[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of preoperative impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) in octogenarians following coronary bypass surgery on short-term survival was evaluated in this study.
A total of 147 octogenarians (mean age 82.1 ± 1.9 years) with coronary artery diseases underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft between January 2000 and December 2009. Patients were stratified into: Group I (n = 59) with EF >50%, Group II (n = 59) with 50% > EF >30% and in Group III (n = 29) with 30% > EF.
There was no difference among the three groups regarding incidence of COPD, renal failure, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and preoperative cerebrovascular events. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was the sole independent predictive factor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR), 18.1); this was 8.5% in Group I, 15.3% in Group II and 10.3% in Group III. Independent predictive factors for mortality during follow up were: decrease of EF during follow-up for more that 5% (OR, 5.2), usage of left internal mammary artery as free graft (OR, 18.1), and EF in follow-up lower than 40% (OR, 4.8).
The results herein suggest acceptable in-hospital as well short-term mortality in octogenarians with impaired EF following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and are comparable to recent literature where the mortality of younger patients was up to 15% and short-term mortality up to 40%, respectively. Accordingly, we can also state that in an octogenarian cohort with impaired EF, CABG is a viable treatment with acceptable mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation (HTx) started in 1987 at two university hospitals (CHUV, HUG) in the western part of Switzerland, with 223 HTx performed at the CHUV until December 2010. Between 1987 and 2003, 106 HTx were realized at the HUG resulting in a total of 329 HTx in the western part of Switzerland. After the relocation of organ transplantation activity in the western part of Switzerland in 2003, the surgical part and the early postoperative care of HTx remained limited to the CHUV. However, every other HTx activity are pursued at the two university hospitals (CHUV, HUG). This article summarizes the actual protocols for selection and pre-transplant follow-up of HTx candidates in the western part of Switzerland, permitting a uniform structure of pretransplant follow-up in the western part of Switzerland.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine whether thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) reduces death and morbidity compared with open surgical repair for descending thoracic aortic disease.
The role of TEVAR versus open surgery remains unclear. Metaregression can be used to maximally inform adoption of new technologies by utilizing evidence from existing trials.
Data from comparative studies of TEVAR versus open repair of the descending aorta were combined through meta-analysis. Metaregression was performed to account for baseline risk factor imbalances, study design, and thoracic pathology. Due to significant heterogeneity, registry data were analyzed separately from comparative studies.
Forty-two nonrandomized studies involving 5,888 patients were included (38 comparative studies, 4 registries). Patient characteristics were balanced except for age, as TEVAR patients were usually older than open surgery patients (p = 0.001). Registry data suggested overall perioperative complications were reduced. In comparative studies, all-cause mortality at 30 days (odds ratio [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33 to 0.59) and paraplegia (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.63) were reduced for TEVAR versus open surgery. In addition, cardiac complications, transfusions, reoperation for bleeding, renal dysfunction, pneumonia, and length of stay were reduced. There was no significant difference in stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic reintervention, and mortality beyond 1 year. Metaregression to adjust for age imbalance, study design, and pathology did not materially change the results.
Current data from nonrandomized studies suggest that TEVAR may reduce early death, paraplegia, renal insufficiency, transfusions, reoperation for bleeding, cardiac complications, pneumonia, and length of stay compared with open surgery. Sustained benefits on survival have not been proven.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2010; 55(10):986–1001. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation remains the best therapeutic option for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. However, good survival rates can be obtained only if patients are closely monitored, particularly for their immunosuppressive regimens. Currently, a triple-drug regimen usually based on calcineurin-inhibitors (cyclosporin A or tacrolimus), anti-proliferative agents and steroids is used in most recipients. New agents such as the mTOR inhibitors, a more recently developed class of immunosuppressive drugs, can also be used in some patients. The aim of this article is to review currently used immunosuppressive regimens after heart transplantation, and to propose some individualized options depending on specific patient characteristics and recent pharmacological developments in the field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular treatment of the thoracic aorta (TEVAR) is rapidly expanding, with new devices and techniques, combined with classical surgical approaches in hybrid procedures. The present guidelines provide a standard format for reporting results of treatment in the thoracic aorta, and to facilitate analysis of clinical results in various therapeutic approaches. These guidelines specify the essential information and definitions, which should be provided in each article about TEVAR:•Definitions of disease conditions•Extent of the disease•Comorbidities•Exact demographics of the patient material•Description of the procedure performed•Devices which were utilized•Methods for reporting early and late mortality, and morbidity•Reinterventions and additional procedures•Statistical evaluationIt is hoped that strict adherence to these criteria will make the future publications about TEVAR more comparable, and will enable the readership to draw their own, scientifically validated conclusions about the reports.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 06/2009; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In coronary artery disease, exercise training (ET) is associated with an improvement in endothelial function, but little is known about the relative effect of different types of training. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of different types of ET on endothelial function in 209 patients after a first recent acute myocardial infarction.
Endothelial function was evaluated before and after 4 weeks of different types of ET and after 1 month of detraining by measuring flow-mediated dilation and von Willebrand factor levels at baseline and after ET. Patients were randomized into 4 groups: group 1, aerobic ET (n=52); group 2, resistance training (n=54); group 3, resistance plus aerobic training (n=53); and group 4, no training (n=50). At baseline, flow-mediated dilation was 4.5+/-2.6% in group 1, 4.01+/-1.6% in group 2, 4.4+/-4% in group 3, and 4.3+/-2.3% in group 4 (P=NS). After ET, flow-mediated dilation increased to 9.9+/-2.5% in group 1, 10.1+/-2.6% in group 2, and 10.8+/-3% in group 3 (P<0.01 versus baseline for all groups); it also increased in group 4 but to a much lesser extent (to 5.1+/-2.5%; P<0.01 versus trained groups). The von Willebrand factor level after ET decreased by 16% (P<0.01) similarly in groups 1, 2, and 3 but remained unchanged in group 4. Detraining returned flow-mediated dilation to baseline levels (P<0.01 versus posttraining).
In patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, ET was associated with improved endothelial function independently of the type of training, but this effect disappeared after 1 month of detraining.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is a very common heart arrhythmia, associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of embolic strokes. Treatment strategies encompass palliative drugs or surgical procedures all of which can restore sinus rhythm. Unfortunately, atria often fail to recover their mechanical function and patients therefore require lifelong anticoagulation therapy. A motorless volume displacing device (Atripump) based on artificial muscle technology, positioned on the external surface of atrium could avoid the need of oral anticoagulation and its haemorrhagic complications. An animal study was conducted in order to assess the haemodynamic effects that such a pump could provide.
Atripump is a dome-shape siliconecoated nitinol actuator sewn on the external surface of the atrium. It is driven by a pacemaker-like control unit. Five non-anticoagulated sheep were selected for this experiment. The right atrium was surgically exposed, the device sutured and connected. Haemodynamic parameters and intracardiac ultrasound (ICUS) data were recorded in each animal and under three conditions; baseline; atrial fibrillation (AF); atripump assisted AF (aaAF).
In two animals, after 20 min of AF, small thrombi appeared in the right atrial appendix and were washed out once the pump was turned on. Assistance also enhanced atrial ejection fraction. 31% baseline; 5% during AF; 20% under aaAF. Right atrial systolic surfaces (cm2) were; 5.2 +/- 0.3 baseline; 6.2 +/- 0.1 AF; 5.4 +/- 0.3 aaAF.
This compact and reliable pump seems to restore the atrial "kick" and prevents embolic events. It could avoid long-term anticoagulation therapy and open new hopes in the care of end-stage heart failure.
Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 03/2009; 139(5-6):82-7. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to improve the hemodynamics during venoarterial bypass by remote decompression of the left ventricle (LV).
Venoarterial bypass was established in 5 bovine experiments (69+/-10 kg) by the transjugular insertion of a self-expanding cannula (smartcanula) with return through a carotid artery. Cardiogenic shock was simulated with ventricular fibrillation induced by an external stimulator. Left ventricular decompression was achieved by switching to transfemoral drainage of the pulmonary artery (PA) with a long self-expanding cannula.
Initial pump flow was 4.7+/-0.9 l/min and the aortic pressure accounted for 75+/-21 mmHg. After induction of ventricular fibrillation, the pump flow dropped after 11+/-8 min to 2.5+/-0.1 l/min. Transfemoral decompression increased the pump flow to 5.6+/-0.7 l/min, while the RV pressure decreased from 27+/-9 to 3+/-5 mmHg, the PA pressure decreased from 29+/-7 to 5+/-4 mmHg, the LV pressure decreased from 29+/-6 to 7+/-2 mmHg, and the aortic pressure increased from 31+/-3 to 47+/-11 mmHg.
Remote drainage of the pulmonary artery during venoarterial bypass allows for effective decompression of the left ventricle and provides superior hemodynamics.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 10/2008; 56(6):337-41. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hybrid treatment of aortic aneurysms is indicated in patients having the ostia of supra aortic or visceral branches taken in to the aneurysm. Indeed, these lesions are not eligible for classic endovascular treatment because the existing endoprostheses cannot provide perfusion of the side branches without inducing major endoleaks. The surgical technique consists of 2 steps: firstly, a by-pass between normal aorta and the major aortic branches involved in the aneurysm is performed to guarantee the perfusion of the organs such as brain, bowel, and after endoprosthesis deployment. Secondly, the endoprosthesis is deployed using the classical technique to isolate the aneurysm. The hybrid approach provides safe and reliable treatment of complex aortic aneurysms with mortality and morbidity rate far below the classical open surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord exerts a dual analgesic and vasodilatory effect on ischemic tissues. It is increasingly considered a valuable method to treat severe and otherwise intractable coronary and peripheral artery disease. The quality of the results depends from both a strict selection of the patients by vascular specialists and the frequency and quality of the follow-up controls. However the indications, limits, mode of action and results of spinal cord stimulation are still poorly understood. This article, based on a personal experience of 164 implantations for peripheral and coronary artery disease, aims to draw attention to this technique and to provide information on recent and future developments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing complexity in management of congenital heart disease imposes more frequent surgeries and interventions. Each technique has its own limitations, which could impair the anticipated result. Hybrid procedures join the advantages of cardiac surgery and interventions, creating a synergy in the management of these patients with cardiac anomalies. In our experience, hybrid procedures shorten cardiopulmonary bypass, reduce morbidity of surgery and reduce duration of stay in the intensive care unit. For some complex congenital heart diseases for which there are no ideal surgical or interventional options, hybrid procedures are becoming increasingly important in their management. Finally hybrid procedures allow surgeons and cardiologist to achieve complex procedures that could not be possible in another way.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stents have a long history in traditional valve surgery as both, porcine biological valves as well as pericardial valves are mounted on stents prior to implantation. Recently stent-mounted biological devices have been compressed up to the point, where they can be passed through a catheter. Various routes can be distinguished for implantation: open access, the trans-vascular route in antegrade or retrograde fashion, as well as direct trans-apical or trans-atrial access. Direct access has the potentialforvideo-endoscopic valve replacement. In theory, as well as in the experimental setting, valved stents have been implanted in tricuspid and caval position respectively, as well as in pulmonary, mitral and aortic locations. The largest clinical experience has been achieved in pulmonary position whereas current efforts target the aortic position.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The radial artery is routinely used as a graft for surgical arterial myocardial revascularization. The proximal radial artery anastomosis site remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the short-term results and the operative risk determinants after having used four different common techniques for radial artery implantation.
From January 2000 to December 2004, 571 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with radial arteries. Data were analyzed for the entire population and for subgroups following the proximal radial artery anastomosis site: 140 T-graft with the mammary artery (group A), 316 free-grafts with the proximal anastomosis to the ascending aorta (group B), 55 mammary arteries in situ elongated with the radial artery (group C) and 60 radial arteries elongated with a piece of mammary artery and anastomosed to the ascending aorta (group D).
The mean age was 53.8 +/- 7.7 years; 55.5% of patients had a previous myocardial infarction and 73% presented with a satisfactory left ventricular function. A complete arterial myocardial revascularization was achieved in 532 cases (93.2%) and 90.2% of the procedures were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. The operative mortality rate was 0.9%, a postoperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 19 patients (3.3%), an intra-aortic balloon pump was used in 10 patients (1.7%) and a mechanical circulatory device was implanted in 2 patients. The radial artery harvesting site remained always free from complications. The proximal radial artery anastomosis site was not a determinant of early hospital mortality. Group C showed a higher risk of postoperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.09), together with female gender (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.059) and a longer cardiopulmonary bypass time.
The radial artery and the mammary artery can guarantee multiple arterial revascularization also for patients with contraindications to double mammary artery use. The four most common techniques for proximal radial artery anastomosis are not related to a higher operative risk and they can be used alternatively to reach the best surgical results.
Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006) 04/2008; 9(3):185-93.