Chun-Hsiung Shih

Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (54)99.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiographic parameters for evaluating hip development are altered by Salter osteotomy, and their prognostic value require further validation. A total of 63 patients who underwent open reduction and Salter osteotomy for unilateral hip dysplasia were evaluated with Severin classification 10.8 years later. The initial first-year postoperative acetabular index, c/b ratio, head-teardrop distance, and head coverage were compared with the final outcome of Severin classification. Greater c/b ratio was significantly associated with later Severin class III hip. Using receiver operating characteristics curve, a c/b ratio greater than 0.72 at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively can predict the possibility of a class III hip in 30 and 60% of patients, respectively.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics. Part B. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The two-incision technique and the modified Watson-Jones technique use muscular intervals and avoid muscle cutting in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However these two techniques have not been compared. A prospective randomized study of clinical outcomes and patient preferences was performed in 20 patients who had a two-incision THA in one hip and a modified Watson-Jones THA in the other between January 2004 and August 2007. The 20 patients were randomized equally to the two-incision first or the modified Watson-Jones first group. After the second surgery, patients were asked about their preferences for one of the two techniques and clinical results were analyzed. After a minimal follow-up of 2 years, there were no differences in the hospital course, clinical results, functional outcomes, and radiographic results between techniques. However more patients (70%) preferred the two-incision side to the modified Watson-Jones side in the first 6 months regardless which procedure was performed first. Given the similarity of these two techniques in cup implantation and with only a difference in femoral stem implantation, we think that the difference in patient preferences in the early postoperative period might be related to the surgical dissection and manipulation of the hip with the modified Watson-Jones technique.
    Chang Gung medical journal 01/2012; 35(1):54-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Avascular necrosis after treatment for late developmental dysplasia of the hip can result in deformity of the femoral head and long-term morbidity. This study aims to analyze the clinical and radiographic factors that are associated with femoral head deformity in the early stage of avascular necrosis. Thirty patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip treated by the same operation before 3 years of age and who developed early signs of avascular necrosis, were studied. Avascular necrosis was diagnosed by either broadening of the femoral neck, fragmentation of the capital epiphysis, or the presence of a metaphyseal growth disturbance line in the first postoperative year. After 10-year follow-up, the hips were classified into spherical head or deformed head by irregularity <2 mm or more to analyze the associated factors. Sixteen hips had spherical femoral heads and the other 14 hips had deformed femoral heads. Age, sex, side, Tonnis classification, and preoperative or postoperative acetabular index were not associated with the outcome after avascular necrosis. Among the early signs of avascular necrosis, fragmentation of the capital epiphysis was significantly associated with later head deformity. Fragmentation was a sign with high sensitivity (79%) and high specificity (88%) in predicting a deformed head. Broadening of femoral neck had a high sensitivity (93%), but a low specificity (38%) in outcome prediction. Fragmentation and flattening of the femoral epiphysis are the worst radiographic signs indicating subsequent growth disturbance and deformity of the proximal femur. Broadening of the femoral neck exhibited high sensitivity in predicting later deformity, and physicians should be alerted to subsequent epiphyseal fragmentation. A metaphyseal growth disturbance line is a sign of avascular necrosis, but the predictive value is limited. Diagnostic level 3.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 01/2011; 31(3):240-5. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Whether or not uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) can achieve durable fixation of implants to bone in patients on chronic hemodialysis is unknown. We analyzed the 2–13-year clinical outcomes of cementless THA in patients with end-stage renal diseases who were maintained on long-term hemodialysis. Patients and methods We reviewed the outcome of 23 consecutive uncemented THAs undertaken between 1993 and 2004, in patients with chronic renal failure who had been on long-term hemodialysis (2–18 years). 1 patient died and 2 patients were lost to follow-up within 2 years, leaving 20 hips (20 patients, median age 66 (38–81) years at the time of THA, 11 females) that were reviewed at median 7 (2–13) years postoperatively. Results Radiographic bone-ingrowth fixation of the components was found in 19 patients. 1 patient had aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery. The median d'Aubigne and Postel score was 10 (8–14) preoperatively and 15 (12–18) at final review. No prosthetic infections were found in any of the patients. Interpretation Uncemented THA shows promising medium-term results in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis.
    Acta Orthopaedica. 06/2010; 81(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Whether or not uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) can achieve durable fixation of implants to bone in patients on chronic hemodialysis is unknown. We analyzed the 2-13-year clinical outcomes of cementless THA in patients with end-stage renal diseases who were maintained on long-term hemodialysis. We reviewed the outcome of 23 consecutive uncemented THAs undertaken between 1993 and 2004, in patients with chronic renal failure who had been on long-term hemodialysis (2-18 years). 1 patient died and 2 patients were lost to follow-up within 2 years, leaving 20 hips (20 patients, median age 66 (38-81) years at the time of THA, 11 females) that were reviewed at median 7 (2-13) years postoperatively. Radiographic bone-ingrowth fixation of the components was found in 19 patients. 1 patient had aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery. The median d'Aubigne and Postel score was 10 (8-14) preoperatively and 15 (12-18) at final review. No prosthetic infections were found in any of the patients. Uncemented THA shows promising medium-term results in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis.
    Acta Orthopaedica 02/2010; 81(2):178-82. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head commonly affects young adults between the third and fifth decade of life. It is the leading cause of hip joint replacements in many Asian countries including Taiwan. The ultimate goal is the preservation of the involved hip. However, this is often challenging since early diagnosis is difficult, the etiologies are miscellaneous, the pathogenesis is unclear, and successful treatment is undetermined. As a consequence, this disease remains well-known but not fully-understood. This review provides an update of the progress from clinical studies to basic bench work in terms of natural history, risk factors, genetic predilections, diagnosis, staging, and miscellaneous therapeutic modalities.
    Chang Gung medical journal 01/2010; 33(4):351-60.
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports a novel local bone graft technique for the treatment of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). From 1998 to 2005, a procedure using local bone grafting was performed for the treatment of ONFH in 11 patients. The local bone grafts were obtained from the intertrochanteric region and then impacted into the necrotic lesion. A wire coil was inserted into the remaining space after the grafting. At a mean follow-up of 61 months (range, 30 to 103 months), all 5 ARCO stage IIC hips survived but 3 of the 6 ARCO stage IIIA hips failed. The overall clinical success rate was 73%. This study demonstrates that local cancellous bone grafting combined with a space-filling device implanted into the ONFH is a promising procedure and the wire coil showed no interference to the remodeling of the femoral head after grafting.
    Surgical Innovation 02/2009; 16(1):63-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We questioned the principle of treatment of late lateral condylar fracture of a pediatric elbow. We report the results of treating this condition using a different approach. We treated six children with type 3 late lateral condylar fractures. The average age was 4.5 years old. The time delay from injury to surgery averaged at 3.8 months. All the displaced lateral condyles were Milch type 2 with significant rotation away from the trochlea. The articular anatomic reduction of the lateral condyles was achieved via ulnar osteotomy in all six cases. We fixed both the fracture and the osteotomy with Kirschner wires buried under the skin. No strenuous passive physical therapy was needed. All lateral condylar fractures and ulnar osteotomies were united within 3 months. Five out of six children had regained full range of motion and symmetric carrying angles at the latest follow-up 2 to 11 years later. Complications included transient physeal change and lateral bump. Based on our results, we recommend olecranon osteotomy via a posterior approach as one of the options in treating late cases of type 3 lateral condylar fracture of the elbow with significant displacement in children.
    The Journal of trauma 06/2008; 64(5):1281-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We radiographically measured the bipolar cup position to analyze the direction of joint force acting on the bipolar cup. The abduction angle of the bipolar cup was measured in each radiograph taken immediately and at six 12 weeks and yearly after the operation. Radiographs in patients with weight bearing were also investigated. The results indicated that the abduction angle of the bipolar cup was 24.1 degrees +/- 11.2 degrees immediate postoperatively and was 16.2 degrees +/- 5.1 degrees at 6 weeks, 16.1 degrees +/- 5.1 degrees at 3 months, and 16.2 degrees +/- 5.1 degrees at 1 year. The cup abduction angles with weight bearing were not different from those without weight bearing and were 15.9 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees , 16.2 degrees +/- 4.4 degrees , and 16.1 degrees +/- 4.7 degrees on the supine, double-legged stance, and single-legged stance radiographs, respectively. Because the position of the bipolar cup reflects the direction of loads pivoting on it, the direction of the joint force in the frontal plane acting on the bipolar prosthesis is about 16 degrees to vertical.
    The Journal of Arthroplasty 03/2007; 22(2):189-94. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study prospectively evaluates the outcomes at a minimum 4-year follow-up after PCL reconstruction using quadruple hamstring tendon autograft with an arthroscopic double fixation technique. During 1996-1999, hamstring tendon autograft graft has been used in 57 patients. Data from 52 patients who had been followed up completely were analyzed. All patients suffered from a grade 3 or higher grade of posterior drawer test and posterior sag sign with MRI image confirmation. Twelve knees had combined posterior and posterolateral instability, which were simultaneously reconstructed. Clinical assessments included Lysholm knee score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores, KT-1000 instrumented test, thigh muscle assessment, and radiographic evaluation. The mean Lysholm score was 54 (40-65) and 91 (65-100) points (P<0.01) before and after surgery. Thirty (58%) patients could return to moderate or strenuous activity. The evaluation of AP translation has been performed with KT-1000. The average posterior displacement measured with KT-1000 was 11.69+/-2.01 mm preoperatively and 3.45+/-2.04 mm postoperatively. Forty-two (81%) patients demonstrated ligament laxity of less than 5 mm. Forty-two (81%) patients were rated as normal or nearly normal based on IKDC scores. Forty-six (88%) patients achieved a minimum of 80% recovery of extensor strength and 44 (85%) patients achieved a minimum of 80% recovery of flexor strength. Statistically significant differences existed in thigh girth, extensor strength, and flexor strength before and after reconstruction. Arthroscopic reconstruction for PCL with four-strand hamstring tendon graft produced satisfactory results. The semitendinosus and gracilis tendon graft is adequate in graft size, technically easier to perform and more reproducible, and had a satisfactory result.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2006; 14(11):1045-54. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is indicated in the ACL-deficient knee with symptomatic instability and multiple ligaments injuries. In the present study, we describe the clinical results of quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft for ACL reconstruction. From 1996 to 1998, the graft has been used in 38 patients. Thirty-four patients with complete final follow-up for 4-7 years were analyzed. The average follow-up time was 62 (48-84) months. Thirty-two patients (94%) achieved good or excellent results by Lysholm knee rating. Twenty-six patients (76%) could return to moderate or strenuous activity after reconstruction. Twenty-eight patients (82%) had ligament laxity of less than 2 mm. Finally; 31 patients (91%) were assessed as normal or nearly normal rating by IKDC guideline. Twenty-five patients (73%) had less than 10 mm difference in thigh girth between their reconstructed and normal limbs. Thirty-two (94%) and 31 (91%) patients could achieve recovery of the extensor and flexor muscle strength in the reconstructed knee to 80% or more of normal knee strength, respectively. A statistically significant difference exists in thigh girth difference, extensor strength ratio, and flexor strength ratio before and after reconstruction. Tunnel expansion with more than 1 mm was identified in 2 (6%) tibial tunnels. Our study revealed satisfactory clinical subjective and objective results at 4-7 years follow-up. Quadriceps tendon autograft has the advantage of being self-available, relatively easier arthroscopic technique, and having a suitable size, making it an acceptable graft choice for ACL reconstruction. There is little quadriceps muscle strength loss after quadriceps harvest. A quadriceps tendon-patellar autograft is an adequate graft choice to ACL reconstruction.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2006; 14(11):1077-85. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prospect for success in the efficacy of osteotomy for precollapse stage of femoral head osteonecrosis depends on the ability to predict reliably the stress changes derived from specific osteotomies. A three-dimensional finite-element analysis was thus designed to compute necrotic femoral head stress changes with different extent of necrocrosis that accompany anterior or posterior rotational osteotomies. Computed tomography images of a standard composite femur were used to create the three-dimensional finite-element intact femur model. Based on the intact model, 27 models simulating three different levels of necrotic region together with nine different rotational osteotomies were created. The von Mises stress distributions of each model were analyzed and compared for a loading condition simulating single-legged stance. (1) The stress reduction in anterior rotational osteotomy is more effective as compared to that of the posterior rotational osteotomy for various necrotic lesion sizes. (2) Von Mises stress on the necrotic zone decreased with increasing rotational angle. The decreasing rate was higher for the femoral head with a narrow lesion. (3) Femoral head with a wider necrotic lesion had a higher risk for developing collapse due to high local stress on the surface of necrotic region; whereas the necrotic region tended to expand in size instead of collapse for femoral head with a narrow lesion due to high local stress on the interface between necrotic region and healthy bone. Transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy is a technically demanding procedure and associated with high complication risks, a more scrupulous planning including the finite-element analysis should be considered before doing surgery in clinical subjects.
    Clinical Biomechanics 12/2006; 21(9):969-76. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preheating of the femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty improves the cement-prosthesis bond by decreasing the interfacial porosity. The main concern, however, is the potential thermal osteonecrosis because of an increased polymerization temperature. In this study, the effects of femoral canal precooling on the characteristics of the cement-stem interface were evaluated in an experimental model for three test conditions: precooling of the femoral canal, preheating of the stem (44 degrees C), and a control in which stems were inserted at room temperature without thermal manipulation of the implant, cement, or bone. Compared to the control group, precooling of the femoral canal and preheating of the stem had similar effects on the cement-stem interface, with greater interfacial shear strength and a reduced porosity. Femoral canal precooling also produced a lower temperature at the cement-bone interface. No difference was found in the ultimate compressive strength of bone cement for the three preparation conditions. Based on this laboratory model, precooling of the femoral canal could improve shear strength and porosity at the stem-cement interface, minimize thermal injury, and maintain the mechanical strength of the cement.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 10/2006; 24(9):1809-14. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the release of antibiotics in vivo, from an articulating polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer used in two-stage revision arthroplasty of infected hip implants. Forty-six patients who underwent two-stage revision hip arthroplasty for infections were managed with an interim PMMA spacer loaded with a high dose of vancomycin and aztreonam. Serum and aliquots of drainage collected after the first-stage surgery, and joint fluid obtained at the time of the second-stage surgery were analyzed for antibiotic concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography and bioactivity by tube dilution bioassay. Following implantation, the highest levels of antibiotics were measured in aliquots of drainage on the first day (vancomycin: 1538.0 +/- 243.6 microg/mL; aztreonam: 1003.5 +/- 323.5 microg/mL), decreasing to 571.9 +/- 169.4 microg/mL for vancomycin and 313.6 +/- 88.3 microg/mL for aztreonam after 7 days. Antibiotic concentrations in serum were very low (vancomycin: 0.58 +/- 0.2 microg/mL, range: 0.1-1.6 microg/mL; aztreonam: 0.46 +/- 0.3 microg/mL, range: 0.1-0.9 microg/mL at 24 h) and there was no systemic adverse effect. At a mean 107 days after the first-stage surgery, the concentrations of antibiotics in joint fluid were well above the minimal inhibitory concentration of most common microorganisms. The released antibiotics were bioactive against the test organisms. Based on the observed results, we confirmed the safety and effectiveness of in vivo drug delivery from antibiotic-impregnated PMMA hip spacers.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 09/2006; 24(8):1615-21. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deep hip infection is a rare complication of intertrochanteric fractures and an optimal treatment has not yet been reported. Twenty-seven patients who contracted deep hip sepsis following the failed primary treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture were treated with two-stage hip arthroplasty. Antibiotic-impregnated cement beads were implanted following resection arthroplasty in the first 15 patients, and a temporary cement spacer prosthesis was used in the other 12 hips. There was only one recurrence of infection at an average follow-up of 4.8 years. Complications included non-union of the greater trochanter in four patients, intraoperative femoral fracture in two and fracture of the cement prosthesis in one. The use of an interim spacer was associated with better hip function in the interim period; a decreased operative time and less blood loss at the time of arthroplasty; and a higher hip score at final follow-up. Staged arthroplasty is an effective salvage procedure for deep hip infection after the failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture. The use of a temporary spacer maintains hip function between stages, makes arthroplasty less complicated, and improves the clinical outcome.
    International Orthopaedics 09/2006; 30(4):228-32. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Pang-Hsin Hsieh, Yu-Han Chang, Chun-Hsiung Shih
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    ABSTRACT: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective but technically demanding surgical procedure. We evaluated the efficiency of computer-assisted navigation in PAO and compared it with the traditional approach. We performed a randomized study of 36 patients undergoing PAO using either the CT-based, computer-assisted navigation technique or the conventional approach. The operative details, radiographic results, and functional outcomes were compared between groups. Patients in the conventional surgery group required an average of 4.4 (2-7) images of intraoperative radiographs, whereas only 0.6 (0-1) images were required in the navigation group. The operation time was 21 min shorter with computer-assisted navigation. No significant difference with regard to operative blood loss, transfusion requirement, correction of deformity, and functional improvement was found. Complications such as intraarticular damage, osteonecrosis, or neurovascular injury were not encountered. A computer-assisted navigation system is a feasible tool to provide real-time image guidance and facilitate PAO. However, it offers little additional benefit when the surgery is done by an experienced surgeon.
    Acta Orthopaedica 09/2006; 77(4):591-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periprosthetic fractures of the greater trochanter through osteolytic cysts are rare. The proper treatment and its influence on the prosthetic survival remains unknown. We retrospectively evaluated 887 hips with uncemented MicroStructured Omnifit total hip prostheses at a mean follow-up time of 11 (5-14) years. We found 23 (2.6%) fractures of the greater trochanter through a cystic lesion, occurring 4-11 years postoperatively. Nonoperative treatment healed 15 of the 17 fractures that were minimally displaced. At a mean follow-up of 3 (2-5) years after the fracture, 16 had had revision of the components because of excessive wear, loosening, or nonunion. We conclude that a periprosthetic fracture of the greater trochanter through an osteolytic lesion is usually stable and heals without treatment. However, it is associated with poor prosthetic survival because of excessive polyethylene wear.
    Acta Orthopaedica 09/2005; 76(4):538-43. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Chih-Hwa Chen, Kuo-Yaw Hsu, Wen-Jer Chen, Chun-Hsiung Shih
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    ABSTRACT: Biceps long head tendon lesion is commonly associated with rotator cuff tendon pathology. This study is to determine the pathologic spectrum of biceps long head tendon in surgical cases with complete full thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1993 and 2002, 122 complete rotator cuff tears with surgery were included for the analysis. During surgery, biceps long head tendon was grossly examined or evaluated via arthroscopy. A simplified classification was used to describe the biceps lesion. 50 (41%) patients had type 1 lesion (tendinitis), 10 (8%) patients had type 2 lesion (subluxation), 12 (10%) patients had type 3 (dislocation), 15 (12%) patients had type 4 (partial tear), and 6 patients (5%) had type 5 (complete rupture). The remaining 29 patients (24%) did not have obvious pathology. All chronic rotator cuff tear (> 3 months) were associated with biceps tendon pathology. A rotator cuff tear greater than 5 cm as determined at surgery was strongly associated with an advanced biceps lesion. Biceps tendon injuries are associated with complete rotator cuff tears and there may be a causal relationship due to the impingement that occurs. Early identification and repair of rotator cuff lesions may prevent further deterioration of the biceps tendon.
    The Journal of trauma 06/2005; 58(6):1189-93. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy is a technical demanding procedure. Currently, the pre-operative planning of the transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy is mostly based on X-ray images. The surgeons would need to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the femoral head and the necrosis in their mind. This study develops a simulation platform using computer models based on the computed tomography images of the femoral head to evaluate the degree to which transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy moves the region of osteonecrotic femoral head out of the weight-bearing area in stance and gait cycle conditions. Based on this simulation procedure, the surgeons would be better informed before the surgery and the indication can be carefully assessed. A case with osteonecrosis involving 15% of the femoral head was recruited. Virtual models with the same size lesion but at different locations were devised. Computer models were created using SolidWorks 2000 CAD software. The area ratio of weight-bearing zone occupied by the necrotic lesion on two conditions, stance and gait cycle, were measured after surgery simulations. For the specific case and virtual models devised in this study, computer simulation showed the following two findings: (1) The degrees needed to move the necrosis out of the weight-bearing zone in stance were less by anterior rotational osteotomy as compared to that of posterior rotational osteotomy. However, the necrotic region would still overlap with the weight-bearing area during gait cycle. (2) Because the degrees allowed for posterior rotation were less restricted than anterior rotation, posterior rotational osteotomies were often more effective to move the necrotic region out of the weight-bearing area during gait cycle. The computer simulation platform by registering actual CT images is a useful tool to assess the direction and degrees needed for transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy. Although the results indicated that anterior rotational osteotomy was more effective to move the necrosis out of the weight-bearing zone in stance for models devised in this study, in circumstances where the necrotic region located at various locale, considering the limitation of anterior rotation inherited with the risk of vascular compromise, it might be more beneficial to perform posterior rotation osteotomy in taking account of gait cycle.
    Clinical Biomechanics 02/2005; 20(1):63-9. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local bone loss after implantation of traditional stem-type prostheses remains an unsolved problem during the long-term application of total hip replacement. The stress shielding effect and osteolysis were thought to be the two main factors that result in local bone loss after prosthesis implantation. A newly designed stemless cervico-trochanteric (C-T) prosthesis was thus developed to reduce stress shielding and osteolysis caused by the implantation of conventional stem-type prosthesis. Eight synthetic femora were implanted with C-T and porous coated anatomic (PCA) prostheses. Under 2,000-Newton load, the surface strains of proximal femora were compared between the intact, PCA press-fit femora and the C-T implanted femora with three different fixation modes: two-screw fixation, three-screw fixation, and three-screw combined with cement fixation. The results revealed that stress shielding in the C-T implanted femora was significantly eliminated compared to that of the PCA implanted femora (p<0.01). No statistical difference in strain magnitude was found for the C-T implanted femora among the three different fixation modes (p>0.1). The C-T implanted femur has more physiological strain distribution. Moreover, from the C-T prosthetic characteristic design, the localized osteolysis would be also reduced due to the overall coverage of neck-trochanteric area. The newly designed C-T prosthesis may be a useful alternative to the traditional stem-type prosthesis in the future.
    Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2005; 15(3):239-49. · 1.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

552 Citations
99.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2012
    • Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2010
    • Chang Gung University
      • College of Medicine
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2002–2010
    • Chung Shan Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2005
    • Chung Yuan Christian University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Taichung, Taiwan, Taiwan