Kenneth J Winters

Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

Are you Kenneth J Winters?

Claim your profile

Publications (67)421.49 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Platelets of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) show evidence of mild activation in the non-crisis steady state and greater activation during vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). Prasugrel, a potent inhibitor of ADP-mediated platelet activation and aggregation, may be useful in attenuating VOC. We compared platelet responses to ADP stimulation in patients with SCD and healthy subjects before and after treatment with prasugrel. In a phase 1 study, platelet biomarker levels were assessed in 12 adult patients with SCD and 13 healthy subjects before and after 12 ± 2 days of 5.0 or 7.5 mg/day prasugrel. The following were determined in whole blood samples stimulated with 20 µM ADP: (i) percentages of monocytes and neutrophils with adherent platelets (cell-platelet aggregates); (ii) the relative number (mass) of platelets associated with each monocyte and neutrophil as reported by CD61 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the monocyte-platelet and neutrophil-platelet aggregates; (iii) the percentages of platelets positive for surface expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), P-selectin (CD62p) and activated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa); and (iv) the percentages of platelets and monocyte-platelet aggregates positive for surface tissue factor (TF) expression. At baseline, there were no significant differences between cohorts in the percentages of platelets expressing activation biomarkers. Following 12 days of prasugrel administration, the percentages of platelets expressing activation biomarkers following ADP stimulation were reduced in both cohorts, and there were no significant differences between groups. Both patients with SCD and healthy subjects had significant reductions in the monocyte-platelet and neutrophil-platelet aggregate MFI and the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin and activated GPIIb-IIIa (all p < 0.05). Healthy subjects also had significant reductions in monocyte-platelet aggregate percentages (p = 0.004), neutrophil-platelet aggregate percentages (p = 0.011) and the percentage of CD40L-positive platelets (p = 0.044) that were not observed in patients with SCD. Prasugrel administration to SCD patients attenuates ex vivo ADP-stimulated platelet activation as measured by the percentage of platelets positive for P-selectin and GPIIb-IIIa, thus reducing the proportion of platelets that may participate in aggregates. Furthermore, prasugrel decreases ex vivo ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation with monocytes and neutrophils as measured by the monocyte-platelet and neutrophil-platelet aggregate MFI. This implies that in the presence of prasugrel, fewer platelets adhere to monocytes and neutrophils, which may result in reducing cell-platelet aggregate size. Therefore, reduced platelet reactivity and decreased size of leukocyte-platelet aggregates suggest additional mechanisms by which prasugrel may provide benefit to patients with SCD and support further investigation of possible therapeutic benefits of prasugrel in this population.
    Platelets 08/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CYP2C19 genotype has been shown to impact response to clopidogrel 75-mg but not prasugrel 10-mg. Here, we assessed effects of CYP2C19 metaboliser status on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) responses to prasugrel 5-mg and 10-mg and clopidogrel 75-mg using data from two PK/PD studies in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (GENERATIONS and FEATHER). Active metabolite concentrations (area under the curve, AUC[0-tlast]), maximum platelet aggregation (MPA) measured by light transmission aggregometry, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein platelet reactivity index, and VerifyNow P2Y12-platelet reaction units (VN-PRU) were analysed by CYP2C19-predicted phenotype (extensive metaboliser [EM; N=154], *2-*8 non-carriers, vs reduced metaboliser [RM; N=41],*2-*8 carriers/*17 non-carriers). AUC(0-tlast) was unaffected by metaboliser status for prasugrel 5-mg and 10-mg (geometric mean EM/RM ratios 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86,1.17, p>0.99; and 0.97, 95% CI:0.85,1.12, p=0.71, respectively), but was lower among RMs receiving clopidogrel 75-mg (1.37, 95% CI:1.14,1.65, p<0.001). Platelet reactivity was not significantly affected by CYP2C19 metaboliser status for prasugrel 5-mg, or for prasugrel 10-mg by MPA and VN-PRU, but for clopidogrel 75-mg was significantly higher in reduced metabolisers (all measures p<0.01). Prasugrel 10-mg showed greater antiplatelet effects vs clopidogrel 75-mg (all comparisons p<0.001). Prasugrel 5-mg showed greater antiplatelet effects vs clopidogrel 75-mg in RMs (all p<0.001), and comparable effects in EMs (all p≥0.37). In contrast to clopidogrel, prasugrel active metabolite PK was not influenced by CYP2C19 genotype. Antiplatelet effect for prasugrel 10-mg was greater irrespective of metaboliser status and for prasugrel 5-mg was greater for RMs and comparable for EMs as compared to clopidogrel 75-mg.
    Thrombosis and haemostasis. 07/2014; 112(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We compared results obtained with the Nanosphere Verigene® System, a novel point-of-care (POC) genetic test capable of analysing 11 CYP2C19 variants within 3 hours, to an established, validated genotyping method (Affymetrix™ DMET+; reference assay) for identifying extensive and reduced metabolisers of clopidogrel. Based on genotyping, patients (N=82) with stable coronary artery disease on clopidogrel 75 mg daily were defined as extensive metabolisers (*1/*1, *1/*17, *17/*17), reduced metabolisers (*1/*2, *1/*8, *2/*2, *2/*3), or of indeterminate metaboliser status (*2/*17). Pharmacokinetic exposure to clopidogrel's active metabolite and pharmacodynamic measures with protein reaction units (PRU) (VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay) and VASP PRI (PRI) were also assessed. There was a 99.9% overall concordance of marker-level data between the Nanosphere Verigene and DMET+ systems in identifying the CYP2C19 variants and 100% agreement in classifying the patients as extensive (n=59) or reduced metabolisers (n=15). Extensive metabolisers had significantly higher active metabolite exposure than reduced metabolisers (LS means 12.6 ng*h/ml vs 7.7 ng*h/ml; p<0.001). Extensive metabolisers also had lower PRU (LS means 158 vs 212; p=0.003) and VASP PRI (LS means 48% vs 63%, p=0.01) compared to reduced metabolisers. Rates of high on-treatment platelet reactivity were higher in reduced metabolisers compared to extensive metabolisers (VASP PRI ≥50%: 79% vs 47%; PRU ≥ 235: 33% vs 16%). The Nanosphere Verigene CBS system identified 11 CYP2C19 alleles in less than 3 hours with a high degree of accuracy when compared to a conventional method, and was further validated against pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phenotypes.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2014; 111(5). · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Patients treated with clopidogrel who have higher body size exhibit greater platelet reactivity than patients with lower body size. In a retrospective analysis of the FEATHER trial, we examined the relationship between platelet response to thienopyridines clopidogrel 75 mg (Clop-75), prasugrel 5 mg (Pras-5), and prasugrel 10 mg (Pras-10) using 3 body size indices: body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and body surface area (BSA). Relationships are assessed as continuous variables and as 4 incremental body size groups. Materials and Methods Aspirin-treated patients with stable coronary artery disease (N = 72) and a BW range of 45-134 kg received Clop-75, Pras-5, and Pras-10 in a 3-period, blinded, cross-over study. Platelet assays included maximum platelet aggregation (MPA) to 20 μM ADP by light transmission aggregometry, VerifyNow-P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), and vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation platelet reactivity index (PRI). Exposure to active metabolites (AMs) was also assessed. Results Body size was a determinant of AM exposure and residual platelet reactivity regardless of type and dose of thienopyridine. BW and BSA demonstrated marginally stronger correlations with platelet reactivity; VASP-PRI demonstrated a stronger correlation with the body size than the other tests. Correlation coefficients ranged from a high of 0.64 (BW vs. PRI on Pras-5) to a low of 0.34 (BMI vs. MPA on Pras-10), but all were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions Using a comprehensive selection of body size indices, AM exposures, platelet function tests, and thienopyridine doses, we demonstrated a consistent inverse relationship between body size and response to clopidogrel and prasugrel.
    Thrombosis Research 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prasugrel, a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist effectively inhibits ADP-mediated platelet activation and aggregation, and may be useful in reducing vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, we assess the effect of prasugrel on biomarkers of platelet activation and coagulation in patients with SCD. Twelve adult patients with SCD and 13 healthy subjects were examined before and after 12±2days of 5.0 or 7.5mg/day oral prasugrel. Assessed cellular biomarkers included monocyte- and neutrophil-platelet aggregates, activated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIbIIIa), P-selectin, CD40 ligand (CD40L), tissue factor (TF) expression on circulating platelets and on monocyte-platelet aggregates, and platelet-erythrocyte aggregates. Soluble biomarkers included CD40L, prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), P-selectin, and TF. Patients with SCD had increased platelet baseline activation compared to healthy subjects, as measured by percentages of monocyte-platelet aggregates, neutrophil-platelet aggregates, and platelets expressing CD40L. Likewise, baseline levels of soluble F1.2 and TXB2 were elevated in patients with SCD compared to healthy subjects. After 12days of prasugrel, patients with SCD had a significant reduction in platelet-monocyte aggregates that was not observed in healthy subjects. Following prasugrel administration, those with SCD maintained higher levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates and soluble F1.2, but had lower levels of platelet-erythrocyte aggregates and soluble TF compared to healthy subjects. These results provide evidence for chronic platelet activation in the SCD steady state, activation that was in part attenuated by prasugrel, thereby suggesting that ADP may mediate platelet activation in SCD.
    Thrombosis Research 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Body weight is a predictor of clopidogrel response. However, no prospective studies have compared pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) data based on body weight. We compared PD and PK effects of clopidogrel 75 mg in low body weight (LBW, <60 kg) and higher body weight (HBW, ≥60 kg) patients with stable coronary artery disease. LBW (n = 34, 56.4 ± 3.7 kg) and HBW (n = 38, 84.7 ± 14.9 kg) aspirin-treated patients received clopidogrel 75 mg for 10-14 days. The area under the concentration-time curve of active metabolite (Clop-AM) calculated through the last quantifiable concentration up to 4 h postdose, AUC(0-tlast), was calculated by noncompartmental methods. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (maximum platelet aggregation and inhibition of platelet aggregation to 20 μM adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and residual platelet aggregation to 5 μM ADP), VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), and vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation platelet reactivity index (VASP-PRI) were performed. Mean AUC(0-tlast) was lower in HBW than LBW patients: 12.8 versus 17.9 ng h/mL. HBW patients had higher platelet reactivity as measured by LTA (all p ≤ 0.01), PRU (207 ± 68 vs. 152 ± 57, p < 0.001), and VASP-PRI (56 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 17, p < 0.001). More HBW patients exhibited high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) using PRU (35 vs. 9 %) and VASP-PRI (65 vs. 27 %). Body weight correlated with PRU and VASP-PRI (both p < 0.001), and inversely with log transformed AUC(0-tlast) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, HBW patients had lower levels of Clop-AM, and higher platelet reactivity and rates of HPR than LBW subjects, contributing to their suboptimal response to clopidogrel.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 09/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel response varies according to the presence of genetic polymorphisms. The CYP2C19*2 allele has been associated with impaired response; conflicting results have been reported for CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, and PON1 genotypes. We assessed the impact of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 polymorphisms on clopidogrel and prasugrel pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Aspirin-treated patients (N=194) with coronary artery disease from two independent, prospective, randomised, multi-centre studies comparing clopidogrel (75 mg) and prasugrel (10 mg) were genotyped and classified by predicted CYP2C19 metaboliser phenotype (ultra metabolisers [UM] = *17 carriers; extensive metabolisers [EM] = *1/1 homozygotes; reduced metabolisers [RM] = *2 carriers). ABCB1 T/T and C/T polymorphisms and PON1 A/A, A/G and G/G polymorphisms were also genotyped. PD was assessed using VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) expressed as platelet reactivity index (PRI) after 14 days of maintenance dosing. Clopidogrel and prasugrel active metabolite (AM) exposure was calculated in a cohort of 96 patients. For clopidogrel, genetic variants in CYP2C19, but not ABCB1 or PON1, affected PK and PD. For prasugrel, none of the measured genetic variants affected PK or PD. Compared with clopidogrel, platelet inhibition with prasugrel was greater even in CYP2C19 UM phenotype. Prasugrel generated more AM and achieved greater platelet inhibition than clopidogrel irrespective of CYP2C19, ABCB1, and PON1 polymorphisms. The lack of effect from genetic variants on prasugrel AM generation or antiplatelet activity is consistent with previous studies in healthy volunteers and is consistent with improved efficacy in acute coronary syndrome patients managed with percutaneous coronary intervention.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 09/2013; 110(20130905). · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treatment with prasugrel and aspirin improves outcomes compared with clopidogrel and aspirin for patients with acute coronary syndrome who have had angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention; however, no clear benefit has been shown for patients managed first with drugs only. We assessed outcomes from the TRILOGY ACS trial based on whether or not patients had coronary angiography before treatment was chosen. TRILOGY ACS ( number NCT00699998) was a randomised controlled trial, done at more than 800 sites worldwide. Patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome who were selected for management with revascularisation were randomly assigned to clopidogrel or prasugrel. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 30 months. In the present analysis we assessed differences in the primary endpoint by angiography status and whether the effects of treatment on the primary endpoint differed between patients who had angiography before enrolment and those who had not. 7243 patients younger than 75 years were included in the TRILOGY ACS primary analysis. 3085 (43%) had angiography at baseline, 4158 (57%) had not. Fewer patients who had angiography reached the primary endpoint at 30 months compared with those who did not have angiography, according to Kaplan-Meier analysis (281/3085 [12·8%] vs 480/4158 [16·5%], adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·53-0·75; p<0·0001). The proportion of patients who reached the primary endpoint was lower in the prasugrel group than in the clopidogrel group for those who had angiography (122/1524 [10·7%] vs 159/1561 [14·9%], HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·61-0·98; p=0·032) but did not differ between groups in patients who did not have angiography (242/2096 [16·3%] vs 238/2062 [16·7%], HR 1·01, 0·84-1·20; p=0·94; pinteraction=0·08). Overall, TIMI major bleeding and GUSTO severe bleeding were rare. Bleeding outcomes tended to be higher with prasugrel but did not differ significantly between treatment groups in either angiography cohort. Among patients who had angiography who took prasugrel there were fewer cardiovascular deaths, myocardial infarctions, or strokes than in those who took clopidogrel. This result needs to be corroborated, but it is consistent with previous trials of more versus less intensive antiplatelet treatment. When angiography is done for acute coronary syndrome and anatomic coronary disease confirmed, the benefits and risks of intensive antiplatelet treatment exist whether the patient is treated with drugs or percutaneous coronary intervention. Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly.
    The Lancet 08/2013; 382(9892):605-13. · 39.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dual antiplatelet therapy in older vs. younger patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is under-studied. Low-dose prasugrel (5mg/d) is recommended for younger, lower-body-weight ACS patients and elderly ACS patients to mitigate bleeding risk of standard-dose prasugrel (10mg/d). 9326 medically managed ACS patients from the TRILOGY trial (7243 <75y; 2083 ≥75y) were randomized to prasugrel (10mg/d; 5mg/d for those ≥75y or <75y and <60kg) or clopidogrel (75mg/d), plus aspirin, for ≤30 months. A total of 515 participants ≥75y (25% of total elderly population) had serial platelet reactivity unit (PRU) measurements in a platelet-function substudy (PFS). Cumulative risks of the primary endpoint (cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke) and TIMI major bleeding increased progressively with age and were ≥twofold higher in older participants. Among those ≥75y, TIMI-major bleeding (4.1% vs. 3.4%, HR=1.09, 95%CI: 0.57-2.08) and primary endpoint rates were similar with reduced-dose prasugrel vs. clopidogrel. Despite a correlation between lower 30-day on-treatment PRU values and lower weight only in the prasugrel group, there was a nonsignificant treatment-by-weight interaction for PRU values among participants ≥75y in the PFS (P=0.06). No differences in weight were seen in all participants ≥75y with vs. without TIMI-major/minor bleeding in both treatment groups. Older age is associated with substantially increased long-term cardiovascular risk and bleeding among medically managed ACS patients, with no differences in ischemic or bleeding outcomes with reduced-dose prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in elderly patients. No significant interaction among weight, pharmacodynamic response, and bleeding risk was observed between reduced-dose prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in elderly patients. Identifier: NCT0069999.
    Circulation 07/2013; · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We assessed pharmacodynamic (PD) response for the reduced prasugrel 5-mg maintenance dose in very elderly (≥75y; VE) patients. BACKGROUND: In TRITON-TIMI 38, prasugrel 10-mg reduced ischemic events versus clopidogrel 75-mg, but increased bleeding in VE patients. METHODS: We examined PD and active-metabolite pharmacokinetics with prasugrel 5-mg and 10-mg and clopidogrel 75-mg in a three-period (12 days each), blinded, cross-over study in VE (n=73, mean 79±3y) or non-elderly (≥45-<65y, NE) (n=82, 56±5y) stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients on background aspirin. Assays included light transmission aggregometry (LTA), VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 (VN-P2Y12), and VASP. The primary comparison was non-inferiority of maximum platelet aggregation (MPA) comparing the median for prasugrel 5-mg in VE versus the 75th percentile for prasugrel 10-mg in NE, using a prespecified one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the difference <15%. RESULTS: Prasugrel 5-mg in VE met the primary pharmacodynamic non-inferiority criterion versus prasugrel 10-mg in NE. For prasugrel 5-mg, MPA was significantly lower (mean±SD, 57±14%) than clopidogrel (63±14%) (p<0.001) in VE, but higher than prasugrel 10-mg in NE (46±12%) (p<0.001). PD response by LTA, VN-P2Y12, and VASP during all treatments appeared similar between age cohorts. Prasugrel 5-mg resulted in fewer VE poor responders versus clopidogrel. Rates of mild bleeding were higher with prasugrel 10-mg, but similar for prasugrel 5-mg versus clopidogrel 75-mg. CONCLUSIONS: In aspirin-treated stable CAD patients, prasugrel 5-mg in VE attenuated platelet inhibition while meeting prespecified non-inferiority criterion versus prasugrel 10-mg in NE, with significantly better PD response and fewer poor responders compared to clopidogrel 75-mg in VE.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD) suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41) or placebo (n = 21) for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain) and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.
    Journal of Hematology & Oncology 01/2013; 6(1):17. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Prasugrel is a novel thienopyridine P2Y(12) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist that inhibits ADP-mediated platelet activation and aggregation. Accordingly, it may be useful in reducing platelet-related isc haemia in sickle cell disease (SCD). Exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite (Pras-AM) and its antiplatelet activity in SCD have not been investigated. METHODS: Thirteen adult patients with SCD and an equal number of matched healthy control subjects were studied before and after 12 days of 5.0 mg/day or 7.5 mg/day prasugrel treatment. Platelet reactivity was assessed by light transmission aggregometry (LTA), impedance aggregometry (MEA), VerifyNow(®) P2Y12, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and Plateletworks. Exposure to Pras-AM was also assessed. RESULTS: At baseline, patients with SCD showed increased platelet reactivity versus healthy controls with VerifyNow (408 vs. 323 PRU, respectively, P=0.003) and MEA (106 vs. 77 AU.min, P=0.002); lower platelet reactivity index with VASP flow cytometry (59% vs. 79% PRI, P=0.018); and no significant differences with LTA, VASP ELISA, or Plateletworks. Relative to baseline, prasugrel significantly reduced platelet reactivity by all assays in both populations (all p<0.05). Prasugrel was well tolerated, with no bleeding-related events in patients with SCD. The mean concentration-time profiles of Pras-AM were comparable between healthy subjects and patients with SCD following the one-time 10 mg prasugrel dose, and following the 12(th) dose of 7.5 mg or 5 mg prasugrel. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that in response to prasugrel, patients with SCD and healthy subjects have similar degrees of platelet inhibition and exposure to Pras-AM, and provide a basis for further study of prasugrel in patients with SCD.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2012; · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm prior modeling data suggesting that prasugrel 5 mg in low-body-weight (LBW) patients would be noninferior to prasugrel 10 mg in higher-body-weight (HBW) patients as assessed by maximal platelet aggregation (MPA). BACKGROUND: Prasugrel 10 mg reduced ischemic events compared with clopidogrel 75 mg but increased bleeding, particularly in LBW patients. METHODS: In this blinded, 3-period, crossover study in stable patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) taking aspirin, prasugrel 5 and 10 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg were administered to LBW (56.4 ± 3.7 kg; n = 34) and HBW patients (84.7 ± 14.9 kg; n = 38). Assays included light transmission aggregometry (LTA), VerifyNow P2Y12 (VN), and vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) level measured predose and after each 12-day treatment. RESULTS: Median MPA by LTA for prasugrel 5 mg in LBW patients was noninferior to the 75th percentile for prasugrel 10 mg in HBW patients (primary endpoint) and mean MPA was similar, but active metabolite exposure was lowered by 38%. Within LBW patients, prasugrel 5 mg lowered MPA more than clopidogrel (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]: -3.7% [-6.72%, -0.69%]) and resulted in lower rates of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR). Within HBW patients, prasugrel 10 mg lowered MPA more than clopidogrel (-16.9% [-22.3%, -11.5%]). Similar results were observed by VN and VASP. Prasugrel 10 mg in LBW patients was associated with more mild to moderate bleeding (mainly bruising) compared with prasugrel 5 mg and clopidogrel. CONCLUSIONS: In aspirin-treated patients with CAD, prasugrel 5 mg in LBW patients reduced platelet reactivity to a similar extent as prasugrel 10 mg in HBW patients and resulted in greater platelet inhibition, lower HPR, and similar bleeding rates compared with clopidogrel. (Comparison of Prasugrel and Clopidogrel in Low Body Weight Versus Higher Body Weight With Coronary Artery Disease [FEATHER]; NCT01107925).
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2012; · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of intensified platelet inhibition for patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who do not undergo revascularization has not been delineated. In this double-blind, randomized trial, in a primary analysis involving 7243 patients under the age of 75 years receiving aspirin, we evaluated up to 30 months of treatment with prasugrel (10 mg daily) versus clopidogrel (75 mg daily). In a secondary analysis involving 2083 patients 75 years of age or older, we evaluated 5 mg of prasugrel versus 75 mg of clopidogrel. At a median follow-up of 17 months, the primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke among patients under the age of 75 years occurred in 13.9% of the prasugrel group and 16.0% of the clopidogrel group (hazard ratio in the prasugrel group, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.05; P=0.21). Similar results were observed in the overall population. The prespecified analysis of multiple recurrent ischemic events (all components of the primary end point) suggested a lower risk for prasugrel among patients under the age of 75 years (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.00; P=0.04). Rates of severe and intracranial bleeding were similar in the two groups in all age groups. There was no significant between-group difference in the frequency of nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events, except for a higher frequency of heart failure in the clopidogrel group. Among patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation, prasugrel did not significantly reduce the frequency of the primary end point, as compared with clopidogrel, and similar risks of bleeding were observed. (Funded by Eli Lilly and Daiichi Sankyo; TRILOGY ACS number, NCT00699998.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/2012; 367(14):1297-309. · 51.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess the offset of the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel and clopidogrel. Guidelines recommend discontinuing clopidogrel at least 5 days and prasugrel at least 7 days before surgery. The pharmacodynamic basis for these recommendations is limited. Aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to either prasugrel 10 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg daily for 7 days. Platelet reactivity was measured before study drug administration and for up to 12 days during washout. The primary endpoint was the cumulative proportion of patients returning to baseline reactivity after study drug discontinuation. A total of 56 patients were randomized; 54 were eligible for analysis. Platelet reactivity was lower 24 h after the last dose of prasugrel compared with clopidogrel. After prasugrel, ≥75% of patients returned to baseline reactivity by washout day 7 compared with day 5 after clopidogrel. Recovery time was dependent on the level of platelet reactivity before study drug exposure and the initial degree of platelet inhibition after study drug discontinuation but not on treatment assignment. Recovery time after thienopyridine discontinuation depends on the magnitude of on-treatment platelet inhibition, resulting, on average, in a more delayed recovery with prasugrel compared with clopidogrel. The offset of prasugrel was consistent with current guidelines regarding the recommended waiting period for surgery after discontinuation. (Prasugrel/Clopidogrel Maintenance Dose Washout Study; NCT01014624).
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2012; 59(25):2338-43. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prasugrel results in greater platelet inhibition compared to clopidogrel which may prolong the time to platelet P2Y(12) receptor function recovery following drug cessation after loading dose (LD) administration. This randomized study assessed the time to recovery of platelet function in patients with coronary artery disease after a LD of prasugrel or clopidogrel. Enrolled patients (n = 21) received either prasugrel (30 mg or 60 mg) or clopidogrel (600 mg) in preparation for coronary angiography. Platelet function was assessed by the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, Multiplate and LTA at baseline and over time (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days) post-LD treatment. Recovery of platelet function was defined as occurring on the first day that P2Y12 reaction units were ≤60 below pre-drug values and remained in this range. The relationship between platelet inhibition at 24 h post-LD to time of recovery was also evaluated. Recovery of platelet function occurred from days 3-7 for clopidogrel-treated subjects, by day 7 for patients treated with prasugrel 30 mg and from days 7-9 for patients treated with prasugrel 60 mg. Time for platelet function to return to baseline was independent of treatment assignment, reflecting instead the extent of platelet inhibition at 24 h post-LD (correlation coefficient = 0.81, p < 0.001), which was greater following a prasugrel LD. Conclusions: Prasugrel-treated subjects require a longer time for recovery compared with clopidogrel due to greater post-LD platelet inhibition. Platelet function testing after cessation of P2Y(12) receptor blockers may prove useful to guide the timing of surgical procedures ( identifier: NCT01107899).
    Platelets 02/2012; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Observational studies of new coronary stents are necessary to assess performance in a variety of complex patient and lesion types. Furthermore, the optimal dose and duration of thienopyridine treatment is unclear, particularly in patients with complex clinical conditions. The TAXUS Libertē Post-Approval Study is designed to provide 5-year data on the TAXUS Liberté paclitaxel-eluting stent with concomitant prasugrel therapy in routine clinical practice and to contribute data to the DAPT study. The TAXUS Libertē Post-Approval Study is a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Enrollment of approximately 4,200 patients receiving ≥1 TAXUS Liberté stents is planned. All patients without a contraindication will be prescribed prasugrel plus aspirin for 1 year. The 12-month primary end point of cardiac death or myocardial infarction in on-label stent patients will be compared with historical TAXUS Express stent data from the TAXUS ATLAS and TAXUS ARRIVE studies. Secondary clinical end points include stent thrombosis, all-cause death, stroke, revascularization, and bleeding in all patients. In addition, this study will be the first to evaluate prasugrel use in a routine practice setting (including 5 and 10 mg daily doses) and will contribute data to the DAPT Study, comparing 12 versus 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent placement. The TAXUS Libertē Post-Approval Study will be the first to provide long-term real-world data on use of the TAXUS Liberté Stent with prasugrel treatment. The study is currently enrolling, and primary end point data are expected in mid 2013.
    American heart journal 02/2012; 163(2):142-8.e6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This open-label, two-period, randomized, crossover study was designed to determine the effect of CYP2C19 reduced function variants on exposure to active metabolites of, and platelet response to, prasugrel and clopidogrel. Ninety healthy Chinese subjects, stratified by CYP2C19 phenotype, were randomly assigned to treatment with prasugrel 10 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg for 10 days followed by 14 day washout and 10 day treatment with the other drug. Eighty-three subjects completed both treatment periods. Blood samples were collected at specified time points for measurement of each drug's active metabolite (Pras-AM and Clop-AM) concentrations and determination of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) by light transmittance aggregometry. CYP2C19 genotypes were classified into three predicted phenotype groups: rapid metabolizers [RMs (*1/*1)], heterozygous or intermediate metabolizers [IMs (*1/*2, *1/*3)] and poor metabolizers [PMs (*2/*2, *2/*3)]. Pras-AM exposure was similar in IMs and RMs (90% CI 0.85, 1.03) and slightly lower in PMs than IMs (90% CI 0.74, 0.99), whereas Clop-AM exposure was significantly lower in IMs compared with RMs (90% CI 0.62, 0.83), and in PMs compared with IMs (90% CI 0.53, 0.82). IPA was more consistent among RMs, IMs and PMs in prasugrel treated subjects (80.2%, 84.2% and 80.2%, respectively) than in clopidogrel treated subjects (59.7%, 56.2% and 36.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Prasugrel demonstrated higher active metabolite exposure and more consistent pharmacodynamic response across all three predicted phenotype groups compared with clopidogrel, confirming observations from previous research that CYP2C19 phenotype plays an important role in variability of response to clopidogrel, but has no impact on response to prasugrel.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2011; 73(1):93-105. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2011; 106(1):174-6. · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An integrated analysis of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter estimates for prasugrel, from 16 phase I clinical pharmacology studies, consolidated exposure estimates from 506 healthy male and female participants and evaluated the effect of specific intrinsic and extrinsic factors on exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite (AM, R-138727). A linear mixed effect model was fitted with study and subject nested within study as random effects and subject factors as fixed effects. Prasugrel AM exposure was similar in males and females, in participants <65 years and ≥65 years, in smokers and nonsmokers, in drinkers and nondrinkers of alcohol, and in Asians, Caucasians, and participants of African and Hispanic descent. Prasugrel AM exposure increased as body weight decreased and was 40% higher in participants <60 kg than in participants ≥60 kg. Exposure in Asians was 40% higher than that in Caucasians, but this difference could be explained by the lower overall weight of the Asian participants and a disproportionately large difference between ethnic groups in lighter participants, especially those <60 kg. These results characterize prasugrel's PK across a range of studies and highlight body weight as the most influential covariate on prasugrel AM exposure, with implications for prasugrel maintenance dosing in clinical practice.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2011; 51(3):321-32. · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
421.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Eli Lilly
      • Lilly Research Laboratories
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • NGH Japan Co., Ltd.
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2013
    • California State University, Sacramento
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Lund University
      • Department of Cardiology
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Medical Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2008
    • Uppsala Monitoring Centre
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden