T Logtenberg

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands

Are you T Logtenberg?

Claim your profile

Publications (103)583.33 Total impact

  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):LB-261-LB-261. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-LB-261 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, a highly successful class of biological drugs, are conventionally manufactured in mammalian cell lines. A recent approach to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies has been to combine two or more of them; however this increases the complexity of development and manufacture. To address this issue a method to efficiently express multiple monoclonal antibodies from a single cell has been developed and we describe here the generation of stable cell clones that express high levels of a human monoclonal antibody mixture. PER.C6 cells were transfected with a combination of plasmids containing genes encoding three different antibodies. Clones that express the three corresponding antibody specificities were identified, subcloned, and passaged in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. At several time points, batch production runs were analyzed for stable growth and IgG production characteristics. The majority (11/12) of subclones analyzed expressed all three antibody specificities in constant ratios with total IgG productivity ranging between 15 and 20 pg/cell/day under suboptimal culture conditions after up to 67 population doublings. The growth and IgG production characteristics of the stable clones reported here resemble those of single monoclonal antibody cell lines from conventional clone generation programs. We conclude that the methodology described here is applicable to the generation of stable PER.C6(R) clones for industrial scale production of mixtures of antibodies.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/2010; 106(5):741-50. DOI:10.1002/bit.22763 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the contribution of antibody light (L) chains to the diversity and binding properties of immune repertoires, a phage display repertoire was constructed from a single human antibody L chain and a large collection of antibody heavy (H) chains harvested from the blood of two human donors immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine. After selection for binding to TT, 129 unique antibodies representing 53 variable immunoglobulin H chain (VH) gene rearrangements were isolated. This panel of anti-TT antibodies restricted to a single variable immunoglobulin L chain (VL) could be organized into 17 groups binding non-competing epitopes on the TT molecule. Comparison of the VH regions in this VL-restricted panel with a previously published repertoire of anti-TT VH regions with cognate VH-VL pairing showed a very similar distribution of VH, DH and JH gene segment utilization and length of the complementarity-determining region 3 of the H chain. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the single-VL anti-TT repertoire unveiled a range of affinities, with a median monovalent affinity of 2 nM. When the single-VL anti-TT VH repertoire was combined with a collection of naïve VL regions and again selected for binding to TT, many of the VH genes were recovered in combination with a diversity of VL regions. The affinities of a panel of antibodies consisting of a single promiscuous anti-TT VH combined with 15 diverse VL chains were determined and found to be identical to each other and to the original isolate restricted to a single-VL chain. Based on previous estimates of the clonal size of the human anti-TT repertoire, we conclude that up to 25% of human anti-TT-encoding VH regions from an immunized repertoire have promiscuous features. These VH regions readily combine with a single antibody L chain to result in a large panel of anti-TT antibodies that conserve the expected epitope diversity, VH region diversity and affinity of a natural repertoire.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 05/2009; 387(3):548-58. DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.02.009 · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Ton Logtenberg ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic and commercial success of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has inspired innovative approaches aimed at increasing their potency and broadening their applicability. Among these, cocktails of recombinant human mAbs are a logical next step because they combine the technological advances made in the field of antibody engineering with the notion that the ingredients of polyclonal-antibody preparations act in concert to optimally exert and recruit effector functions. Cocktails of mAbs have entered clinical trials, and new technology platforms are being developed for their generation. On the basis of preclinical and early clinical results, the question is not whether cocktails of mAbs have a bright future as therapeutics, but rather what platform is able to reproducibly and cost effectively generate efficacious concoctions that are approvable by the regulatory authorities.
    Trends in Biotechnology 10/2007; 25(9):390-4. DOI:10.1016/j.tibtech.2007.07.005 · 11.96 Impact Factor

  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 546(1):9 - 24. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb21614.x · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have perfortned a phenotypic and molecular analysis of monoclonal TCRγ/δ T-cell lines derived from jejunal and colonic biopsies of healthy individuals. Flow cytometric analysis employing a panel of 24 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) demonstrated that intestinal TCRγ/δ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) constitute a phenotypically heterogeneous population. Nucleotide sequence analysis of expressed TCRδ variable (V) regions revealed the dominant utilization of the Vδ2 and Dδ3 gene segments and frequent rearrangement of Jδ3. IEL Vδ regions displayed extensive junctional diversity as a result of N and P insertion and the utilization of Dδ3 in all three reading frames. The results demonstrate that intestinal TCRγ/δ T cells from healthy individuals constitute a phenotypically heterogeneous population expressing Vδ regions that differ from their systemic counterparts.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 06/2006; 38(3):247 - 253. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1993.tb01721.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The formation of a provisional extracellular matrix represents an important step during tumor growth and angiogenesis. Proteins that participate in this process become activated and undergo conformational changes that expose biologically active cryptic sites. Activated matrix proteins express epitopes not found on their native counterparts. We hypothesized that these epitopes may have a restricted tissue distribution, rendering them suitable targets for therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies (huMabs). In this study, we exploited phage antibody display technology and subtractive phage selection to generate human monoclonal antibody fragments that discriminate between the activated and native conformation of the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin. One of the selected antibody fragments, scFv VN18, was used to construct a fully human IgG/kappa monoclonal antibody with an affinity of 9.3 nM. In immunohistochemical analysis, scFv and huMab VN18 recognized activated vitronectin in tumor tissues, whereas hardly any activated vitronectin was detectable in normal tissues. Iodine 123-radiolabeled huMabVN18 was shown to target to Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors in chickens, an animal model in which the epitope for huMab VN18 is exposed during tumor development. Our results establish activated vitronectin as a potential target for tumor therapy in humans.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 10/2004; 53(9):799-808. DOI:10.1007/s00262-004-0506-z · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When a blood clot is formed, vitronectin (VN) is incorporated. Here we studied the consequence of VN incorporation for platelet interactions under flow. Perfusion of whole blood over a fibrin network, formed from purified fibrinogen, resulted in approximately 20% surface coverage with blood platelets. Incorporation of purified multimeric VN into the fibrin network resulted in a 2-fold increase in surface coverage with platelets and in enhancement of platelet aggregate formation. A human monoclonal antibody (huMab VN18), directed against the multimeric form of VN, inhibited platelet adhesion to the combined fibrin/VN matrix to the level of adhesion on fibrin alone. This inhibition was also shown when whole blood was perfused over a plasma-derived clot. Surprisingly, the inhibitory action of the antibody was not directed toward VN incorporated into the fibrin network but toward VN released from the platelets. We conclude that VN-potentiated platelet-clot interaction requires VN in the clot and multimeric VN bound to the platelet surface. Our results provide evidence that homotypic VN interactions contribute to platelet adhesion and aggregation to a blood clot. This report demonstrates for the first time that self-assembly of VN may provide a physiologically relevant contribution to platelet aggregation on a blood clot.
    Blood 09/2004; 104(4):1034-41. DOI:10.1182/blood-2003-12-4293 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • I Van Rhijn · T Logtenberg · C W Ang · L H Van den Berg ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To seek evidence for a role of molecular mimicry in the induction of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the authors studied Campylobacter jejuni-reactive T lymphocytes in patients with GBS. In contrast to controls, gammadelta T cells of patients with GBS with antecedent C jejuni infections failed to respond to C jejuni. Supplementing cell cultures with the cytokines interleukin-2 or interleukin-15 resulted in restoration of the gammadelta T cell proliferative response. Gammadelta T cell non-responsiveness may lead to defective regulation of antibody production, and in this way an (auto)immune response against ganglioside-like epitopes on peripheral nerve may cause GBS.
    Neurology 11/2003; 61(7):994-6. DOI:10.1212/01.WNL.0000083986.53792.90 · 8.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phage display is a widely used technology for the isolation of peptides and proteins with specific binding properties from large libraries of these molecules. A drawback of the common phagemid/helper phage systems is the high infective background of phages that do not display the protein of interest, but are propagated due to non-specific binding to selection targets. This and the enhanced growth rates of bacteria harboring aberrant phagemids not expressing recombinant proteins leads to a serious decrease in selection efficiency. Here we describe a VCSM13-derived helper phage that circumvents this problem, because it lacks the genetic information for the infectivity domains of phage coat protein pIII. Rescue of a library with this novel CT helper phage yields phages that are only infectious when they contain a phagemid-encoded pIII-fusion protein, since phages without a displayed protein carry truncated pIII only and are lost upon re-infection. Importantly, the CT helper phage can be produced in quantities similar to the VCSM13 helper phage. The superiority of CT over VCSM13 during selection was demonstrated by a higher percentage of positive clones isolated from an antibody library after two selection rounds on a complex cellular target. We conclude that the CT helper phage considerably improves the efficiency of selections using phagemid-based protein libraries.
    Nucleic Acids Research 07/2003; 31(11):e59. · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is currently the prime cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. An important complication of C. jejuni enteritis is Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an immune-mediated disorder of peripheral nerve tissue. Because little is known about T cell reactivity to C. jejuni, we have analyzed the in vitro immune response of normal individuals against five isolates of C. jejuni representing five different serotypes. We found a preferential expansion of peripheral blood gammadelta T cells after exposure to crude sonicates of all five C. jejuni serotypes. Expansion of gammadelta T cells was dependent on the presence of CD4+/alphabeta+ T cells in the cultures or addition of exogenous IL-2 or IL-15. C. jejuni stimulation was mediated via the TCR and appeared to be induced by a non-proteinaceous bacterial antigen, most likely of phosphoantigenic origin.
    International Immunology 04/2003; 15(3):373-82. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxg041 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The persistent presence of rheumatoid factors (RFs) in the circulation is a characteristic phenomenon in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent data indicate that RFs associated with seropositive RA are derived from terminally differentiated CD20-, CD38+ plasma cells (PCs) present in synovial fluids of the inflamed joints. These cells were shown to secrete RFs actively and are thought to originate from germinal centre (GC)-like structures present in the inflamed synovium. To obtain a representative image of the structural properties of IgM and IgG RFs associated with RA, phage antibody display libraries were constructed from CD38+ PCs isolated from the inflamed joints of RF-seropositive patients with RA. Subsequently, human IgG Fc-binding monoclonal phage antibodies were selected and analysed. The data suggest that RA-associated RFs are encoded by a diverse set of VL and a more restricted set of VH regions. VH gene family usage of PC-derived IgM- and IgG-RFs was found to be restricted to the VH1 and 3 gene families, with a preference for VH3, and many different VL genes were shown to contribute to RF specificity. Clonally related VH as well as VL sequences were identified, based on the presence of identical CDR3 regions and shared somatic mutations. In this B cell selection process base-pair substitutions as well as deletions of triplets in CDR regions, leaving the transcripts in frame, were involved. Together, these data provide further evidence for an Ag-driven immune response in the terminal differentiation into RF-producing PCs in patients with RA, including expansion of clonally related B cells, selection and isotype switching, all hallmarks of a GC reaction.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 03/2003; 131(2):364-76. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02068.x · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The number of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in production is expected to rise rapidly in the next few years. As a result, there is much focus on the optimization of antibody expression platforms. Several issues are important including the speed of transition from bench to manufacturing, yield of IgG, and quality (particularly of the glycan structures present on immunoglobulins). We have characterized the human cell line PER.C6 for its ability to produce recombinant IgG. Production yields are still being optimized, but in nonfed batch culture, PER.C6 is able to grow to a cell density of 5 x 10(6) cells/mL and produce 300-500 mg/L IgG; this is likely to increase significantly in fed batch cultures. The generation of antibody-producing cell lines is fast, as rounds of amplification of inserted genes are not required for high production yields. The gene copy number of inserted genes is in the region of 1-10 copies per genome. In addition, PER.C6 is a human cell line, and so does not add glycans, which are immunogenic in humans. A core fucose molecule is essentially always present, and galactose residues are present at a physiological level (0, 1, and 2 galactose residues per glycan are present at a ratio of 1:2:1). No hybrid or high-mannose structures are seen.
    Biotechnology Progress 02/2003; 19(1):163-8. DOI:10.1021/bp025574h · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent data indicate that rheumatoid factors (RFs) that occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are derived from Ig-producing terminally differentiated CD20-, CD38+ plasma cells present in synovial fluids (SFs). Phage antibody display libraries were constructed using CD38+ plasma cells isolated from SFs of two RF-seropositive RA patients. The libraries were enriched for phage antibodies (Phabs) binding to human IgG (HuIgG) Fc fragments and the sequences of their V genes were analysed. These data provided further evidence for an Ag-driven immune response in patients with RA, including expansion of clonally related B cells, selection and isotype switching, all hallmarks of a germinal center reaction. In the present study, the functional characteristics of these HuIgG Fc-binding monoclonal (mo) Phabs were further analysed in order to provide more insight into the specificity of HuIgG Fc-binding Phabs. Remarkably, all HuIgG Fc-binding moPhabs tested (n=48; derived from four different libraries) displayed polyreactivity. Structural analysis of the CDR3 regions revealed characteristic features of polyreactive Igs. Most H chain CDR3 regions harboured tryptophan/tyrosine-rich parts and approximately 60% of the L chain CDR3 regions of both RA patients displayed an identical stretch of amino acids (W/Y-D-S-S). Supportive for a dominant role of VH in specificity, exchange of VL regions with a single VH region yielded moPhabs with similar specificities. All together, the data suggest the presence of an Ag-driven process in the joints of patients with RA, including somatic mutation and clonal selection entailing isotype switching, resulting in the differentiation of B cells into polyreactive RF-secreting plasma cells.
    Journal of Autoimmunity 01/2003; 19(4):241-50. DOI:10.1006/jaut.2002.0621 · 8.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since targeting of recombinant adenovirus vectors to defined cell types in vivo is a major challenge in gene therapy and vaccinology, we explored the natural diversity in human adenovirus tissue tropism. Hereto, we constructed a library of Ad5 vectors carrying fibers from other human serotypes. From this library, we identified vectors that efficiently infect human cells that are important for diverse gene therapy approaches and for induction of immunity. For several medical applications (prenatal diagnosis, artificial bone, vaccination, and cardiovascular disease), we demonstrate the applicability of these novel vectors. In addition, screening cell types derived from different species revealed that cellular receptors for human subgroup B adenoviruses are not conserved between rodents and primates. These results provide a rationale for utilizing elements of human adenovirus serotypes to generate chimeric vectors that improve our knowledge concerning adenovirus biology and widen the therapeutic window for vaccination and many different gene transfer applications.
    Journal of Virology 06/2002; 76(9):4612-20. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.9.4612-4620.2002 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ex vivo expansion of primitive human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is clinically relevant for stem cell transplantation and gene therapy. Here, we demonstrate the selective expansion of CD34+CD38- cells from purified CD34+ cells upon stimulation with Flt3-ligand, stem cell factor and thrombopoietin. Over a 100-fold (range 80 to 128-fold) expansion of CD34+CD38- cells was observed with bone marrow and cord blood (CB). The expanded CD34+CD38- cells remained negative for lineage-specific markers and could be induced to differentiate into granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, erythrocytes, and T and B-lymphocytes in vitro. Lineage differentiation assays with single CD34+CD38- cells showed no loss of multilineage potential of expanded cells after ex vivo culture. We also demonstrated that the increase in frequency of CD34+CD38- cells was not as a result of the downregulation of CD38 expression during the culture. Quantitative analysis showed that the number of 6 week cobblestone area forming cells (CAFCwk6), a measure of proliferating HSC, in cytokine-stimulated CD34+ cells were increased by 20-fold. Expanded CD34+CD38- cells could be transduced efficiently with retroviruses encoding the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR) marker gene (17% to 44%, mean 27%), resulting in long-lasting expression of retroviral-encoded genes in progeny HSC and differentiated progenitors. We conclude that the combination Flt3-ligand (FL), stem cell factor and thrombopoietin (TPO) induced strong ex vivo proliferation of CD34+CD38- cells and that the absolute number of expanded cells with stem cell activity increased substantially in this population.
    British Journal of Haematology 05/2002; 117(1):226-37. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2002.03370.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
  • Gerwin Huls · David Gestel · Joke van der Linden · Ed Moret · Ton Logtenberg ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method that allows the rapid improvement of the affinity of phage-displayed antibody fragments by selection on intact eukaryotic cells. A single chain Fv fragment, specific for the tumor-associated Ep-Cam molecule, was mutagenized by shuffling of the immunoglobulin light chain variable region and DNA shuffling of both heavy and light chain variable regions. Higher-affinity mutants were selected from small phage display libraries by cell panning under stringent conditions. When converted to an intact fully human antibody, the mutagenized anti-tumor monoclonal antibody displayed an affinity of 0.4 nM, a 15-fold improvement over the affinity of the original antibody. Compared to previously reported affinity maturation schemes, panning on intact cells does not require purified targets for selection and may be particularly useful when the target molecule can not be expressed as a recombinant molecule or easily purified without disrupting its native configuration. In vitro tumor cell killing assays demonstrated an improved performance of the higher-affinity antibody in complement-mediated tumor cell killing. In contrast, the lower-affinity antibody performed somewhat better in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays and penetrated better in multicell spheroids of tumor cells, an in vitro model for the tumor penetration capacity of antibodies.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 06/2001; 50(3):163-71. DOI:10.1007/s002620100182 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the utilization of T-cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) regions in infiltrates of sural nerve biopsies of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and vasculitic neuropathy. The presence of infiltrating T lymphocytes in sural nerve biopsies may suggest a T cell-mediated immune mechanism in the pathogenesis of CIDP and vasculitic neuropathy. The utilization of TCR Vbeta regions in sural nerves of 13 patients with CIDP and five patients with vasculitic neuropathy was determined by immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription PCR, and nucleotide sequence analysis. These techniques were also applied in four patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) who acted as noninflammatory controls, and in five autopsy controls. The TCR Vbeta utilization of infiltrating T cells in sural nerves of patients with CIDP, vasculitic neuropathy, and noninflammatory controls is heterogeneous. A dominant TCR Vbeta utilization was not found in any of the patients or controls. There is no evidence for the presence of clonally expanded T cells in sural nerves of patients with CIDP and vasculitic neuropathy.
    Neurology 02/2001; 56(1):74-81. DOI:10.1212/WNL.56.1.74 · 8.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are neuropathies characterized by a T-lymphocyte infiltrate in the peripheral nerves. The microenvironment in which these T cells become activated, and the molecules and cells that play a role in this process are incompletely understood. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we studied the effect of the presence of adhesion, costimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules on different cell types as a precondition for local T-cell activation in human sural nerve biopsies of seven patients with CIDP, three patients with vasculitic neuropathy and three healthy controls. In biopsies from CIDP and vasculitic neuropathy patients, but not in those from healthy controls, Schwann cells expressed the adhesion/T-cell stimulatory molecule CD58 (LFA-3). The CD58 molecule was also present on endothelial cells of all vasculitic neuropathy patients and one CIDP patient. In biopsies from normal controls and patients, CD54 (ICAM-1) expression was detectable on microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 was detected on vascular tissue in patients with vasculitic neuropathy. Although macrophages were always present in all subjects, expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecule CD1a by macrophages was restricted to biopsies from two CIDP patients and one vasculitic neuropathy patient. Unexpectedly, Schwann cells of a single vasculitis patient strongly expressed CD1b, a molecule involved in the presentation of self-glycolipids to T cells. Schwann cells in biopsies from patients and normal controls expressed high levels of the invariant chain, CD74, a molecule involved in the intracellular sorting of MHC class II molecules. There was no evidence for the presence of dendritic cells in sural nerve biopsies. These findings support a model in which T-cell activation can be initiated and/or perpetuated locally in sural nerve biopsies of patients with CIDP and vasculitic neuropathy, and predict an important role for Schwann cells and endothelial cells.
    Brain 11/2000; 123 ( Pt 10)(10):2020-9. DOI:10.1093/brain/123.10.2020 · 9.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil activation is a multistep process. In vitro activation of neutrophils with semiphysiological activators is optimal only after preactivation or priming with cytokines, chemotaxins, and/or bacterial products. Until now, no antibodies have been developed that can distinguish between resting and (cytokine) primed neutrophils with a sufficient dynamic range necessary for screening clinical samples. We have isolated two human phage antibodies, designated MoPhab A17 and A27, from a synthetic bacteriophage antibody library. These phage antibodies recognize epitopes that are upregulated on neutrophils present in whole blood treated with low priming concentrations of cytokines, such as GM-CSF and TNF-alpha. This induction was time- and concentration-dependent and optimal at concentrations that are sufficient for priming functional responses in neutrophils: GM-CSF (10 pM) and TNF-alpha (100 IU/ml). PMNs, isolated from the peripheral blood of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a clinical exacerbation, exhibited a partial in vivo primed phenotype. These antibodies promise to be an ideal tool to monitor disease activity in whole blood of patients with inflammatory diseases.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 08/2000; 68(1):58-64. · 4.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
583.33 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2006
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Microbiology
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989-2006
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 2002
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Immunology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1992-2000
    • Utrecht University
      • • Division of Immunology
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1989-1990
    • Columbia University
      • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, NY, United States