[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vegetative mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus were differentiated into primordia and subsequently into fruit bodies in synthetic sucrose-asparagine medium when exposed to light at low temperature. During photo-morphogenesis, L-ascorbic acid-like substances called reductones were produced. L-ascorbic acid, D-erythroascorbic acid, 5-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid, 5-O-(α-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid, 5-methyl-5-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid and 5-methyl-5-O-(α-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid were accumulated initially in the illuminated mycelia before the initiation of fruiting. The content of glycosides of erythroascorbic acid and their methylated compounds increased again in the primordia and the fruit bodies. Exogenous L-ascorbic acid induced the formation of primordia from the mycelia in the dark in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this suggests that these reductones might play a role in mediating the light stimulus in photomorphogenesis.
The Journal of Microbiology 02/2011; 49(1):71-7. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10; a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was oxidized in a time- and H(2)O(2)-concentration-dependent manner. Oxidized hPTEN was reduced by cellular reductants as in human cells. The reduction rate of oxidized hPTEN was monitored in S. cerevisiae mutants in which the genes involved in redox homeostasis had been disrupted. Reduction of hPTEN was delayed in each of S. cerevisiae grx5Δ and ycp4Δ mutants. Expression of Grx5 and Ycp4 in each of the mutants rescued the reduction rate of oxidized hPTEN. Furthermore, an in vitro assay revealed that the human Grx5/GSH system efficiently catalyzed the reduction of oxidized hPTEN. These results suggest that the reduction of oxidized hPTEN is regulated by Grx5 and Ycp4.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 407(1):175-80. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induced Akt phosphorylation and oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The Cys124 and Cys71 residues of PTEN were critical for the formation of a disulfide bond and the intermediate glutathionylation in the process of reduction of the disulfide bond. To determine which specific tyrosine residues of the PDGF beta receptor (PDGFβR) is involved in PDGF-induced PTEN oxidation and Akt phosphorylation, we investigated a kinase activity-deficient mutant and PDGFβR mutants where the tyrosine residues in the binding site for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), GTPase-activating protein of Ras, Src homology 2 domain containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2, and phospholipase C-1 were replaced by Phe. Both PTEN oxidation and Akt phosphorylation did not occur in response to PDGF in the kinase-deficient mutant and in the PDGFβR mutant with a mutation in the PI3K binding site (Tyr740 and Tyr751). Thus, the kinase activity and the constituent Tyr740 and Tyr751 residues of PDGFβR in the cells stimulated with PDGF are responsible for the oxidation of PTEN and the Akt phosphorylation.
Redox report: communications in free radical research 01/2011; 16(4):181-6. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a key regulator of various transcription factors including p53 and CtBP in the DNA damage signaling pathway. PML-nuclear body (NB) is required for HIPK2-mediated p53 phosphorylation at Ser46 and induction of apoptosis. Although PML-NB targeting of HIPK2 has been shown, much is not clear about the molecular mechanism of HIPK2 recruitment to PML-NBs. Here we show that HIPK2 colocalizes specifically with PML-I and PML-IV. Mutational analysis showed that HIPK2 recruitment to PML-IV-NBs is mediated by the SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs) of both PML-IV and HIPK2. Wild-type HIPK2 associated with SUMO-conjugated PML-IV at a higher affinity than with un-conjugated PML-IV, while the association of a HIPK2 SIM mutant with SUMO-modified PML-IV was impaired. In colony formation assays, HIPK2 strongly suppressed cell proliferation, but HIPK2 SIM mutants did not. In addition, activation and phosphorylation of p53 at the Ser46 residue were impaired by HIPK2 SIM mutants. These results suggest that SIM-mediated HIPK2 targeting to PML-NBs is crucial for HIPK2-mediated p53 activation and induction of apoptosis.
Experimental Cell Research 12/2010; 317(7):1060-70. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reversibly oxidized by hydrogen peroxide and reduced by cellular reductants. Reduction of hPTEN was delayed in each of S. cerevisiae gsh1Delta and gsh2Delta mutants. Expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase Gsh1 in the gsh1Delta mutant rescued regeneration rate of hPTEN. Oxidized hPTEN was reduced by glutathione in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Glutathionylated PTEN was detected. Incubation of 293T cells with BSO and knockdown expression of GCLc in HeLa cells by siRNA resulted in the delay of reduction of oxidized PTEN. Also, in HeLa cells transfected with GCLc siRNA, stimulation with epidermal growth factor resulted in the increase of oxidized PTEN and phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest that the reduction of oxidized hPTEN is mediated by glutathione.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel heme-containing ascorbate oxidase isolated from oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, catalyzes oxidation of ascorbic acid (Kim et al., 1996). In this report, we describe the identification of intracellular substrates of the enzyme in the mushroom. Six compounds, which can serve as substrate of the heme-containing ascorbate oxidase, were identified as L-ascorbic acid, D-erythroascorbic acid, 5-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid, 5-O-(alpha-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid, 5-methyl-5-O-(alpha-D-gluco-pyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid, and 5-methyl-5-O-(alpha-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-erythroascorbic acid. All of the compounds were oxidized at a significant rate by the heme-containing ascorbate oxidase. Oxidation of the compounds produced equimolar amounts of hydrogen peroxide per mole of substrate.
The Journal of Microbiology 05/2009; 47(2):178-86. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumour suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10; a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase) is a multifunctional protein deregulated in many types of cancer. It is suggested that a number of proteins that relate with PTEN functionally or physically have not yet been found. In order to search for PTEN-interacting proteins that might be crucial in the regulation of PTEN, we exploited a proteomics-based approach. PTEN-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lysates were used in affinity chromatography and then analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS). A total of 93 proteins were identified. Among the proteins identified, we concentrated on the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4 (neural-precursor-cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated gene 4), and performed subsequent validation experiments using HeLa cells. Nedd4 inhibited PTEN-induced apoptotic cell death and, conversely, the Nedd4 level was down-regulated by PTEN. The down-regulation effect was diminished by a mutation (C124S) in the catalytic site of PTEN. Nedd4 expression was also decreased by a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002, suggesting that the regulation is dependent on the phosphatase-kinase activity of the PTEN-PI3K/Akt pathway. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Nedd4 was transcriptionally regulated by PTEN. Thus our results have important implications regarding the roles of PTEN upon the E3 ubquitin ligase Nedd4 as a negative feedback regulator as well as a substrate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a member of the nuclear protein kinase family, which induces both p53- and CtBP-mediated apoptosis. Levels of HIPK2 were increased by UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment, thereby implying the degradation of HIPK2 in cells under normal conditions. Here, we indicate that HIPK2 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the WD40-repeat/SOCS box protein WSB-1, a process that is blocked under DNA damage conditions. Yeast two-hybrid screening was conducted to identify the proteins that interact with HIPK2. WSB-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was characterized as an HIPK2-interacting protein. The coexpression of WSB-1 resulted in the degradation of HIPK2 via its C-terminal region. Domain analysis of WSB-1 showed that WD40-repeats and the SOCS box were required for its interaction with and degradation of HIPK2, respectively. In support of the degradation of HIPK2 by WSB-1, HIPK2 was polyubiquitinated by WSB-1 in vitro and in vivo. The knockdown of endogenous WSB-1 with the expression of short hairpin RNA against WSB-1 increases the stability of endogenous HIPK2 and resulted in the accumulation of HIPK2. The ubiquitination and degradation of HIPK2 by WSB-1 was inhibited completely via the administration of DNA damage reagents, including Adriamycin and cisplatin. These findings effectively illustrate the regulatory mechanisms by which HIPK2 is maintained at a low level, by WSB-1 in cells under normal conditions, and stabilized by genotoxic stresses.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2008; 283(8):4682-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engagement of peptide growth-factor receptors induces a transient production of low levels of H2O2 in various cells. The H2O2 response to platelet-derived growth factor requires the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor as well as the
activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). It appears that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, a product of PI 3-kinase, is necessary
to activate an isoform of NADPH oxidase through the small GTP-binding protein Rac. H2O2 thus produced propagates its signal by specifically acting on protein tyrosine phosphatases. And enhancement of protein tyrosine
phosphorylation in growth factor-stimulated cells depends on the H2O2 production. This is probably because the activation of a receptor tyrosine kinase is not sufficient to increase the steady-state
level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cells, and that concurrent inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase by H2O2
might be needed as well. Elimination of H2O2 appears to be an extensively regulated process. Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and Prx II, two cytosolic thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases,
are inactivated at the G2-M transition through Cdc2 kinase-dependent phosphorylation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The signaling pathway of insulin/insulin-like growth factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/forkhead transcription factors is known to control life span and senescence in organisms ranging from yeast to mice. The FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors, FOXO1, FOXO3a, and FOXO4, play a critical role in this signal transduction pathway. However, the impact of FOXO3a activation on life span of primary cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) is unknown. To investigate the role of FOXO3a in the regulation of cellular senescence, we prepared FOXO3a-siRNA stable HDFs. We found that the down-regulation of FOXO3a RNA and protein in HDFs induced many senescent phenotypes, including changes in cell morphology, increases in population doubling times, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining and the cellular reactive oxygen species, and up-regulation of p53/p21 protein expression. Our data provide evidence of the key role of FOXO3a transcription factor as a mediator of cellular senescence in HDFs, and suggest that the mechanism of senescence is conserved in HDFs.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 02/2005; 60(1):4-9. · 4.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) and its downstream signaling molecules PDK-1 and Akt were analyzed in SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE(2) human neuroblastoma cell lines. When cells were stimulated with insulin, PI-3 kinase was activated in both cell lines, whereas the translocation of PDK-1 to the membrane fraction and phosphorylated Akt were observed only in SK-N-SH cells. Analyses of the insulin-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) oxidation indicate that PTEN oxidation occurred in SK-N-SH cells, which can produce ROS, but not in SK-N-BE(2) cells, which cannot increase ROS in response to insulin stimulation. When SK-N-SH cells were pretreated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride before insulin stimulation, insulin-mediated translocation of PDK-1 to the membrane fraction and phosphorylation of Akt were remarkably reduced, whereas PI-3 kinase activity was not changed significantly. These results indicate that not only PI-3 kinase activation but also inhibition of PTEN by ROS is needed to increase cellular level of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate for recruiting downstream signaling molecules such as PDK-1 and Akt in insulin-mediated signaling. Moreover, the ROS generated by insulin stimulation mainly contributes to the inactivation of PTEN and not to the activation of PI-3 kinase in the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2005; 16(1):348-57. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulation of cells with various peptide growth factors induces the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The action of this enzyme is reversed by that of the tumor suppressor PTEN. With the use of cells overexpressing NADPH oxidase 1 or peroxiredoxin II, we have now shown that H2O2 produced in response to stimulation of cells with epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor potentiates PIP3 generation and activation of the protein kinase Akt induced by these growth factors. We also show that a small fraction of PTEN molecules is transiently inactivated as a result of oxidation of the essential cysteine residue of this phosphatase in various cell types stimulated with epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or insulin. These results suggest that the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by growth factors might not be sufficient to induce the accumulation of PIP3 because of the opposing activity of PTEN and that the concomitant local inactivation of PTEN by H2O2 might be needed to increase the concentration of PIP3 sufficiently to trigger downstream signaling events. Furthermore, together with previous observations, our data indicate that peroxiredoxin likely participates in PIP3 signaling by modulating the local concentration of H2O2.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2004; 101(47):16419-24. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) has a number of conserved cysteine residues on its cytoplasmic domain. We have examined whether the cysteine residues play a role in the enzymic function of PDGFR-beta. We found that N-ethylmaleimide, which selectively alkylates free thiol groups of cysteine residues, completely inhibited the kinase activity of PDGFR-beta. We then identified, through site-directed mutagenesis, two conserved cysteine residues critical for the enzymic function of PDGFR-beta. Cys to Ser mutations for either Cys-822, positioned in the catalytic loop, or Cys-940, located in the C-terminal kinase subdomain, significantly reduced the activities of autophosphorylation and phosphorylation towards exogenous substrates. The non-reducing gel analysis indicated that neither of these cysteine residues contributes to the kinase activity by disulphide-bond formation. In addition, the individual mutation of Cys-822 and Cys-940 had no effect on protein stability or the binding of substrates or ATP, implying that these cysteine residues are involved in enzyme catalysis. Finally, proteolytic cleavage assays showed that the mutation of Cys-940, but not Cys-822, induced a protein conformational change. Taken together, these results suggest that Cys-940 contributes to the catalytic activity of PDGFR-beta by playing a structural role, whereas Cys-822 contributes through a different mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulation of cells with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) results in the increase in generation of H(2)O(2) in mitochondria that leads to apoptosis. The effect of H(2)O(2) produced by TNF-alpha on the redox status of selenocysteine (SeCys) residue essential for mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2) was investigated in HeLa cells. TNF-alpha caused accumulation of oxidized TrxR2 with a thioselenide bond. The conditional induction of SeCys-deficient TrxR2 resulted in the increased production of H(2)O(2) and apoptosis. These results suggest that the SeCys residue of TrxR2 plays a critical role in cell survival by serving as an electron donor for Trx-II and subsequent peroxiredoxin-III, which is a primary line of defense against H(2)O(2) in mitochondria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis is a critical step for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important angiogenic molecule associated with tumor-induced neovascularization. VEGF exerts its activity through binding to its receptor tyrosine kinase, KDR/Flk-1, expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. From the screening of medicinal plants, we have identified 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (PGG) from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora that inhibited the binding of VEGF to KDR/Flk-1. PGG efficiently blocked VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and the growth of immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells, but did not affect the growth of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells. PGG also blocked VEGF-induced capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cell on Matrigel. Our results suggest that PGG could be a candidate for developing anti-angiogenic agent.
Cancer Letters 06/2004; 208(1):89-94. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in the repression of photosystem gene expression. The PpsR protein was heterologously overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. Gel mobility shift assay showed that the purified PpsR has DNA-binding activity. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that some portions of PpsR were oxidized, indicating that intramolecular or intermolecular disulphide bonds were formed between the two cysteines in each subunit. When the disulphide bond of PpsR was reduced by DTT, the binding activity of PpsR to the puc promoter region distinctly increased. The changes in protein level and DNA-binding activity of PpsR were observed in a conjugant with an extra copy of the ppsR gene and in a PpsR-null mutant (PPS1), respectively. Both cysteines in PpsR existed in their reduced form under aerobic, anaerobic-dark and anaerobic-light growth conditions, as determined using thiol-specific chemical modification. In an AppA-null mutant (APP11), the binding activity and the amount of PpsR decreased compared to those of the wild-type and an appA-complemented strain, and decreased even more under anaerobic-dark conditions than under aerobic conditions. PpsR had a redox-sensitive property but retained its reduced state in the cell, and its amount was reduced by disruption of AppA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) is a family of enzymes important for regulating cellular phosphorylation state. The oxidation and consequent inactivation of several PTPs by H(2)O(2) are well demonstrated. It is also shown that recovery of enzymatic activity depends on the availability of cellular reductants. Among these redox-regulated PTPs, PTEN, Cdc25 and low molecular weight PTP are known to form a disulfide bond between two cysteines, one in the active site and the other nearby, during oxidation by H(2)O(2). The disulfide bond likely confers efficiency in the redox regulation of the PTPs and protects cysteine-sulfenic acid of PTPs from further oxidation. In this review, through a comparative analysis of the oxidation process of Yap1 and PTPs, we propose the mechanism of disulfide bond formation in the PTPs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) is a family of enzymes important for regulating cellular phosphorylation state. The oxidation and consequent inactivation of several PTPs by H2O2 are well demonstrated. It is also shown that recovery of enzymatic activity depends on the availability of cellular reduc- tants. Among these redox-regulated PTPs, PTEN, Cdc25 and low molecular weight PTP are known to form a disul¢de bond between two cysteines, one in the active site and the other near- by, during oxidation by H2O2. The disul¢de bond likely confers e⁄ciency in the redox regulation of the PTPs and protects cysteine-sulfenic acid of PTPs from further oxidation. In this review, through a comparative analysis of the oxidation process of Yap1 and PTPs, we propose the mechanism of disul¢de bond formation in the PTPs. . 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified and characterized a 14-kDa human thioredoxin (Trx)-related protein designated TRP14. This cytosolic protein was expressed in all tissues and cell types examined, generally in smaller amounts than Trx1. Although TRP14 contains five cysteines, only the two Cys residues in its WCPDC motif were exposed and redox sensitive. Unlike Trx1, which was an equally good substrate for both Trx reductase 1 (TrxR1) and TrxR2, oxidized TRP14 was reduced by TrxR1 but not by TrxR2. Biochemical characterization of TRP14 suggested that, like Trx1, TRP14 is a disulfide reductase; its active site cysteine is sufficiently nucleophilic with the pK(a) value of 6.1; and its redox potential (-257 mV) is similar to those of other cellular thiol reductants. However, although TRP14 reduced small disulfide-containing peptides, it did not reduce the disulfides of known Trx1 substrates, ribonucleotide reductase, peroxiredoxin, and methionine sulfoxide reductase. These results suggest that TRP14 and Trx1 might act on distinct substrate proteins.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2004; 279(5):3142-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor