ABSTRACT: Underdiagnosis and low levels of asthma control are frequent occurring problems in patients with asthma.
The study aim was to evaluate the ability of non-invasive inflammatory markers in exhaled breath to predict exacerbations of childhood asthma, and to assess the time course of changes in these exhaled markers before, during and after exacerbations.
The design was a prospective one-year longitudinal study. Regular two-month visits at the outpatient clinic were performed. Forty children with asthma (aged 6-16 years) participated. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of an exacerbation. Assessment was made of the presence and severity of pulmonary symptoms, use of medication, and measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using home monitor. The following independent parameters were assessed during outpatient visits: (1) exhaled nitric oxide, (2) inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate: acidity, nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, interleukin-1α, -5, -13, interferon-γ, (3) lung function, (4) asthma control score.
Thirty-eight of 40 children completed the study. Sixteen children developed exacerbations, of which ten were moderate and six severe. Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that condensate acidity, interleukin-5 and asthma control score were significant predictors of an asthma exacerbation (P < 0.05). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, exacerbations were best predicted by the asthma control score and by the level of interleukin-5 in exhaled breath condensate (Wald scores of 7.19 and 4.44, P = 0.007 and P = 0.035 respectively). The predicted survival curve of this multivariate model showed a two times reduced risk on exacerbations in the category of children with the 10% most optimal values of IL-5 and asthma control score.
Both exhaled breath condensate interleukin-5 level and asthma control score were significant predictors of asthma exacerbations. These findings open up the possibility of assessing the potential of such parameters to titrate asthma treatment in future studies.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy 05/2012; 42(5):792-8. · 5.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Airway inflammation in asthma is characterized by the production of cytokines, chemokines and soluble adhesion molecules. The assessment of these inflammatory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is hampered by low detection rates. However, the use of a glass condenser system combined with a sensitive analytical technique may increase the possibility to assess these biomarkers in EBC in a reliable way.
(1) To assess the detection rates of cytokines (IL-1alpha, -1beta, -2, -4, -5, -6, -10, -12p70, -13, -18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha), chemokines [MIP1alpha (CCL3), MIF, eotaxin (CCL11), RANTES (CCL5), IP10 (CXCL10), IL8 (CXCL8), MCP1] and soluble adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)] in EBC of children with asthma and healthy control children; (2) To study the differences in the biomarker concentration between children with asthma and controls.
Sixty children were included: 31 asthmatics (71% atopic) and 29 controls. Exhaled breath condensate was collected using a glass condenser system. The inflammatory markers (IM) were analysed using multiplex immunoassay technology.
Detection percentages of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules ranged from 94% to 100%, except for eotaxin (CCL11) and RANTES (CCL5) (detection rates of 10% and 45% in healthy controls, respectively). The intra-subject variability of biomarkers in EBC in the group as a whole ranged from 5.2% to 35.0%. In asthmatics, the levels of cytokines (IL-2, -4, -5, -6, -13, IFN-gamma), chemokines (MIP1alpha [CCL3], MIF, RANTES [CCL5], IP10 [CXCL10], IL8 [CXCL8], MCP1) and adhesion molecules (sICAM, sVCAM) were significantly increased in comparison with controls (P<0.05).
If collected with a glass condenser and analysed by multiplex immunoassay technology, cytokines, chemokines and soluble adhesion molecules can be reliably demonstrated in EBC of children. Most of these IM were elevated in EBC of asthmatics compared with controls.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy 01/2010; 40(1):77-84. · 5.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The correct diagnosis of asthma in young children is often hard to achieve, resulting in undertreatment of asthmatic children and overtreatment in transient wheezers.
To develop a new diagnostic tool that better discriminates between asthma and transient wheezing and that leads to a more accurate diagnosis and hence less undertreatment and overtreatment. A first stage in the development of such a tool is the ability to discriminate between asthmatic children and healthy controls. The integrative analysis of large numbers of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath has the potential to discriminate between various inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract.
Breath samples were obtained and analysed for VOC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from asthmatic children (n=63) and healthy controls (n=57). A total of 945 determined compounds were subjected to discriminant analysis to find those that could discriminate diseased from healthy children. A set of samples from both asthmatic and healthy children was selected to construct a model that was subsequently used to predict the asthma or the healthy status of a test group. In this way, the predictive value of the model could be tested.
The discriminant analyses demonstrated that asthma and healthy groups are distinct from one another. A total of eight components discriminated between asthmatic and healthy children with a 92% correct classification, achieving a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 95%. Conclusion The results show that a limited number of VOC in exhaled air can well be used to distinguish children with asthma from healthy children.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy 09/2009; 40(1):68-76. · 5.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate may be useful to diagnose and monitor childhood asthma. Their ability to indicate an asthma diagnosis, and to assess asthma severity and control, is largely unknown.
To study (1) the ability of exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (nitrite, nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, 8-isoprostane, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, -4, -5, -10 and acidity) to discriminate between childhood asthma and controls. (2) The ability of these biomarkers to indicate asthma severity and control.
One-hundred and fourteen children were included: 64 asthmatics (10.7+/-3.0 years, 67.2% atopic) and 50 controls (10.0+/-0.4 years). Condensate was collected using a glass condenser.
Exhaled nitric oxide, IFN-gamma and IL-4 in exhaled breath condensate differed significantly between asthma and controls. Multivariate backward logistic regression models demonstrated that IL-4 (odds ratio 7.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2-51.0) was the only significant indicator of an asthma diagnosis. Asthma control was best assessed by exhaled nitric oxide, 8-isoprostane, IFN-gamma and IL-4 (sensitivity 82%, specificity 80%, P<0.05), whereas exhaled nitric oxide, 8-isoprostane, nitrate and nitrite in condensate were the best indicators of asthma severity (sensitivity 89%, specificity 72%, P<0.05).
Different markers in condensate are of an additional value to exhaled nitric oxide, and are needed in non-invasive inflammometry. They could be useful to diagnose asthma and to indicate asthma control and severity in childhood.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy 10/2007; 37(9):1303-11. · 5.03 Impact Factor