assessments and patient reports indicated substandard infection control, including errors in equipment sterilization and infection prevention training. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This outbreak of severe GAS infections was likely caused by transmission from colonized health care workers to patients during liposuction procedures. Additional oversight of outpatient cosmetic surgery facilities is needed to assure that they maintain appropriate infection control practices and other patient protections.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 05/2014; · 10.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sequenced the genomes of 3,615 strains of serotype Emm protein 1 (M1) group A Streptococcus to unravel the nature and timing of molecular events contributing to the emergence, dissemination, and genetic diversification of an unusually virulent clone that now causes epidemic human infections worldwide. We discovered that the contemporary epidemic clone emerged in stepwise fashion from a precursor cell that first contained the phage encoding an extracellular DNase virulence factor (streptococcal DNase D2, SdaD2) and subsequently acquired the phage encoding the SpeA1 variant of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A superantigen. The SpeA2 toxin variant evolved from SpeA1 by a single-nucleotide change in the M1 progenitor strain before acquisition by horizontal gene transfer of a large chromosomal region encoding secreted toxins NAD(+)-glycohydrolase and streptolysin O. Acquisition of this 36-kb region in the early 1980s into just one cell containing the phage-encoded sdaD2 and speA2 genes was the final major molecular event preceding the emergence and rapid intercontinental spread of the contemporary epidemic clone. Thus, we resolve a decades-old controversy about the type and sequence of genomic alterations that produced this explosive epidemic. Analysis of comprehensive, population-based contemporary invasive strains from seven countries identified strong patterns of temporal population structure. Compared with a preepidemic reference strain, the contemporary clone is significantly more virulent in nonhuman primate models of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis. A key finding is that the molecular evolutionary events transpiring in just one bacterial cell ultimately have produced millions of human infections worldwide.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an important bacterial cause of life-threatening illness among the elderly. Public health officials investigated a protracted GAS outbreak in skilled nursing facility in Georgia housing patients requiring 24-hour nursing or rehabilitation, to prevent additional cases. Methods. We defined a case as illness in a SNFA resident with onset after January 2009 with GAS isolated from a usually sterile (invasive) or non-sterile site (noninvasive). Cases were "recurrent" if >1 month elapsed between episodes. We evaluated infection control practices, performed a GAS carriage study, emm-typed available GAS isolates, and conducted a case-control study of risk factors for infection. Results. Three investigations, spanning 36 months, identified 19 residents with a total of 24 GAS infections; 15 invasive (3 recurrent) and 9 noninvasive (2 recurrent) episodes. All invasive cases required hospitalization; 4 died. Seven residents were GAS carriers. All invasive cases and resident carrier isolates were type emm 11.0. We observed hand hygiene lapses, inadequate infection documentation and more frequent wound care staff turnover on Wing A versus B. Risk factors associated with infection in multivariable analysis included living on Wing A (OR 3.4, 95% CI 0.9-16.4) and having an indwelling line (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.2- 36.4). Cases ceased following facility-wide chemoprophylaxis in July 2012. Conclusion. Staff turnover, compromised skin integrity in residents, a sub-optimal infection control program, and lack of awareness of infections likely contributed to continued GAS transmission. In large, prolonged GAS outbreaks in SNFs, facility-wide chemoprophylaxis may be necessary to prevent sustained person-to-person transmission.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2013; · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region countries and assist in introduction of new bacterial vaccines. A laboratory-based sentinel surveillance was established in 2004, and up to 10 countries joined the network until 2010. Personnel at participating hospitals and national public health laboratories received training in surveillance and laboratory methods and used standard clinical and laboratory-confirmed case definitions. Over 22 000 suspected cases of meningitis were reported among children ≤5 years old and >6600 among children >5 years old. In children ≤5 years old, 921 of 13 125 probable cases (7.0%) were culture-confirmed. The most commonly isolated pathogens were S pneumoniae (27% of confirmed cases), N meningitidis (22%), and H influenzae (10%). Among culture-confirmed case-patients with known outcome, case-fatality rate was 7.0% and 12.2% among children ≤5 years old and those >5 years old, respectively. Declining numbers of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis cases within 2 years post-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction were observed in Pakistan. Bacterial meningitis continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Surveillance networks for bacterial meningitis ensure that all sites are using standardized methodologies. Surveillance data are useful to monitor impact of various interventions including vaccines, but maintaining data quality requires consistent reporting and regular technical support.
    The Journal of pediatrics 07/2013; 163(1 Suppl):S25-31. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Chlamydia pneumoniae illness is poorly characterized, particularly as a sole causative pathogen. We investigated a C. pneumoniae outbreak at a federal correctional facility. Methods. We identified inmates with acute respiratory illness (ARI) from November 1, 2009 - February 24, 2010 through clinic self-referral and active case-finding. We tested oropharyngeal and/or nasopharyngeal swabs for C. pneumoniae by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and sera by microimmunofluorescence. Cases were inmates with ARI and radiologically-confirmed pneumonia, positive qPCR, or serological evidence of recent infection. Swabs from 7 acutely ill inmates were tested for 18 respiratory pathogens using qPCR TaqMan array cards (TAC). Follow-up swabs from case-patients were collected for up to 8 weeks. Results. Among 33 self-referred and 226 randomly selected inmates, 52 (20.1%) met case definition; 4 were confirmed by radiologically-confirmed pneumonia only, 9 by qPCR only, 17 by serology only, and 22 by both qPCR and serology. The prison attack rate was 10.4% (95% CI: 7.0, 13.8%). White inmates and residents of housing unit Y were at highest risk. TAC testing detected C. pneumoniae in 4 (57%) inmates; no other causative pathogens were identified. Among 40 inmates followed prospectively, C. pneumoniae was detected for up to 8 weeks. Thirteen (52%) of 25 inmates treated with azithromycin continued to be qPCR positive >2 weeks after treatment. Conclusions. C. pneumoniae was the causative pathogen of this outbreak. Higher risk among certain groups suggests social interaction contributed to transmission. Persistence of C. pneumoniae in the oropharynx creates challenges for outbreak control measures.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2013; · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The guideline is intended for use by healthcare providers who care for adult and pediatric patients with group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The guideline updates the 2002 Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline and discusses diagnosis and management, and recommendations are provided regarding antibiotic choices and dosing. Penicillin or amoxicillin remain the treatments of choice, and recommendations are made for the penicillin-allergic patient, which now include clindamycin.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 55(10):1279-82. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The guideline is intended for use by healthcare providers who care for adult and pediatric patients with group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The guideline updates the 2002 Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline and discusses diagnosis and management, and recommendations are provided regarding antibiotic choices and dosing. Penicillin or amoxicillin remain the treatments of choice, and recommendations are made for the penicillin-allergic patient, which now include clindamycin.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 55(10):e86-e102. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surveillance is essential to estimating the global burden of pneumonia, yet differences in surveillance methodology and health care-seeking behaviors limit inter-country comparisons. Results were compared from community surveys measuring health care-seeking for pneumonia defined as: (1) cough and difficulty breathing for ⩾2days; or, (2) provider-diagnosed pneumonia. Surveys were conducted in six sites in Guatemala, Kenya and Thailand; these sites also conduct, active, hospital- and population-based disease surveillance for pneumonia. Frequency of self-reported pneumonia during the preceding year ranged from 1.1% (Thailand) to 6.3% (Guatemala) and was highest in children aged <5years and in urban sites. The proportion of persons with pneumonia who sought hospital-based medical services ranged from 12% (Guatemala, Kenya) to 80% (Thailand) and was highest in children <5years of age. Hospitals and private provider offices were the most common places where persons with pneumonia sought health care. The most commonly cited reasons for not seeking health care were: (a) mild illness; (b) already recovering; and (3) cost of treatment. Health care-seeking patterns varied widely across countries. Using results from standardized health care utilization surveys to adjust facility-based surveillance estimates of pneumonia allows for more accurate and comparable estimates.
    Journal of epidemiology and global health. 06/2012; 2(2):73-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic analysis of type emm59 group A Streptococcus invasive strains isolated in the United States discovered higher than anticipated genetic heterogeneity among strains and identified a heretofore unrecognized monoclonal cluster of invasive infections in the San Francisco Bay area. Heightened monitoring for a potential shift in the epidemic behavior of emm59 group A Streptococcus is warranted.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 18(4):650-2. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate an outbreak of bacterial meningitis at an outpatient radiology clinic (clinic A) and to determine the source and implement measures to prevent additional infections. A case was defined as bacterial meningitis in a patient undergoing myelography at clinic A from October 11 to 25, 2010. Patients who underwent myelography and other procedures at clinic A during that period were interviewed, medical records were reviewed, and infection prevention practices were assessed. Case-patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens, oral specimens from health care personnel (HCP), and opened iohexol vials were tested for bacteria. Bacterial isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A culture-negative CSF specimen was tested using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Three cases were identified among 35 clinic A patients who underwent procedures from October 11 to 25, 2010. All case-patients required hospitalization, 2 in an intensive care unit. Case-patients had myelography performed by the same radiology physician assistant and technician on October 25; all patients who underwent myelography on October 25 were affected. HCP did not wear facemasks and reused single-dose iohexol vials for multiple patients. Streptococcus salivarius (a bacteria commonly found in oral flora) was detected in the CSF of 2 case-patients (1 by culture, 1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction) and in HCP oral specimens; 1 opened iohexol vial contained Staphylococcus epidermidis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles from the case-patient S salivarius and the radiology physician assistant were indistinguishable. Bacterial meningitis likely occurred because HCP performing myelography did not wear facemasks; lapses in injection practices may have contributed to transmission. Targeted education regarding mask use and safe injection practices is needed among radiology HCP.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 03/2012; 9(3):185-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-genome sequencing of serotype M3 group A streptococci (GAS) from oropharyngeal and invasive infections in Ontario recently showed that the gene encoding regulator of protease B (RopB) is highly polymorphic in this population. To test the hypothesis that ropB is under diversifying selective pressure among all serotype M3 GAS strains, we sequenced this gene in 1178 strains collected from different infection types, geographic regions, and time periods. The results confirmed our hypothesis and discovered a significant association between mutant ropB alleles, decreased activity of its major regulatory target SpeB, and pharyngitis. Additionally, isoallelic strains with ropB polymorphisms were significantly less virulent in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. These studies provide a model strategy for applying whole-genome sequencing followed by deep single-gene sequencing to generate new insight to the rapid evolution and virulence regulation of human pathogens.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2012; 205(11):1719-29. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of streptococcal infection in pregnant and postpartum women is poorly described in recent literature. We used data from multistate surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A Streptococcus (GAS), and group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections to estimate disease incidence and severity in these populations. Cases were reported through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Active Bacterial Core surveillance, an active population- and laboratory-based system. A case was defined as illness in a woman aged 15-44 years with streptococcus isolated from a normally sterile body site during 2007-2009. Pregnant or postpartum status was recorded at the time of culture. Incidence was calculated as cases per 1000 woman-years with use of national Census data; 95% confidence intervals were calculated on the basis of λ distribution. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore associations between pregnant or postpartum status and hospital length of stay, a marker of disease severity. We identified 1848 cases in women; 6.0% of women were pregnant, and 7.5% were postpartum. Pregnant women had a higher mean incidence of GBS disease, compared with nonpregnant women (0.04 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.03-0.05 cases per 1000 woman-years] vs 0.02 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.02-0.02 cases per 1000 woman-years]). Postpartum women had elevated mean incidence of all 3 pathogens, compared with nonpregnant women (S. pneumoniae: 0.15 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.09-0.25 cases per 1000 woman-years] vs 0.052 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.049-0.056 cases per 1000 woman-years]; GAS: 0.56 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.42-0.70 cases per 1000 woman-years] vs 0.019 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.017-0.021 cases per 1000 woman-years]; GBS: 0.49 cases per 1000 woman-years [range, 0.36-0.64 cases per 1000 woman-years] vs 0.018 [range, 0.016-0.020 cases per 1000 woman-years]). Neither pregnancy nor postpartum status was associated with longer length of stay among women infected with any of the 3 pathogens. Although invasive streptococcal infections do not appear to be more severe in pregnant or postpartum women, postpartum women have a 20-fold increased incidence of GAS and GBS, compared with nonpregnant women.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 53(2):114-23. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In January 2008, a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) in New Mexico reported a cluster of severe group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections. We defined a case as illness in a patient in the LTACH from 1 October 2007 through 3 February 2008 from whom GAS was isolated from a usually sterile site or with illness consistent with GAS infection and GAS isolated from a nonsterile site. To identify carriers, we swabbed the oropharynx and skin lesions of patients and staff. We observed facility procedures to assess possible transmission routes and adherence to infection control practices. We also conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for infection with use of asymptomatic patients who were noncarriers as control subjects. We identified 11 case patients and 11 carriers (8 patients and 3 staff). No carriers became case patients. Significant risk factors for infection in univariate analysis included sharing a room with an infected or colonized patient (6 [55%] of 11 case patients vs 3 [8%] of 39 control subjects), undergoing wound debridement (64% vs 13%), and receiving negative pressure wound therapy (73% vs 33%). Having an infected or colonized roommate remained associated with case patients in multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 15.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-110.9). Suboptimal infection control practices were widespread. This large outbreak of GAS infection was the first reported in an LTACH, a setting that contains a highly susceptible patient population. Widespread infection control lapses likely allowed continued transmission. Similar to the situation in other care settings, appropriate infection control and case cohorting may help prevent and control outbreaks of GAS infection in LTACHs.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/2011; 52(8):988-94. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A group A streptococcal (GAS) vaccine, while not currently available, offers the possibility of a more effective approach; however, barriers to its implementation are likely to exist. The objectives of this study were to describe the attitudes of physicians about the importance of preventing GAS-associated conditions and to identify potential barriers to vaccine implementation. Surveys were sent to randomly selected physicians from the AAP and the AAFP. The GAS conditions believed by respondents to be most important to prevent among pediatric patients were ARF (31%) followed by STSS (24%) and pharyngitis (20%). Pediatricians and family physicians identified similar factors that would encourage routine use of a GAS vaccine. Less than half of pediatricians and only a third of family physicians would recommend a GAS vaccine if it could not be given concurrently with other immunizations or if there were strong parental resistance to the vaccine. This descriptive study provides important information about the anticipated use of a GAS vaccine by primary care physicians in the United States.
    Vaccine 10/2010; 28(44):7155-60. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (GCSE and GGSE) cause a substantial percentage of invasive disease caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci. To determine whether Streptococcus pyogenes superantigen (SAg) genes commonly exist within these organisms, 20 recent invasive GCSE and GGSE human isolates and one group G Streptococcus canis human isolate were tested for the presence of SAg genes speH, speJ, speL, speM, ssa and smeZ by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Prior to this work, sequence-based evidence of the speM, ssa, and smeZ genes in GCSE, GGSE, and S. canis had not been documented. Eleven of the 21 isolates were PCR-positive for the presence of one to two of the SAgs speM, ssa, or smeZ, with four of these isolates carrying ssa+speM or ssa+smeZ. No isolate was positive for speH, speJ and speL. All six ssa-positive GGSE strains harbored the ssa3 allele, previously only found among S. pyogenes strains. All three smeZ-positive GGSE isolates carried one of two smeZ alleles previously only found within S. pyogenes, however the single S. canis isolate carried a new smeZ allele. All five GCSE and GGSE speM-positive isolates harbored a newly discovered speM allele. The identification of these SAgs within S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis with identical or near-identical sequences to their counterparts in S. pyogenes suggests frequent interspecies gene exchange between the three beta-hemolytic streptococcal species.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 07/2010; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is highly efficacious, pneumococcal infections in vaccinated children raise concerns about immunologic disorders. We characterized a case series of US children in whom invasive pneumococcal infections developed despite vaccination. We reviewed invasive (sterile site) pneumococcal infections in children aged <5 years who had received > or =1 PCV7 dose as identified from October 2001 to February 2004 through national passive surveillance and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Active Bacterial Core surveillance. Vaccine serotype infections were considered breakthrough cases; the subset of breakthrough cases occurring in children who completed an age-appropriate vaccination series were considered PCV7 failures. We identified 753 invasive infections; 155 infections (21%) were breakthrough cases, predominantly caused by serotypes 6B (n = 50, 32%) and 19F (n = 45, 29%). The proportion of breakthrough cases decreased with the increasing number of PCV7 doses received (P < .001, Chi(2) for linear trend). Children with co-morbid conditions accounted for 31% of breakthrough infections. Twenty-seven cases (4%) were classified as vaccine failures. Most failures (71%) occurred in children who were vaccinated according to catch-up schedules; 37% had co-morbid conditions. Invasive pneumococcal infections identified in vaccinated U.S. children were primarily caused by disease resulting from serotypes not covered with PCV7, rather than failure of the vaccine. Incomplete vaccination and co-morbid conditions likely contribute to breakthrough vaccine-type pneumococcal infections.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2009; 156(3):478-483.e2. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is extremely prevalent in The Gambia. We studied the effects of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the carriage of individual serotypes and on antimicrobial resistance in vaccinated children and their younger siblings. A longitudinal study of a subsample of children (n=2342) who participated in a randomized, placebo controlled trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-9) in The Gambia, and a cross-sectional study of non-PCV-9-vaccinated younger siblings (n=675). Recipients of PCV-9 were less likely to carry vaccine serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F but more likely to carry vaccine-associated 19A and 9 nonvaccine serotypes at approximately 6 months postvaccination (age, 12 months) than were controls (each P<0.05). At approximately 16 months postvaccination, carriage of vaccine-associated-serotype 6A was also significantly reduced (P<0.01) while 3 other nonvaccine serotypes were more prevalent in the PCV-9 recipients (each P<0.05). At 16 months, but not 6 months, postvaccination PCV-9 recipients had lower rate of carrying isolates resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) than controls (risk ratio: 0.90 and 0.95, respectively; each P<0.05). There was no difference in patterns of carriage of pneumococci in younger siblings of PCV-9 or placebo recipients. The effects of 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on carriage of pneumococci persisted for at least 16 months postvaccination in Gambian children. Vaccination had no indirect effect on carriage in younger siblings and there was limited impact on antibiotic resistance.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2009; 28(11):990-5. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci cause a considerable invasive disease burden and sometimes cause disease outbreaks. Little is known about the critical epidemiologic parameter of genetic relatedness between isolates. We determined the emm types of 334 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, and attempted emm typing of 5 Streptococcus canis isolates from a recent population-based surveillance for invasive isolates. Thirty-four emm types were observed, including one from S. canis. We formulated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) primers with six of the seven loci corresponding to the Streptococcus pyogenes MLST scheme. We performed MLST with 65 of the 334 surveillance isolates (61 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, 4 S. canis isolates) to represent each emm type identified, including 2 to 3 isolates for each of the 25 redundantly represented emm types. Forty-one MLST sequence types (STs) were observed. Isolates within 16 redundantly represented S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types shared identical or nearly identical STs, demonstrating concordance between the emm type and genetic relatedness. However, seven STs were each represented by two to four different emm types, and 7 of the 10 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis eBURST groups represented up to six different emm types. Thus, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates were similar to S. pyogenes isolates, in that strains of the same emm type were often highly related, but they differed from S. pyogenes, in that S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains with identical or closely similar STs often exhibited multiple unrelated emm types. The phylogenetic relationships between S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pyogenes alleles revealed a history of interspecies recombination, with either species often serving as genetic donors. The four S. canis isolates shared highly homologous alleles but were unrelated clones without evidence of past recombination with S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis or S. pyogenes.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 05/2009; 47(7):2046-54. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B (NABS) are increasingly recognized as causes of clinically significant disease, but precise information about this heterogeneous group is lacking. We report the incidence of NABS infection and describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. Active, population-based surveillance for invasive NABS was performed over a 2-year period in the 8-county metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area and the 3-county San Francisco Bay, California, area. Clinical records were reviewed, and available isolates were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta) for additional microbiologic characterization. Incidences were calculated using year-appropriate US Census Bureau data. A total of 489 cases of invasive NABS infection were identified (3.2 cases per 100,000 population). The median age of patients was 55 years; 64% of patients were males, and 87% had underlying diseases. The incidence was higher among black persons than white persons (4.0 vs. 2.5 cases per 100,000 population; P < .01) and increased with age among all races. Infections were community acquired in 416 cases (85%). Among the 450 patients (94%) with NABS infection who were hospitalized, 55 (12%) died. Of 266 isolates (54%) speciated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 212 (80%) were Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis; 46 (17%) were members of the Streptococcus anginosus group. S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis primarily presented as skin and soft-tissue infection in older patients, whereas individuals with invasive S. anginosus group infections were more likely to be younger patients with intra-abdominal infections. NABS comprise multiple distinct species that cause a significant number of community-acquired invasive infections. Clinical manifestations differ by species. Thus, speciation of invasive NABS may be warranted in clinical settings.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 03/2009; 48(6):706-12. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An elderly man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia developed respiratory distress and died less than 48 hours after transfusion of a pool of eight whole blood-derived platelets (PLTs). Blood cultures from the recipient and cultures of remnants from the pooled PLT bag grew group C streptococci (GCS). An investigation was conducted to identify both the infection's source and the reasons for the false-negative screening result. Red blood cell (RBC) units (cocomponent from the eight donations) were traced, quarantined, and cultured. Specimens from the implicated donor were obtained. Isolates were identified and typed by 16S rRNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The blood center screening method was reviewed. beta-Hemolytic GCS, cultured from 1 of 8 RBC units, linked the fatal case to a single donor. The donor's throat swab collected 20 days after donation was positive for the presence of GCS, identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Isolates from the recipient, RBC unit, residual PLTs, and donor's throat swab were indistinguishable by PFGE. The donor denied any symptoms of infection before or after donation. PLT bacterial screening at the blood center was performed using a commercially available bacterial detection system (BacT/ALERT, bioMérieux) with a threshold of 15 colony-forming units per bag. An asymptomatic donor was implicated as the source of GCS-contaminated PLTs. Current screening methods for PLTs are not sufficient to detect all bacterial contamination. Pooled PLTs are a particular challenge because the small volume of individual units places limits on culturing strategies. Improved detection of bacterial contamination of PLTs is needed.
    Transfusion 07/2008; 48(10):2177-83. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

612 Citations
219.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
      • • Division of Bacterial Diseases
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Houston Methodist Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2005
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States