Sumit R Majumdar

Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (320)1946.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To study the impact of a 2009 policy change in British Columbia (BC) that allowed pharmacists to independently renew certain prescriptions for chronic conditions. Population-based analysis. BC, Canada. All residents of BC (more than 3.9 million). Prescription drug use data were collected from the PharmaNet database. This database contains a record of all ambulatory prescription drug dispensations in BC including a variable indicating whether a pharmacist renewed the prescription. We studied pharmaceutical and physician insurance claims datasets for all BC residents for 2 years following the 2009 policy change. We assessed the number and types of drugs renewed by pharmacists, and whether these complied with the policy. Further, we matched pharmacist-renewed prescriptions to equivalent potentially renewable prescriptions and assessed the impact on ambulatory physician visits. Over the first 2 years, pharmacists renewed 150,950 prescriptions in BC. Almost one-half of these renewals did not appear to match the conditions set out in the new regulatory policy (n = 69,970, 47%). Those that did match the conditions (n = 80,980, 53%) represented a very small proportion of the 47 million prescriptions that pharmacists could have renewed (0.17%). The most frequently renewed medications were treatments for dyslipidemias, hypertension, diabetes, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pharmacist-renewed prescriptions were preceded by a 30% relative decrease in ambulatory physician visits in the week before dispensing, but there was also a 17% relative increase in visits in the week following the pharmacist-renewed prescription. Overall, the use of pharmacist renewals was very low and one-half of the renewals were not policy-concordant. Pharmacist renewals were associated with the intended reductions in physician visits before dispensing, but there was also an unintended increase in visits after dispensing. These findings suggest that future policies such as this one need to be differently designed and closely monitored.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 06/2015; DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2015.14262
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    ABSTRACT: Information on the long-term prognosis after community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is limited. To determine if CAP increases adverse long-term outcomes relative to a control population. Between 2000-2002, 6078 adults with CAP from 6 hospitals and 7 Emergency Departments in Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) were prospectively recruited and matched on age, sex, and site of treatment with 5 non-pneumonia controls (n=29,402). Mortality, hospitalizations and Emergency Department admissions through to 2012 were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for socioeconomic status and comorbidities. Average age was 59 years [2 682 (44%) 65 years], 3214 (53%) were male, and 3425 (56%) were managed as outpatients. Over a median of 9.8 years, 2858 CAP patients died compared with 9399 controls (absolute risk difference 30 per 1000 patient years (py); adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.65, 95%CI 1.57 to 1.73, p<0.001). CAP patients <25 years old had the lowest absolute rate difference for mortality (4 per 1000 patient years (py); aHR 2.40) while patients >80 years had the highest absolute rate difference (92 per 1000 py; aHR 1.42). Absolute rates of all-cause hospitalization, Emergency Department visits, and CAP related visits, were all significantly higher in CAP patients compared to controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Our results indicate that an episode of CAP confers a high risk of long-term adverse events compared to the general population who have not experienced CAP and this is irrespective of age.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1164/rccm.201501-0140OC · 11.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Readmissions after hospital discharge are common and costly, but prediction models are poor at identifying patients at high risk of readmission. We evaluated the impact of frailty on readmission or death within 30 days after discharge from general internal medicine wards. We prospectively enrolled patients discharged from 7 medical wards at 2 teaching hospitals in Edmonton. Frailty was defined by means of the previously validated Clinical Frailty Scale. The primary outcome was the composite of readmission or death within 30 days after discharge. Of the 495 patients included in the study, 162 (33%) met the definition of frailty: 91 (18%) had mild, 60 (12%) had moderate, and 11 (2%) had severe frailty. Frail patients were older, had more comorbidities, lower quality of life, and higher LACE scores at discharge than those who were not frail. The composite of 30-day readmission or death was higher among frail than among nonfrail patients (39 [24.1%] v. 46 [13.8%]). Although frailty added additional prognostic information to predictive models that included age, sex and LACE score, only moderate to severe frailty (31.0% event rate) was an independent risk factor for readmission or death (adjusted odds ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.24). Frailty was common and associated with a substantially increased risk of early readmission or death after discharge from medical wards. The Clinical Frailty Scale could be useful in identifying high-risk patients being discharged from general internal medicine wards. © 8872147 Canada Inc.
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1503/cmaj.150100 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify which activities produced a significant improvement in blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes when pharmacists were added to primary care teams. This prespecified, secondary analysis evaluated medication management data from a randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was a change in treatment, defined as addition, dosage increase, or switching of an antihypertensive medication during the 1-year study period. The secondary outcome was a change in antihypertensive medication adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR). The 200 evaluable trial patients had a mean age of 59 (SD, 11) years, 44% were men, and mean blood pressure was 130 (SD, 16)/74 (SD, 10) mm Hg at baseline. Treatment changes occurred in 45 (42%) of 107 patients in the intervention group and 24 (26%) of 93 patients in the control group (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.08-2.46). Addition of a new medication was the most common type of change, occurring in 34 (32%) patients in the intervention group and 17 (18%) patients in the control group (P = 0.029). Adherence to antihypertensive medication was high at baseline (MPR, 93%). Although medication adherence improved in the intervention group (MPR, 97%) and declined in the control group (MPR, 91%), the difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.21). The observed improvement in blood pressure control when pharmacists were added to primary care teams was likely achieved through antihypertensive treatment changes and not through improvements in antihypertensive medication adherence.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2015; 55(3):e301-e304. DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2015.14225
  • Canadian Journal of Diabetes 04/2015; 39:S30. DOI:10.1016/j.jcjd.2015.01.121 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inadequate health literacy has been associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes in individuals with diabetes or depression. This study was conducted to examine the associations between inadequate health literacy and behavioral and cardiometabolic parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to explore whether these associations are affected by concurrent depression. The authors used cross-sectional data from a study of 343 predominantly African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Inadequate health literacy was significantly and modestly associated with diabetes knowledge (r = -0.34) but weakly associated with self-efficacy (r = 0.16) and depressive symptoms (r = 0.24). In multivariate regression models, there were no associations between health literacy and A1c, blood pressure, or body mass index or control of any of these parameters. There was no evidence that depression was an effect-modifier of the associations between health literacy and outcomes. Although inadequate health literacy was modestly associated with worse knowledge and weakly associated with self-efficacy, it was not associated with any of the cardiometabolic parameters the authors studied. Because this study showed no association between health literacy and behavioral and cardiometabolic outcomes, it is unseemly and premature to embark on trials or controlled interventions to improve health literacy for the purposes of improving patient-related outcomes in diabetes.
    Journal of Health Communication 03/2015; 20(5):1-8. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2015.1012235 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Fatima Al Sayah, Sumit R Majumdar, Jeffrey A Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship of inadequate health literacy (HL) with changes in depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life and cardiometabolic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus recently screened positive for depression. Secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (N=154) that compared a collaborative team care model and enhanced usual care for primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes and depression. The exposure of interest was inadequate HL, defined as a total summative score of 9 or more on the 3 brief screening questions. Outcomes of interest were differences in the changes in depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at 12 months, health-related quality of life (short-form health survey 12 [SF-12]) and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D), glycemic control (A1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. The average age of patients was 58 years; 56% were women and were predominantly white. Only a small proportion (n=24; 16%) had inadequate HL. In adjusted random effects models, there were no statistically significant or clinically important differences in all outcomes between the HL groups. The between-group differences in change over 1 year were -0.55 points for PHQ-9; 0.76 points for physical and 0.56 points for mental summaries of the SF-12; 0.03 points for EQ-5D; -0.17 for A1C; -0.08 mmol/L for low-density lipoprotein; and -1.94 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure. Among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes who had been screened recently as being positive for depression, it is unlikely that HL impacts health outcomes over 1 year. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jcjd.2014.11.005
