[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for many diseases of aging. Endogenous oxidants are thought to mediate the effects of inflammation and gamma-Tocopherol (gamma-Toc) may mitigate damage from nitrogen-based oxidants; however, no physiological requirement for gamma-Toc has been established. Regulation of tocopherols and their functional significance are poorly defined, thereby limiting their application in prevention. Using stored plasma samples from 657 male control subjects in a previous study of prostate cancer, we have analyzed associations of the tocopherols, inflammation markers, and 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D. Plasma alpha-Toc and gamma-Toc were inversely correlated, whereas delta-Toc and alpha-Toc levels were positively correlated, suggesting a unique regulatory mechanism. gamma-Toc levels were positively and alpha-Toc negatively associated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary isoprostane F(2t), which are markers of inflammation and oxidation. Ethnic variability in tocopherols was observed; however, this may be explained by differences in plasma 25-OH vitamin D, as gamma-Toc levels varied inversely and alpha-Toc positively with 25-OH vitamin D. In these data, all-cause mortality appeared to be positively associated with CRP and inversely with 25-OH vitamin D. We hypothesize that plasma levels of tocopherols may serve as markers of systemic inflammation, complicating epidemiologic assessment of their role in cancer etiology.
Nutrition and Cancer 02/2008; 60 Suppl 1:21-9. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity may increase the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) through an inflammatory pathway. We explored the relation of NHL with body size at different times in life within the Multiethnic Cohort that includes African Americans, Caucasians, Japanese, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Participants were 45 to 75 years old at recruitment in 1993 to 1996. This analysis included 87,079 men and 105,972 women with 461 male and 378 female NHL cases. We used Cox regression to model NHL risk with age as the time metric while adjusting for age at baseline, ethnicity, education, alcohol intake, and age at first live birth. Body weight and body mass index at age 21 were stronger predictors of NHL risk than anthropometric characteristics at baseline. For men, being in the highest quartile of body mass index and body weight at age 21 conferred a nonsignificant 86% and 41% higher NHL risk, respectively, whereas there was no association at baseline. For women, the risk associated with the highest quartile of weight at age 21 was 1.6 (P(trend) = 0.04), whereas women in the highest quartile at baseline had a nonsignificant risk of 27%. Height was positively related to NHL in men and women. Despite the small numbers, there was some consistency for risk estimates across ethnic groups and weak evidence for an association with NHL subtypes. These findings indicate that weight at age 21 may represent lifetime adiposity better than body weight at cohort entry. Alternatively, weight at age 21 may be more relevant for the etiology of NHL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammographic density has been established as a strong risk factor for breast cancer while use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with a reduction in risk of breast cancer. The hypothesis is that NSAIDs reverses the expression of prostaglandin E2, thereby reducing the local production of estrogens. This report describes the differences in mammographic densities by duration of NSAID use in a multiethnic population. Information for this analysis was available from two previous investigations: a nutritional intervention study with 218 women and a nested case-control study of breast density with 1274 women. On the basis of self-reported medication use from a questionnaire common to both investigations, women were categorized into no use, up to 1 year, 2-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11+ years. Screening mammograms were assessed for density using a computer-assisted method. We applied general linear models to calculate mean percent densities for each medication use category while adjusting for covariates. The analysis of the overall study population did not show a significant association between total NSAID use and mammographic density. Contrary to our hypothesis, women with long-term total NSAID use had non-significantly higher densities than non-users. In addition, the results differed by menopausal status. Whereas the trend of higher densities with longer duration of total NSAID use was significant among postmenopausal women, breast density was slightly lower among premenopausal women with long-term NSAID use. Experimental studies need to be performed to study the effect, if any, of NSAID use on breast density.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 12/2007; 112(1):133-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor