L K von Segesser

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (794)2277.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new caval tree system was designed for realistic in vitro simulation. The objective of our study was to assess cannula performance for virtually wall-less versus standard percutaneous thin-walled venous cannulas in a setting of venous collapse in case of negative pressure.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 11/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concomitant aortic and mitral valve replacement or concomitant aortic valve replacement and mitral repair can be a challenge for the cardiac surgeon: in particular, because of their structure and design, two bioprosthetic heart valves or an aortic valve prosthesis and a rigid mitral ring can interfere at the level of the mitroaortic junction. Therefore, when a mitral bioprosthesis or a rigid mitral ring is already in place and a surgical aortic valve replacement becomes necessary, or when older high-risk patients require concomitant mitral and aortic procedures, the new 'fast-implantable' aortic valve system (Intuity™ valve, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) can represent a smart alternative to standard aortic bioprosthesis. Unfortunately, this is still controversial (risk of interference). However, transcatheter aortic valve replacements have been performed in patients with previously implanted mitral valves or mitral rings. Interestingly, we learned that there is no interference (or not significant interference) among the standard valve and the stent valve. Consequently, we can assume that a fast-implantable valve can also be safely placed next to a biological mitral valve or next to a rigid mitral ring without risks of distortion, malpositioning, high gradient or paravalvular leak. This paper describes two cases: a concomitant Intuity™ aortic valve and bioprosthetic mitral valve implantation and a concomitant Intuity™ aortic valve and mitral ring implantation.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 07/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate long-term outcome of initial aortic valve intervention in a paediatric population with congenital aortic stenosis, and to determine risk factors associated with reintervention. Patients and methods: From 1985 to 2009, 77 patients with congenital aortic stenosis and a mean age of 5.8±5.6 years at diagnosis were followed up in our institution for 14.8±9.1 years. Results: First intervention was successful with 86% of patients having a residual peak aortic gradient <50 mmHg, and the proportion of patients with grade >1 regurgitation increased by 7%. Long-term survival after the first procedure was excellent, with 91% survival at 25 years. At a mean interval of 7.6±5.3 years, 30 patients required a reintervention (39%), mainly because of a recurrent aortic stenosis. Freedom from reintervention was 97, 89, 75, 53, and 42% at 1, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years, respectively. Predictors of reintervention were residual peak aortic gradient (p=0.0001), aortic regurgitation post-intervention >1 (p=0.02), prior balloon aortic valvuloplasty (p=0.04), and increased left ventricular posterior wall thickness (p=0.1). Conclusions: Aortic valve intervention is a safe and effective procedure for congenital aortic stenosis with excellent survival results. However, rate of reintervention is high and influenced by increased left ventricular posterior wall thickness pre-intervention, prior balloon valvuloplasty, higher residual peak systolic valve gradient, and more than mild regurgitation post-intervention. The study highlights that long-term follow-up is recommended for these patients.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2014; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) with valved conduits remains a challenge. The reoperation rate at 5 years can be as high as 25% and depends on age, type of conduit, conduit diameter and principal heart malformation. The aim of this study is to provide a bench model with computer fluid dynamics to analyse the haemodynamics of the RVOT, pulmonary artery, its bifurcation, and left and right pulmonary arteries that in the future may serve as a tool for analysis and prediction of outcome following RVOT reconstruction.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 06/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is controversy over the use of the Ross procedure with regard to the sub-coronary and root replacement technique and its long-term durability. A systematic review of the literature may provide insight into the outcomes of these two surgical subvariants. A systematic review of reports between 1967 and February 2013 on sub-coronary and root replacement Ross procedures was undertaken. Twenty-four articles were included and divided into (i) sub-coronary technique and (ii) root replacement technique. The 10-year survival rate for a mixed-patient population in the sub-coronary procedure was 87.3% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 79.7-93.4 and 89.1% (95% CI, 85.3-92.1) in the root replacement technique category. For adults, it was 94 vs 95.3% (CI, 88.9-98.1) and in the paediatric series it was 90 vs 92.7% (CI, 86.9-96.0), respectively. Freedom from reoperation at 10 years was, in the mixed population, 83.3% (95% CI, 69.9-93.4) and 93.3% (95% CI, 89.4-95.9) for sub-coronary versus root replacement technique, respectively. In adults, it was 98 vs 91.2% (95% CI, 82.4-295.8), and in the paediatric series 93.3 vs 92.0% (95% CI, 86.1-96.5) for sub-coronary versus root replacement technique, respectively. The Ross procedure arguably has satisfactory results over 5 and 10 years for both adults and children. The results do not support the advantages of the sub-coronary technique over the root replacement technique. Root replacement was of benefit to patients undergoing reoperations on neoaorta and for long-term survival in mixed series.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 04/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In extreme situations, like hyperacute rejection of heart transplant or major heart trauma, heart preservation may not be possible. Our experimental team works on a project of peripheral ECMO support in acardia as a bridge to heart transplantation or artificial heart implantation. An extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support was established in 5 calves (58.6 ± 6.9kg) by the transjugular insertion to the caval axis of a self-expanded cannula, with carotid artery return. After baseline measurements, ventricular fibrillation was induced, great arteries were clamped, heart was excised and right and left atria remnants, containing pulmonary veins, were sutured together leaving an atrial septal defect over the caval axis cannula. Measurements of pump flow and arterial pressure were taken with the pulmonary artery (PA) clamped and anastomosed with the caval axis for a total of 6 hours. PA anastomosis to the caval axis provided an acceptable 6 hours hemodynamic stability, permitting a peripheral access ECMO support in extreme scenarios indicating a heart explantation.
    ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 03/2014; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During open heart surgery, so-called atrial chatter, a phenomenon due to right atria and/or caval collapse, is frequently observed. Collapse of the cava axis during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) limits venous drainage and may result downstream in reduced pump flow on (lack of volume) and upstream in increased after-load (stagnation), which in turn may both result in reduced or even inadequate end-organ perfusion. The goal of this study was to reproduce venous collapse in the flow bench. In accordance with literature for venous anatomy, a caval tree system is designed (polyethylene, thickness 0.061 mm), which receives venous inflow from nine afferent veins. With water as medium and a preload of 4.4 mmHg, the system has an outflow of 4500 ml/min (Scenario A). After the insertion of a percutaneous venous cannula (23-Fr), the venous model is continuously served by the afferent branches in a venous test bench and venous drainage is augmented with a centrifugal pump (Scenario B). With gravity drainage (siphon: A), spontaneously reversible atrial chatter can be generated in reproducible fashion. Slight reduction in the outflow diameter allows for generation of continuous flow. With augmentation (B), irreversible collapse of the artificial vena cava occurs in reproducible fashion at a given pump speed of 2300 ± 50 RPM and a pump inlet pressure of -112 mmHg. Furthermore, bubbles form at the cannula tip despite the fact that the entire system is immersed in water and air from the environment cannot enter the system. This phenomenon is also known as cavitation and should be avoided because of local damage of both formed blood elements and endothelium, as well embolization. This caval model provides a realistic picture for the limitations of flow due to spontaneously reversible atrial chatter vs irreversible venous collapse for a given negative pressure during CPB. Temporary interruption of negative pressure in the venous line can allow for recovery of venous drainage. This know-how can be used not only for testing different cannula designs, but also for further optimizing perfusion strategies.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with Contegra graft (Medtronic Minneapolis, MN, USA) infection after reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. One hundred and six Contegra grafts were implanted between April 1999 and April 2010 for the Ross procedure (n = 46), isolated pulmonary valve replacement (n = 32), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 24), double-outlet right ventricle (n = 7), troncus arteriosus (n = 4), switch operation (n = 1) and redo of pulmonary valve replacement (n = 2). The median age of the patients was 13 years (range 0-54 years). A follow-up was completed in all cases with a median duration of 7.6 years (range 1.7-12.7 years). There were 3 cases of in-hospital mortality. The survival rate during 7 years was 95.7%. Despite the lifelong endocarditis prophylaxis, Contegra graft infection was diagnosed in 12 (11.3%) patients at a median time of 4.4 years (ranging from 0.4 to 8.7 years). Univariate analysis of preoperative, perioperative and postoperative variables was performed and the following risk factors for time to infection were identified: female gender with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.19 (P = 0.042), systemic-to-pulmonary shunt (HR 6.46, P < 0.01), hypothermia (HR 0.79, P = 0.014), postoperative renal insufficiency (HR 11.97, P = 0.015) and implantation of permanent pacemaker during hospitalization (HR 5.29, P = 0.075). In 2 cases, conservative therapy was successful and, in 10 patients, replacement of the infected valve was performed. The Contegra graft was replaced by a homograft in 2 cases and by a new Contegra graft in 8 cases. Cox's proportional hazard model indicated that time to graft infection was significantly associated with tetralogy of Fallot (HR 0.06, P = 0.01), systemic-to-pulmonary shunt (HR 64.71, P < 0.01) and hypothermia (HR 0.77, P < 0.01). Contegra graft infection affected 11.3% of cases in our cohort, and thus may be considered as a frequent entity that can be predicted by both intraoperative and early postoperative factors. After the diagnosis of infection associated with the Contegra graft was confirmed, surgical treatment was the therapy of choice.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of retrievable caval filters was a game changer in the sense, that the previously irreversible act of implanting a medical device into the main venous blood stream of the body requiring careful evaluation of the pros and cons prior to execution suddenly became a "reversible" procedure where potential hazards in the late future of the patient lost most of their weight at the time of decision making. This review was designed to assess the rate of success with late retrieval of so called retrievable caval filters in order to get some indication about reasonable implant duration with respect to relatively "easy" implant removal with conventional means, i.e., catheters, hooks and lassos. A PubMed search (www.pubmed.gov) was performed with the search term "cava filter retrieval after 30 days clinical", and 20 reports between 1994 and 2013 dealing with late retrieval of caval filters were identified, covering approximately 7,000 devices with 600 removed filters. The maximal duration of implant reported is 2,599 days and the maximal implant duration of removed filters is also 2,599 days. The maximal duration reported with standard retrieval techniques, i.e., catheter, hook and/or lasso, is 475 days, whereas for the retrievals after this period more sophisticated techniques including lasers, etc. were required. The maximal implant duration for series with 100% retrieval accounts for 84 days, which is equivalent to 12 weeks or almost 3 months. We conclude that retrievable caval filters often become permanent despite the initial decision of temporary use. However, such "forgotten" retrievable devices can still be removed with a great chance of success up to three months after implantation. Conventional percutaneous removal techniques may be sufficient up to sixteen months after implantation whereas more sophisticated catheter techniques have been shown to be successful up to 83 months or more than seven years of implant duration. Tilting, migrating, or misplaced devices should be removed early on, and replaced if indicated with a device which is both, efficient and retrievable.
    Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 01/2014; 144:w14022. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Ludwig K von Segesser, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 12/2013; 17(6):1063. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) may enhance cardiac function and protects heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a cardioprotective IH model that was characterized at hemodynamic, biochemical and molecular levels. Mice were exposed to 4 daily IH cycles (each composed of 2-min at 6-8% O2 followed by 3-min reoxygenation for 5 times) for 14 days, with normoxic mice as controls. Mice were then anesthetized and subdivided in various subgroups for analysis of contractility (pressure-volume loop), morphology, biochemistry or resistance to I/R (30-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) followed by reperfusion and measurement of the area at risk and infarct size). In some mice, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin was administered (24 µg/kg ip) 15 min before LAD. We found that IH did not induce myocardial hypertrophy; rather both contractility and cardiac function improved with greater number of capillaries per unit volume and greater expression of VEGF-R2, but not of VEGF. Besides increasing the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and the endothelial isoform of NO synthase with respect to control, IH reduced the infarct size and post-LAD proteins carbonylation, index of oxidative damage. Administration of wortmannin reduced the level of Akt phosphorylation and worsened the infarct size. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for IH-induced cardioprotection and may represent a viable target to reduce myocardial I/R injury.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76659. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Ludwig K von Segesser, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 10/2013; 17(4):601-2. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose : To report our results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) over a 10-year period using systematic preoperative collateral artery embolization. Methods : From 1999 until 2009, 124 patients (117 men; mean age 70.8 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) underwent embolization of patent lumbar and/or inferior mesenteric arteries prior to elective EVAR procedures. Embolization was systematically attempted and, whenever possible, performed using microcoils and a coaxial technique. Follow-up included computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal radiography. Results : The technical success for EVAR was 96% (119/124), with 4 patients dying within 30 days (3.2% perioperative mortality) and 1 type III endoleak accounting for the failures. Collateral arteries were occluded spontaneously or by embolization in 60 (48%) of 124 patients. The endoleak rate was 50.9% (74 in 61 patients), most of which were type II (19%). Over a mean clinical follow-up of 60.5±34.1 months (range 1-144), aneurysm sac dimensions decreased in 66 patients, increased in 19 patients, and were stable in 35. The endoleak rate was significantly higher in the patients with increasing sac diameter (p<0.001). Among the patients with patent collateral arteries, 38/64 (59.3%) developed 46 leaks, while 28 leaks appeared in 23 (41%) of 56 patients with collateral artery occlusion (p=0.069). The type II endoleak rate significantly differed between these two groups (47.8% vs. 3.6%, p<0.001). Conclusion : Preoperative collateral embolization seems to be a valid method of reducing the incidence of type II endoleak, improving the long-term outcome.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 10/2013; 20(5):663-671. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we present numerical simulations of continuous flow left ventricle assist device implantation with the aim of comparing difference in flow rates and pressure patterns depending on the location of the anastomosis and the rotational speed of the device. Despite the fact that the descending aorta anastomosis approach is less invasive, since it does not require a sternotomy and a cardiopulmonary bypass, its benefits are still controversial. Moreover, the device rotational speed should be correctly chosen to avoid anomalous flow rates and pressure distribution in specific location of the cardiovascular tree. With the aim of assessing the differences between these two approaches and device rotational speed in terms of flow rate and pressure waveforms, we set up numerical simulations of network of one-dimensional models where we account for the presence of an outflow cannula anastomosed to different locations of the aorta. Then, we use the resulting network to compare the results of the two different cannulations for several stages of heart failure and different rotational speed of the device. The inflow boundary data for the heart and the cannulas are obtained from a lumped parameters model of the entire circulatory system with an assist device, which is validated with clinical data. The results show that ascending and descending aorta cannulations lead to similar waveforms and mean flow rate in all the considered cases. Moreover, regardless of the anastomosis region, the rotational speed of the device has an important impact on wave profiles; this effect is more pronounced at high RPM.
    Medical Engineering & Physics 05/2013; 35(10):1465-1475. · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Ludwig K von Segesser, Gino Gerosa, Michael A Borger, Enrico Ferrari
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    ABSTRACT: Transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new minimally invasive technique with a known risk of unexpected intra-procedural complications. Nevertheless, the clinical results are good and the limited amount of procedural adverse events confirms the usefulness of a synergistic surgical/anesthesiological management in case of unexpected emergencies. A review was made of the authors' four-year database and other available literature to identify major and minor intra-procedural complications occurring during transapical TAVR procedures. All implants were performed under general anesthesia with a balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien stent-valve, and followed international guidelines on indications and techniques. Procedural success rates ranged between 94% and 100%. Life-threatening apical bleeding occurred very rarely (0-5%), and its incidence decreased after the first series of implants. Stent-valve embolization was also rare, with a global incidence ranging from 0-2%, with evidence of improvement after the learning curve. Rates of valve malpositioning ranged from 0% to < 3%, whereas the risk of coronary obstruction ranged from 0% to 3.5%. Aortic root rupture and dissection were dramatic events reported in 0-2% of transapical cases. Stent-valve malfunction was rarely reported (1-2%), whereas the valve-in-valve bailout procedure for malpositioning, malfunctioning or severe paravalvular leak was reported in about 1.0-3.5% of cases. Sudden hemodynamic management and bailout procedures such as valve-in-valve rescue or cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass were more effective when planned during the preoperative phase. Despite attempts to avoid pitfalls, complications during transapical aortic valve procedures still occur. Preoperative strategic planning, including hemodynamic status management, alternative cannulation sites and bailout procedures, are highly recommended, particularly during the learning curve of this technique.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 05/2013; 22(3):276-86. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual case of localized amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis and extramedullary plasmacytoma of the mitral valve is described. The worsening of a mitral regurgitation led to investigations and surgery. The valve presented marked distortion and thickening by type AL amyloid associated with a monotypic CD138+ immunoglobulin lambda plasma cell proliferation. Systemic staging showed a normal bone marrow and no evidence of amyloid deposition in other localizations. The patient's outcome after mitral valve replacement was excellent. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a localized AL amyloidosis as well as of a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the mitral valve.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2013; 95(5):1782-4. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Ludwig K von Segesser
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 04/2013; 43(4):665-672. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Residual mitral regurgitation after valve repair worsens patients' clinical outcome. Postimplant adjustable mitral rings potentially address this issue, allowing the reshaping of the annulus on the beating heart under echocardiography control. We developed an original mitral ring allowing valve geometry remodelling after the implantation and designed an animal study to assess device effectiveness in correcting residual mitral regurgitation. METHODS: The device consists of two concentric rings: one internal and flexible, sutured to the mitral annulus and a second external and rigid. A third conic element slides between the two rings, modifying the shape of the flexible ring. This sliding element is remotely activated with a rotating tool. Animal model: in adult swine, under cardio pulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest, we shortened the primary chordae of P2 segment to reproduce Type III regurgitation and implanted the active ring. We used intracardiac ultrasound to assess mitral regurgitation and the efficacy of the active ring to correct it. RESULTS: Severe mitral regurgitation (3+ and 4+) was induced in eight animals, 54 ± 6 kg in weight. Vena contracta width decreased from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 0.1 cm; proximal isovelocity surface area radius decreased from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 0.1 cm and effective regurgitant orifice area decreased from 0.50 ± 0.1 to 0.1 ± 0.1 cm(2). Six animals had a reversal of systolic pulmonary flow that normalized following the activation of the device. All corrections were reversible. CONCLUSIONS: Postimplant adjustable mitral ring corrects severe mitral regurgitation through the reversible modification of the annulus geometry on the beating heart. It addresses the frequent and morbid issue of recurrent mitral valve regurgitation.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transapical aortic valve replacement is an established technique performed in high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and vascular disease contraindicating trans-vascular and trans-aortic procedures. The presence of a left ventricular apical diverticulum is a rare event and the treatment depends on dimensions and estimated risk of embolisation, rupture, or onset of ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis is based on standard cardiac imaging and symptoms are very rare. In this case report we illustrate our experience with a 81 years old female patient suffering from symptomatic aortic valve stenosis, respiratory disease, chronic renal failure and severe peripheral vascular disease (logistic euroscore: 42%), who successfully underwent a transapical 23mm balloon-expandable stent-valve implantation through an apical diverticulum of the left ventricle. Intra-luminal thrombi were absent and during the same procedure were able to treat the valve disease and to successfully exclude the apical diverticulum without complications and through a mini thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a transapical procedure is successfully performed through an apical diverticulum.
    Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 01/2013; 8(1):3. · 1.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,277.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • University of Lausanne
      • Division of Cardiovascular Surgery
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1996–2014
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • Service de chirurgie cardio-vasculaire (CCV)
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Triemli City Hospital
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • Riga Stradins University
      Rija, Rīga, Latvia
  • 2001–2012
    • Zhejiang University
      • • First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College
      • • School of Medicine
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2011
    • Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
      • Division of Cardiology Cardiothoracic and Thoracic Surgery
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2011
    • Imperial College London
      • • Department of Surgery and Cancer
      • • Section of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Cardiocentro Ticino
      • Cardiac Surgery
      Lugano, Ticino, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • Hôpital Bichat - Claude-Bernard (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Nord Val de Seine)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      • Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular Technology
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Health Science - DISS
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Alder Hey Children's Healthcare Hospital
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 1988–2007
    • University of Zurich
      • • Clinic for Small Animal Surgery
      • • Institut für Anästhesiologie
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2005
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke
      Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
  • 1997
    • University of Geneva
      • Department of Surgery
      Genève, GE, Switzerland
  • 1988–1997
    • Schulthess Klinik, Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1991–1996
    • Zürcher Höhenklinik Wald
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1989–1995
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland