Qing Tian

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China

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Publications (76)222.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cognition in all mammals including human beings declines during aging. The cellular events responsible for this decay involve a reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Here, we show that treatment with a nature product from a traditional Chinese medicine, namely salidroside restores the capacity of the dentate gyrus to generate new neurons and intercepts learning and memory decays in mice during aging. We uncover that new neurons in aging mice have functional features of an adult granule neuron by forming excitatory synapses with their putative targeting neurons. Genetic inhibition of synaptic transmission from new neurons abolishes the therapeutic effects of salidroside in behavioral tests. We also identify that salidroside targets CREB transcription for the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of old mice. Thus, salidroside is therapeutically effective against learning and memory decays via stimulation of CREB-dependent functional neurogenesis in aging.
    Molecular neurobiology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) interacts with the tumor suppressor gene p53 via a direct binding of a death domain of DAPK1 to a DNA-binding motif (DM) of p53 (p53DM) and converges multiple cell death pathways in stroke. The goals of this study are to determine whether disruption of DAPK1-p53 interaction is therapeutically effective against stroke.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has multiple etiopathogenic factors, yet the definitive cause remains unclear and the therapeutic strategies have been elusive. Combination therapy, as one of the promising treatments, has been studied for years and may exert synergistic beneficial effects on AD through polytherapeutic targets. In this study, we tested the effects of a synthesized juxtaposition (named SCR1693) composed of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and a calcium channel blocker (CCB) on the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced AD rat model, and found that SCR1693 remarkably improved the HHcy-induced memory deficits and preserved dendrite morphologies as well as spine density by upregulating synapse-associated proteins PSD95 and synapsin-1. In addition, SCR1693 attenuated HHcy-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-associated sites by regulating the activity of protein phosphatase-2A and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, SCR1693 was more effective than individual administration of both donepezil and nilvadipine which were used as AChEI and CCB, respectively, in the clinical practice. In conclusion, our data suggest that the polytherapeutic targeting juxtaposition SCR1693 (AChEI-CCB) is a promising therapeutic candidate for AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 07/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia was shown to be associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effects of hypoxia on the development of AD pathology and spatial memory ability and the possible molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that rats exposed to a hypoxic condition (10% oxygen concentration) for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks (6 h each day) displayed spatial memory impairment and increased tau phosphorylation at Ser198/199/202, Thr205, Ser262, Ser396 and Ser404 in the hippocampus. Concomitantly, the levels of Tyr216-phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β (activated form of GSK-3β) and Tyr307-phosphorylated protein phosphatase 2A (inactivated form of PP2A) were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the rats with 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of hypoxia exposure, while the levels of methylated PP2A (activated form of PP2A) were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of the rats with 4 and 8 weeks of hypoxia exposure. In addition, the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator of oxidative stress, was elevated, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase was not significantly changed in the hippocampus of the rats exposed to hypoxia. Taken together, these data demonstrated that hypoxia induced tau hyperphosphorylation and memory impairment in rats, and that the increased tau phosphorylation could be attributed to activation of GSK-3β and inactivation of PP2A. These data suggest that interventions to improve hypoxia may be helpful to prevent the development of AD pathology and cognitive impairment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neuro-degenerative diseases. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Region-specific neurodegeneration was reported in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we studied the expression of some AD-associated proteins in temporal cortex, frontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Levels of the phosphorylated tau at Thr231, Ser396, and Ser202/Thr205, phosphorylated amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and amyloid-β, synapse-associated proteins glutamate receptors 2, N-methyl-D-aspartic receptors 1 (NR1), NR2A, NR2B, and postsynaptic density protein 95 were much lower in cerebellum, while the levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau at Thr205, Ser214, Ser262, and Ser198/199/202 epitopes, and total AβPP were similar in the four brain regions. As endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was reported in the early stage of AD, we injected tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, into the lateral ventricular of rats and 48 hours later found in the other three brain regions but not cerebellum, increasing of binding immunoglobulin protein with the increased phosphorylation of pancreatic ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme 1, and activating transcription factor 6. Simultaneously, levels of phosphorylated tau at all of the above sites were significantly increased with the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in temporal cortex, frontal cortex, and/or hippocampus, but not cerebellum. The synapse-associated proteins, GluR2, PSD95, and synapsin1, were found decreased in the hippocampus after tunicamycin exposure. These data together may partially explain why the AD-like neuropathology, such as formation of neurofibrillary tangles, was rarely detected in cerebellum.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 04/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated electroconvulsive therapy (rECT) is widely applied in the treatment of refractory depression, one of whose side effects, memory impairment, is noticed and needs effective protection. In this reseach, by employing a recognized repeated electroconvulsive shock (rECS) rat model, we found that rECS induced significant spatial memory retention deficits with simultaneous decreases in long-term potential (LTP), enhanced excitable postsynaptic potentials (EPSP), population spike (PS) and input/output curve in perforant pathway-dentate gyrus (PP-DG), but no obvious neuron loss or dentritic spine loss in the brain by Nissle or Golgi stainings. Furthermore, the increased synaptic proteins of NR2A/B, PSD93, PSD95, the immediate early gene c-Fos and CREB protein were detected in hippocampus of rECS rats. rECS was also found to cause enhanced axon reorganization in DG region of hippocampus by Timm staining. Intraperitoneal injection of phenylbutyric acid (PBA), an aromatic short chain fatty acid, acting as a molecule chaperon, could prevent against rats from the rECS-induced memory deficits and synaptic potential enhancement by decreasing the levels of the abnormal increased memory-associated proteins and enhanced axon reorganization in hippocampus. Our data suggested that PBA may be potentially used for attenuating the rECS-induced memory impairment.
    Current neurovascular research 04/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since abnormal post-translational modifications or gene mutations of tau have been detected in over twenty neurodegenerative disorders, tau has attracted widespread interest as a target protein. Among its various post-translational modifications, phosphorylation is the most extensively studied. It is recognized that tau hyperphosphorylation is the root cause of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD); however, it is not clear how it causes neurodegeneration. Based on the findings that tau hyperphosphorylation leads to the escape of neurons from acute apoptosis and simultaneously impairs the function of neurons, we have proposed that the nature of AD neurodegeneration is the consequence of aborted apoptosis induced by tau phosphorylation. Therefore, proper manipulation of tau hyperphosphorylation could be promising for arresting AD neurodegeneration. In this review, the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects of tau hyperphosphorylation and our thoughts regarding their relationship are presented.
    Neuroscience Bulletin 03/2014; · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2) are ubiquitous enzymes involved in membrane fatty acid metabolism and intracellular signalling. Recent studies have shown that PLA 2 subtypes are implicated in the modulation of pathways related to memory acquisition and retrieval. Methods: We in-cluded 23 cognitively unimpaired older individuals were selected to this study divided in the experimental and control groups (EG and CG, respec-tively). The EG underwent a four-session memory training intervention and the CG completed the same evaluation as EG and received standard outpatient care only. Pre and pos-test measures included prose and list recall, WAIS-III digit symbol, strategy use measures, and PLA 2 group activity. The PLA 2 group activity was determined by radio-enzymatic assay. Results: After cognitive training, patients in the EG group had significant increase in cPLA 2 , sPLA 2 , total PLA 2 activity, and significant decrease in iPLA 2 activity (see table). Conclusions: Our results suggest that memory training may have a modulating effect on biological systems associated with cognitive functions and neurodegenerative diseases. Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of de-mentia in the elderly, is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tan-gles, cholinergic dysfunction and memory deficit. It has been reported that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is the key kinase among protein kinases which can phosphorylate tau in the AD brain. We activated GSK-3 and induced a series of AD-like pathological alterations in rats by ventric-ular injection of Wortmannin (WT, PI3-K inhibitor) and GF-109203X (GFX, PKC inhibitor) at 24h-48h. It has been developed that GSK-3 may
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    ABSTRACT: Tau hyperphosphorylation is a critical event in Alzheimer's disease, in which the neuronal Golgi fragmentation occurs earlier than tau hyperphosphorylation. However, the intrinsic link between Golgi impairment and tau pathology is missing. By electron microscopy and western blotting, we observed in the present study that the neuronal Golgi fragmentation was increased age-dependently with a correlated tau hyperphosphorylation in the brains of C57BL/6 mice aged from 4 to 16 months. Simultaneously, golgin-84 and Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65, 2 important Golgi matrix proteins, were decreased in the brains of elder mice. Further studies in HEK293/tau cells showed that Golgi-disturbing agents, brefeldin A and nocodazole induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Knockdown of golgin-84, not Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65, by small interfering RNA was sufficient to induce tau hyperphosphorylation, while over-expressing golgin-84 arrested the brefeldin A-induced Golgi fragmentation and tau hyperphosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were activated after golgin-84 knockdown, and simultaneous inhibition of these kinases abolished the golgin-84 deficit-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. These data suggest Golgi fragmentation could be an upstream event triggering tau hyperphosphorylation through golgin-84 deficit-induced activation of cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
    Neurobiology of aging 11/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the cholinergic neurons loss and impairments of learning and memory. Scopolamine is common used to imitate AD pathological features and also cause an obvious oxidative stress. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal administration of supplementary acetyl-L-carnitine partially reverses the learning and memory defects induced by scopolamine. We also found that acetyl-L-carnitine reverses the impairment of long-term potentiation, dendritic abnormalities, and the impaired recruitment of synaptic protein. The beneficial effects of acetyl-L-carnitine may occur through amelioration of oxidative stress because it effectively decreases the levels of oxidative products and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase; this leads to a recovery in the suppressed activity of p53 caused oxidative stimuli, which in turn restores levels of insulin-like growth factor II, an important hormone for learning and memory. Our study provides the first evidence of the potential utility of acetyl-L-carnitine in treating the synaptic disorders prevalent in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
    Neuropharmacology 09/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ovariectomy is known as ‘surgical menopause’ with decreased levels of oestrogen in female rodents and its reported risks and adverse effects include cognitive impairment. In the brain, oestrogen exerts effects through its receptors, oestrogen receptor α (ERα) and β (ERβ). However, the role of ERα or ERβ in ovariectomy-induced cognitive impairment needs further investigation. Here, we observed that bilaterally ovariectomized 3-month-old rats showed obvious spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze with significant loss of neurons and synapses in the hippocampus. In addition to the rapid decline in serum oestradiol levels, the expression of ERα, but not ERβ, was decreased in the hippocampus starting 1 wk after ovariectomy. Prompt 4,4′,4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) treatment (1 mg/kg.d), an agonist of ERα, improved the spatial learning and memory ability of ovariectomized rats and rescued ovariectomy-induced neuron loss by up-regulating the level of BCLxl, an important anti-apoptosis protein. Furthermore, PPT treatment also improved ovariectomy-induced hippocampal synapse loss and up-regulated the levels of synaptic proteins (synapsin I, NR2A and GluR1) and the activates of CaMK Πα, ERK and Akt. Thus, these results demonstrated that ERα plays an important role in neuroprotection and that prompt ERα rescue is effective to improve hippocampal-dependent cognition deficit after long-term ovariectomy.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2013; 16(05). · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EPAC (Exchange Proteins Activated by cAMP) regulates glutamate transmitter release in the central neurons, but a role underlying this regulation has yet to be identified. Here we show that EPAC binds directly to the intracellular loop of an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel type-1 sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) receptor consisting of amino acids 859-881 (SUR1(859-881)). Ablation of EPAC or expression of SUR1(859-881), which intercepts EPAC-SUR1 binding, increases the open probability of KATP channels consisting of the Kir6.1 subunit and SUR1. Opening of KATP channels inhibits glutamate release and reduces seizure vulnerability in adult mice. Therefore, EPAC interaction with SUR1 controls seizure susceptibility and possibly acts via regulation of glutamate release.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2013; 33(20):8861-5. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: EphB2 is a member of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) family that is essential for the cell adhesion, neural crest migration, axon guidance and synaptogenesis in the nervous system. Recent studies show that preservation of EphB2 in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rescues the cognitive deficit, suggesting a crucial role of EphB2 in AD. However, the expression and distribution profiles of EphB2 in the early stage of AD have not been reported. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and immunofluorescence were used to analyse the level of EphB2 in Tg2576 mice at different ages and in cultured neurons with Aβ treatment at different times. RESULTS: EphB2 was reduced in an age-dependent manner in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice. The decrease of EphB2 appeared earlier in the olfactory bulb than the hippocampus, and reduction of EphB2 appeared earlier than that of MAP2, a dendritic cytoskeleton marker. In the cortex, EphB2 displayed a significant translocation from the neuronal processes to the cell bodies with aging. In primary hippocampal neuronal cultures, Aβ42 treatment also induced the decrement of EphB2 that was prior to the decline of MAP2. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the first evidence for an age- and region-dependent reduction and intracellular translocation of EphB2 in Tg2576 mice, and the foremost decrement of EphB2 in the olfactory bulb may represent an early sign of AD.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 01/2013; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of microtubule-associated protein tau has been observed in the brain of aging and tauopathies. Tau was observed in microglia, but its role is not illustrated. By immunofluorescence staining and the fractal dimension value assay in the present study, we observed that microglia were activated in the brains of rats and mice during aging, simultaneously, the immunoreactivities of total tau and the phosphorylated tau were significantly enhanced in the activated microglia. Furtherly by transient transfection of tau40 (human 2N/4R tau) into the cultured rat microglia, we demonstrated that expression of tau40 increased the level of Iba1, indicating activation of microglia. Moreover, expression of tau40 significantly enhanced the membranous localization of the phosphorylated tau at Ser396 in microglia possibly by a mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. It was also found that expression of tau40 promoted microglial migration and phagocytosis, but not proliferation. And we observed increased secretion of several cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide after the expression of tau40. These data suggest a novel role of human 2N/4R tau in microglial activation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76057. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neural dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) could arise from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and deficits of the unfolded protein response (UPR). To explore whether tau hyperphosphorylation, a hallmark of AD brain pathologies, plays a role in ER stress-induced alterations of cell viability, we established cell lines with stable expression of human tau (HEK293/tau) or the vector (HEK293/vec) and treated the cells with thapsigargin (TG), an ER stress inducer. We observed that the HEK293/tau cells were more resistant than the HEK293/vec cells to the TG-induced apoptosis, importantly, a time dependent increase of tau phosphorylation at Thr205 and Thr231 sites was positively correlated with the inhibition of apoptosis. We also observed that expression of tau upregulated phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2 and IRE1 with an increased cleavage of ATF6 and ATF4. The potentiation of UPR was also detected in HEK293/tau cells treated with other ER stress inducers, including staurosporine, camptothecin and hydrogen peroxide, in which a suppressed apoptosis was also shown. Our data suggest that tau hyperphosphorylation could attenuate the ER stress-induced apoptosis with the mechanism involving upregulation of UPR system.
    Apoptosis 07/2012; 17(10):1039-49. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major component of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which is positively correlated with the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The upstream factors leading to tau hyperphosphorylation are still not fully understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been indicated in AD pathogenesis and the increased level of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip), an important ER associated chaperon, is increased in AD brain. Here hyperphosphorylation of tau, activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and elevation of Bip were induced by ventricular infusion of ER stressors, tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG), in rats. GSK-3β was found to be responsible for tau hyperphosphorylation induced by ER stressors both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, inhibited Akt, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and activated Fyn were detected in vivo. Down-regulating Bip by tranfecting its siRNA plasmid significantly revised tau hyperphosphorylation in TG treated HEK293/tau cells, but the activation of GSK-3β was still observed. By immunoprecipitation, we found that the binding levels of Bip to tau and GSK-3β were significantly increased with the elevation of Bip in TM-treated rats. Moreover, in Bip overexpressed HEK293/tau cells, the binding levels of Bip to tau (mainly phosphorylated tau) and GSK-3β were also significantly increased. However, β-catenin, another important substrate of GSK-3β, was not found bound to the increased Bip. All these data suggest an essential role of Bip in GSK-3β dependent tau hyperphosphorylation in ER stress by promoting the binding of GSK-3β to tau.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2012; 29(4):727-40. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EPAC proteins are the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that act as the intracellular receptors for cyclic AMP. Two variants of EPAC genes including EPAC1 and EPAC2 are cloned and are widely expressed throughout the brain. But, their functions in the brain remain unknown. Here, we genetically delete EPAC1 (EPAC1(-/-)), EPAC2 (EPAC2(-/-)), or both EPAC1 and EPAC2 genes (EPAC(-/-)) in the forebrain of mice. We show that EPAC null mutation impairs long-term potentiation (LTP) and that this impairment is paralleled with the severe deficits in spatial learning and social interactions and is mediated in a direct manner by miR-124 transcription and Zif268 translation. Knockdown of miR-124 restores Zif268 and hence reverses all aspects of the EPAC(-/-) phenotypes, whereas expression of miR-124 or knockdown of Zif268 reproduces the effects of EPAC null mutation. Thus, EPAC proteins control miR-124 transcription in the brain for processing spatial learning and social interactions.
    Neuron 02/2012; 73(4):774-88. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    Molecular Neurodegeneration 02/2012; 7 Suppl 1:O12. · 4.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

568 Citations
222.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
    • Zhejiang University
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2009
    • Tongji Medical University
      • Department of Pathophysiology
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China