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) in severely obese patients and its associations with weight loss and health status over 2 years. In a prospective cohort including 500 severely obese adults, self-reported prevalence of 20 chronic conditions was calculated at baseline and 2 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to test the covariate-adjusted associations between ≥5% weight reduction and reduction in multimorbidity and the association between health status (visual analogue scale [VAS]) and reduction in multimorbidity over 2 years. After 2 years, mean weight change was -12.9 ±18.7 kg, 53% had ≥5% weight reduction, mean change in VAS was 11.5 ± 21.2, and 53.5% had ≥10% increase in VAS. Multimorbidity was reported in 95.4% and 92.8% patients at baseline and 2 years, respectively. Weight loss (≥5%) over 2 years was associated with reduction in multimorbidity (adjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7). Reduction in multimorbidity was associated with clinically important improvements (≥10% increase in VAS) in health status (adjusted OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.6, 4.0). Multimorbidity is common in severely obese patients. Having ≥5% weight reduction over 2 years was associated with a reduction in multimorbidity, which was also associated with improvements in health status. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
    Obesity 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/oby.21008 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hospitals reduce staffing levels and services on weekends. This raises the question of whether weekend discharges may be inadequately prepared and thus at higher risk for adverse events postdischarge. To compare death or nonelective readmission rates 30 days after weekend versus weekday discharge. Retrospective cohort. All teaching hospitals in Alberta, Canada. General internal medicine (GIM) discharges (only 1 per patient). Analyses were adjusted for demographics, comorbidity, and length of stay based on a previously validated index. Of 7991 patients (mean age, 62.1 years; 51.9% male; mean Charlson 2.56; 57.5% LACE ≥10) discharged from 7 teaching hospitals, 1146 (14.3%) were discharged on a weekend. Although they had substantially shorter lengths of stay (5.64 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.35-5.93 vs 7.86 days, 95% CI: 7.71-8.00, adjusted P value < 0.0001) and were less likely to be discharged with homecare support (10.9% vs 19.3%) or to long-term care facilities (3.1% vs 7.8%), patients discharged on weekends exhibited similar rates of death or readmission at 30 days compared to those discharged on weekdays (10.6% vs 13.2%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.77-1.16), even among the 4591 patients deemed to be at high risk for postdischarge events based on LACE (length of hospital stay, acuity of admission, comorbidity burden quantified using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and emergency department visits in the 6 months prior to admission) score ≥10 (16.8% vs 16.5% for weekday discharges, aOR: 1.09 [95% CI: 0.85-1.41]). GIM patients discharged from teaching hospitals on weekends have shorter lengths of stay and exhibit similar postdischarge outcomes as patients discharged on weekdays. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 02/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1002/jhm.2310 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome characterized by loss of physiologic reserve that gives rise to vulnerability to poor outcomes. We aimed to examine the association between frailty and long-term health-related quality-of-life among survivors of critical illness. Prospective multicenter observational cohort study. ICUs in six hospitals from across Alberta, Canada. Four hundred twenty-one critically ill patients who were 50 years or older. None. Frailty was operationalized by a score of more than 4 on the Clinical Frailty Scale. Health-related quality-of-life was measured by the EuroQol Health Questionnaire and Short-Form 12 Physical and Mental Component Scores at 6 and 12 months. Multiple logistic and linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to explore the association between frailty and health-related quality-of-life. In total, frailty was diagnosed in 33% (95% CI, 28-38). Frail patients were older, had more comorbidities, and higher illness severity. EuroQol-visual analogue scale scores were lower for frail compared with not frail patients at 6 months (52.2 ± 22.5 vs 64.6 ± 19.4; p < 0.001) and 12 months (54.4 ± 23.1 vs 68.0 ± 17.8; p < 0.001). Frail patients reported greater problems with mobility (71% vs 45%; odds ratio, 3.1 [1.6-6.1]; p = 0.001), self-care (49% vs 15%; odds ratio, 5.8 [2.9-11.7]; p < 0.001), usual activities (80% vs 52%; odds ratio, 3.9 [1.8-8.2]; p < 0.001), pain/discomfort (68% vs 47%; odds ratio, 2.0 [1.1-3.8]; p = 0.03), and anxiety/depression (51% vs 27%; odds ratio, 2.8 [1.5-5.3]; p = 0.001) compared with not frail patients. Frail patients described lower health-related quality-of-life on both physical component score (34.7 ± 7.8 vs 37.8 ± 6.7; p = 0.012) and mental component score (33.8 ± 7.0 vs 38.6 ± 7.7; p < 0.001) at 12 months. Frail survivors of critical illness experienced greater impairment in health-related quality-of-life, functional dependence, and disability compared with those not frail. The systematic assessment of frailty may assist in better informing patients and families on the complexities of survivorship and recovery.
    Critical Care Medicine 01/2015; 43(5). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000860 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Intuitively, rapid bone mineral density (BMD) loss should predict fracture risk independently of current BMD, but studies have not confirmed this. We hypothesized that measurement error when characterizing rates of BMD loss might explain this paradox. Objective: To examine the importance of measurement error in predicting BMD loss. Design and Setting: Retrospective registry study using BMD results for Manitoba, Canada. Patients: Untreated women age 50 years and older with three femoral neck BMD tests. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation in annualized rates of BMD change for interval 1 (first to second scan) versus interval 2 (second to third scan) with confirmatory model-based simulations that varied measurement error and testing intervals. Results: Five hundred forty two women with a mean age of 62 years had BMD measurements separated by a mean of 3.5 years for interval 1 and 3.4 years for interval 2. Mean femoral neck BMD loss was stable (-0.5% per year for interval 1, -0.6% per year for interval 2) with a weak negative correlation between intervals (r = -0.11, P = .01). There were no significant correlations for BMD change at the total hip (r = 0.01, P = .74) or total spine (r = -0.01, P = .77). Simulations showed low explained variation for BMD change between intervals 1 and 2 (<20%). To explain 50% of the variation of BMD change between intervals 1 and 2 required a BMD measurement error ≤0.008 g/cm(2) or a BMD testing interval ≥5 years. Conclusions: The low correlation between past and future BMD loss helps explain why the rate of BMD loss is unlikely to be helpful for refining fracture risk.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 01/2015; 100(2):jc20143777. DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-3777 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Adding pharmacists to primary care teams significantly improved blood pressure control and reduced predicted 10–year cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This pre-specified sub-study evaluated the economic implications of this cardiovascular risk reduction strategy.Methods One-year outcomes and healthcare utilization data from the trial were used to determine cost-effectiveness from the public payer perspective. Costs were expressed in 2014 Canadian dollars and effectiveness was based on annualized risk of cardiovascular events derived from the UKPDS Risk Engine.ResultsThe 123 evaluable trial patients included in this analysis had a mean age of 62 (± 11) years, 38% were men, and mean diabetes duration was 6 (± 7) years. Pharmacists provided 3.0 (± 1.9) hours of additional service to each intervention patient, which cost $226 (± $1143) per patient. The overall one-year per-patient costs for healthcare utilization were $190 lower in the intervention group compared with usual care [95% confidence interval (CI): $1040, $668). Intervention patients had a significant 0.3% greater reduction in the annualized risk of a cardiovascular event (95% CI: 0.08%, 0.6%) compared with usual care. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the intervention dominated usual care in 66% of 10 000 bootstrap replications. At a societal willingness-to-pay of $4000 per 1% reduction in annual cardiovascular risk, the probability that the intervention was cost-effective compared with usual care reached 95%. A sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation to replace missing data produced similar results.Conclusions Within a randomized trial, adding pharmacists to primary care teams was a cost-effective strategy for reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In most circumstances, this intervention may also be cost saving.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 01/2015; 32(7). DOI:10.1111/dme.12692 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to measure the effect of non-benefit drug use on observed associations between exposure and outcome, thereby documenting an empirical example of the potential magnitude of biases introduced when exposure status is misclassified from a restrictive drug coverage policy. New users of antidiabetic agents were identified with a 1-year washout period between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2005, in Saskatchewan, Canada, and were followed until December 31, 2008. Within this population-based cohort, persons were classified as users of benefit or non-benefit thiazolidinediones (TZDs) according to their first prescription record between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2006 (non-benefit prescription records were not captured before 2006). An intention-to-treat approach was used to categorize TZD exposure over time. We evaluated the potential bias introduced by drug exposure misclassification by evaluating bootstrapped differences in hazard ratio (HR) estimates of all-cause hospitalization or death between users and nonusers of TZDs obtained from analyses that contained complete drug use (non-benefit and benefit drug use) versus benefit drug use only (non-benefit drug use was misclassified as unexposed). All analyses were replicated within the same cohort of new users of antidiabetic agents for clopidogrel and β-blocker (bisoprolol or carvedilol) users versus nonusers because these agents were also subject to exposure misclassification from non-benefit drug use during the period of the study. Among 27,333 new users of antidiabetic agents, we identified 5759 TZD users (28% non-benefit) and 21,574 nonusers of TZDs. The crude HR for hospitalization or death among TZD users versus nonusers was higher in a database that contained benefit-only prescriptions than in a database that contained all prescriptions (HR = 1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.18] vs HR = 0.99 [95% CI, 0.94-1.04]). However, the differences in HRs after adjustment for demographic characteristics, health care utilization, comorbidities, and medications suggested minimal bias was introduced when TZD exposure was misclassified in the benefit-only database (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.04 [95% CI. 0.98-1.10] vs aHR = 0.99 [95% CI, 0.94-1.04]; bootstrapped aHR difference = +0.05 [95% CI, 0.02-0.08]). Minimal differences in aHRs were also observed within analyses of clopidogrel (1551 users [24% non-benefit]; bootstrapped aHR difference = +0.01 [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.06]) and β-blocker users (351 users [42% non-benefit]; bootstrapped aHR difference = +0.06 [95% CI, -0.09 to 0.20]) versus nonusers. Although patient characteristics and outcomes differed between users of non-benefit and benefit drugs, misclassification of drug exposure did not meaningfully bias estimates of all-cause mortality and hospitalization after covariate adjustment in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Therapeutics 01/2015; 37(3). DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.12.014 · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Stephen B Soumerai, Douglas Starr, Sumit R Majumdar
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2015; 12:E101. DOI:10.5888/pcd12.150187 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • T T Dang, S R Majumdar, T J Marrie, D T Eurich
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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalizations in North America. Rates of CAP increase with age and CAP is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Though there is much written about the epidemiology and risk factors of incident (first episode) pneumonia, much less is known about recurrent pneumonia. Rates of recurrent pneumonia within 3-5-years of an episode of CAP are 9-12 % with a median time to recurrence of 123-317 days and mortality ranging from 4 to 10 %. Age ≥65-years-old and impaired functional status are the only patient characteristics that are independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. In terms of modifiable risk factors, only the use of proton-pump inhibitors and systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently been associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may exert a protective effect. Many chronic medical conditions typically associated with increased incident pneumonia-such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease (resulting in dysphagia or silent aspiration), and heart failure-were not associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. However, those who are immune-suppressed (e.g., immunoglobulin deficiencies) may be at increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. In summary, among those who survive an episode of pneumonia, recurrence is not uncommon, particularly in the elderly. Following recovery from an episode of pneumonia, patients should be evaluated for risk factors that would predispose to a second episode including seeking evidence of immunosuppression in younger patients and medication optimization, particularly in the elderly.
    Drugs & Aging 12/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.1007/s40266-014-0229-6 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survivors of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk for other vascular events. We evaluated the impact of 2 types of case management (hard touch with pharmacist or soft touch with nurse) added to usual care on global vascular risk. This is a prespecified secondary analysis of a 6-month trial conducted in outpatients with recent stroke/TIA who received usual care and were randomized to additional monthly visits with either nurse case managers (who counseled patients, monitored risk factors, and communicated results to primary care physicians) or pharmacist case managers (who were also able to independently prescribe according to treatment algorithms). The Framingham Risk Score [FRS]) and the Cardiovascular Disease Life Expectancy Model (CDLEM) were used to estimate 10-year risk of any vascular event at baseline, 6 months (trial conclusion), and 12 months (6 months after last trial visit). Mean age of the 275 evaluable patients was 67.6 years. Both study arms were well balanced at baseline and exhibited reductions in absolute global vascular risk estimates at 6 months: median 4.8% (Interquartile range (IQR) 0.3%-11.3%) for the pharmacist arm versus 5.1% (IQR 1.9%-12.5%) for the nurse arm on the FRS (P = .44 between arms) and median 10.0% (0.1%-31.6%) versus 12.5% (2.1%-30.5%) on the CDLEM (P = .37). These reductions persisted at 12 months: median 6.4% (1.2%-11.6%) versus 5.5% (2.0%-12.0%) for the FRS (P = .83) and median 8.4% (0.1%-28.3%) versus 13.1% (1.6%-31.6%) on the CDLEM (P = .20). Case management by nonphysician providers is associated with improved global vascular risk in patients with recent stroke/TIA. Reductions achieved during the active phase of the trial persisted after trial conclusion. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Heart Journal 12/2014; 168(6):924-30. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.08.001 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors versus intermediate-acting insulin for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and poor glycaemic control despite treatment with two oral agents. Studies were multicentre and multinational. Ten studies including 2967 patients with T2DM. Studies that examined DPP-4 inhibitors compared with each other, intermediate-acting insulin, no treatment or placebo in patients with T2DM. Primary outcome was glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary outcomes were healthcare utilisation, body weight, fractures, quality of life, microvascular complications, macrovascular complications, all-cause mortality, harms, cost and cost-effectiveness. 10 randomised clinical trials with 2967 patients were included after screening 5831 titles and abstracts, and 180 full-text articles. DPP-4 inhibitors significantly reduced HbA1c versus placebo in network meta-analysis (NMA; mean difference (MD) -0.62%, 95% CI -0.93% to -0.33%) and meta-analysis (MD -0.61%, 95% CI -0.81% to -0.41%), respectively. Significant differences in HbA1c were not observed for neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin versus placebo and DPP-4 inhibitors versus NPH insulin in NMA. In meta-analysis, no significant differences were observed between DPP-4 inhibitors and placebo for severe hypoglycaemia, weight gain, cardiovascular disease, overall harms, treatment-related harms and mortality, although patients receiving DPP-4 inhibitors experienced less infections (relative risk 0.72, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.91). DPP-4 inhibitors were superior to placebo in reducing HbA1c levels in adults with T2DM taking at least two oral agents. Compared with placebo, no safety signals were detected with DPP-4 inhibitors and there was a reduced risk of infection. There was no significant difference in HbA1c observed between NPH and placebo or NPH and DPP-4 inhibitors. PROSPERO # CRD42013003624. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e005752. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005752 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of multimorbidity on patients with community-acquired pneumonia has not been well characterised. Thus, our aim was to explore the relationship between multimorbidity and adverse events within 90 days of discharge. Data were prospectively collected for a population-based cohort of all adults discharged from any of the seven emergency departments (ED) or six hospitals in Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) with community-acquired pneumonia. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to examine the independent association between multimorbidity (defined as two or more chronic conditions) and subsequent 90-day mortality, hospitalisation, or ED visits after treatment of pneumonia. The cohort included 5565 patients, mean age was 57 years (SD 20), 54% were male, and 59% were treated as outpatients; 1602 (29%) patients had multimorbidity. Within 90 days, 255 (5%) patients died, 1205 (22%) were hospitalised, 1280 (23%) died or were hospitalised, and 2049 (37%) were admitted to the ED. The presence of multimorbidity was independently associated with an increased risk of death or hospitalisation within 90 days (37% vs. 17% for those without multimorbidity, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.26 to 1.62) as well as ED visits (45% vs. 34%, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.26 to 1.56). Multimorbidity was present in one-third of all patients with pneumonia in our study, and it was independently associated with death, hospitalisation, or return to ED within 90 days of discharge. Our findings suggest that multimorbidity is strongly related to prognosis and should be considered when making site-of-care decisions in the ED or deciding upon readiness for discharge. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cmi.2014.11.002 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although increasing body weight has been regarded as protective against osteoporosis and fractures, there is accumulating evidence that fat mass adversely affects skeletal health compared with lean mass. We examined skeletal health as a function of estimated total body lean and fat mass in 40,050 women and 3,600 men age ≥50 years at the time of baseline DXA testing from a clinical registry from Manitoba, Canada. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), strength index (SI), cross sectional area (CSA) and cross sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were derived from DXA. Multivariable models showed that increasing lean mass was associated with near-linear increases in femoral BMD, CSA and CSMI in both women and men, while increasing fat mass showed a small initial increase in these measurements followed by a plateau. In contrast, femoral SI was relatively unaffected by increasing lean mass but was associated with a continuous linear decline with increasing fat mass, which should predict higher fracture risk. During mean 5-years follow-up, incident major osteoporosis fractures and hip fractures were observed in 2505 women and 180 men (626 and 45 hip fractures, respectively). After adjustment for FRAX scores (with or without BMD), we found no evidence that lean mass, fat mass or femoral SI affected prediction of major osteoporosis fractures or hip fractures. Findings were similar in men and women, without significant interactions with sex or obesity. In conclusion, skeletal adaptation to increasing lean mass was positively associated with BMD but had no effect on femoral SI, whereas increasing fat mass had no effect on BMD but adversely affected femoral SI. Greater fat mass was not independently associated with a greater risk of fractures over 5-years follow up. FRAX robustly predicts fractures and was not affected by variations in body composition. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11/2014; 29(11). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2280 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of the interactive communication loop has been recommended as an effective method to enhance patient understanding and recall of information. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the application of interactive communication loops, use of jargon, and the impact of health literacy (HL) when nurses provide education and counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes in the primary care setting in Alberta, Canada. Methods: Encounters between nurses and patients with type 2 diabetes were audio recorded, and a patient survey including a HL measure was administered. Topics within each interaction were coded based on five key components of the communication loop and categories of jargon. Results: Nine nurses participated in this study, and encounters with 36 patients were recorded. A complete communication loop was noted in only 11% of the encounters. Clarifying health information was the most commonly applied component (58% often used), followed by repeating health information (33% often used). Checking for understanding was the least applied (81% never used), followed by asking for understanding (42% never used). Medical jargon and mismatched language were often used in 17% and 25% of the encounters, respectively. Patients' HL did not materially affect patterns of communication in terms of using communication loops; however, nurses used less jargon and mismatched words with patients with inadequate HL. Discussion: The overuse of medical jargon accompanied with underuse of communication loop components jeopardizes patients' comprehension and retention of information that they need to know to properly self-manage their diabetes. Nurses need to develop more effective ways to communicate concepts critical to chronic diabetes self-care education and management.
    Nursing Research 11/2014; 63(6):408-17. DOI:10.1097/NNR.0000000000000055 · 1.50 Impact Factor

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  • 2015
    • Royal Alexandra Hospital
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2013–2015
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics and Child Health
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • TEC Edmonton
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2001–2015
    • University of Alberta
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2010
    • Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Centre for Health Services and Policy Research
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2004–2007
    • Institute of Health Economics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2006
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Medicine
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University Health Network
      • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada