[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic pulmonary tumors. However, for isolated lung metastasis (ILM) of thoracic malignances after pulmonary lobectomy, reported outcomes of SBRT have been limited. This study evaluates the role of SBRT in the treatment of such patients.
BMC Cancer 09/2014; 14(1):719. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of multiple primary cancers involving trachea is rare. We present a case of synchronous double primary cancer of trachea and esophagus in a 70-year-old woman, with a special symptom of ventricular tachycardia and no history of smoking and alcohol drinking. Biopsies from multiple foci demonstrated the patient had primary small cell cancer of trachea and squamous cell carcinoma in situ of esophagus. The patient was successfully treated with four cycles of chemotherapy consisting of etoposide and carboplatin (EC) followed by thoracic radiotherapy (60 Gy in 30 fractions, in 6 weeks), and was evaluated to have complete response of tumor. To our knowledge, there is no synchronous cancer of trachea and esophagus has been reported in English literature, and our experience showed sequential EC chemotherapy and radiotherapy provided an effective treatment to control both cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus sequential focal radiation boost is a commonly used therapeutic strategy for patients with brain metastases. However, recent reports on WBRT plus simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) also showed promising outcomes. The objective of present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of WBRT plus SIB with image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for inoperable brain metastases of NSCLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Maintenance therapy for extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is still under debate. Many new agents fail during the maintenance course. As an active agent for SCLC, oral etoposide is worth being re-evaluated. Methods
This phase II study was performed to evaluate the toxicity/efficacy of the maintenance of patients with oral etoposide with ES-SCLC responding (complete remission [CR] + partial remission [PR]) to the induction of four cycles of etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) chemotherapy. Maintenance therapy with oral etoposide (50 mg/m2, day 1–14, repeated every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs) was administered. The primary endpoints were grade 3 and 4 toxicities and progression free survival (PFS). ResultsFifty-four patients with ES-SCLC received standard EP regimens as induction therapy; 31 responding patients were administered oral etoposide as the maintenance treatment. The most common hematological and non-hematological toxicity of the maintenance course was neutropenia and fatigue, respectively. Median PFS was nine months (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.33∼9.67 months), median overall survival (OS) was 14 months (95% CI: 11.58∼16.42 months). Significantly better PFS and OS were seen in patients responding to the induction EP chemotherapy. Conclusions
Oral etoposide maintenance is safe and effective for patients with ES-SCLC who responded to the induction of EP chemotherapy. Significant survival benefit was revealed in patients completely responding to an EP regimen. Further randomized control study is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the dosimetric differences between the single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT), 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for gastric cancer as adjuvant radiotherapy. Twelve patients were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient's case, the parameters were compared based on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the sVMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT plans, respectively. Three techniques showed similar target dose coverage. The maximum and mean doses of the target were significantly higher in the sVMAT plans than that in 3D-CRT plans and in the 3D-CRT/IMRT plans, respectively, but these differences were clinically acceptable. The IMRT and sVMAT plans successfully achieved better target dose conformity, reduced the V20/30, and mean dose of the left kidney, as well as the V20/30 of the liver, compared with the 3D-CRT plans. And the sVMAT technique reduced the V20 of the liver much significantly. Although the maximum dose of the spinal cord were much higher in the IMRT and sVMAT plans, respectively (mean 36.4 vs 39.5 and 40.6Gy), these data were still under the constraints. Not much difference was found in the analysis of the parameters of the right kidney, intestine, and heart. The IMRT and sVMAT plans achieved similar dose distribution to the target, but superior to the 3D-CRT plans, in adjuvant radiotherapy for gastric cancer. The sVMAT technique improved the dose sparings of the left kidney and liver, compared with the 3D-CRT technique, but showed few dosimetric advantages over the IMRT technique. Studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical benefits of the VMAT treatment for patients with gastric cancer after surgery in the future.
Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists 06/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 36-year-old woman had presented with dry cough for 2 months. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 12 cm × 8 cm ×5 cm mass in the anterior mediastinum. Due to intimately involving the aortic arch, tumor was removed incompletely. Residual tumor remained approximate 2 cm × 3 cm × 4 cm. Histologic diagnosis was a mature cystic teratoma containing a carcinoid. Subsequently, radiotherapy (RT) was administrated on residual tumor for a total dose of 50 Gy at 2 Gy/d fraction in 25 fractions. At 2-year follow-up, the patient had stable disease. In conclusion, adjuvant radiotherapy with 50 Gy is an effective approach for residual tumor of mediastinal carcinoid teratoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent paclitaxel plus cisplatin (TP regimen) for upper esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: 36 patients of upper esophageal carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with IMRT (median 60 Gy) combined with concurrent TP regimen chemotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed in statistical analysis. Toxicities were recorded according to the NCI CTC version 3.0. RESULTS: 36 patients aged 43--73 years (median 57 years). The median follow-up period was 14.0 months. The 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 83.3% and 42.8% respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time and overall survival (OS) time were 12.0 (95% CI: 7.8--16.2 months) and 18.0 months (95% CI: 9.9--26.1 months), respectively. Grade 3 neutropenia, radiation-induced esophagitis and radiodermatitis were observed in 5 (13.9%), 3 (8.3%) and 8 (22.2%) patients respectively. There were two treatment-related deaths due to esophageal perforation and hemorrhea. CONCLUSIONS: For those patients with upper esophageal carcinoma, IMRT combined with concurrent TP regimen chemotherapy was an effective treatment. However, more attention should be paid to the occurrence of perforation and hemorrhea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the treatment outcome of salvage concurrent radio-chemotherapy for patients with loco-recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery.
50 patients with loco-recurrent squamous-cell cancer after curative esophagectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with radiotherapy (median 60 Gy) combined with chemotherapy consisting of either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin (DDP) (R-FP group) or paclitaxel plus DDP (R-TP group).
The median follow-up period was 16.0 months. The 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 56% and 14%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time was 9.8 and 13.3 months respectively. There was no statistical significance of the PFS of the two groups. The OS (median 16.3 months) in the R-TP group was superior to that in the R-FP group (median: 9.8 months) (p = 0.012). Among the patients who had received ≥60 Gy irradiation dose, the median PFS (10.6 months) and OS (16.3 months) were significantly superior to the PFS (8.7 months) and OS (11.3 months) among those patients did not (all p < 0.05). Grade 3 treatment-related gastritis were observed in 6 (27.3%) and 7 (25%) patients in the R-FP and R-TP group respectively. By univariate survival analysis, the age (<60 years), TP regimen and higher irradiation dose might improve the OS of such patients in present study.
For those patients with post-operative loco-recurrent squamous-cell esophageal carcinoma, radiotherapy combined with either FP or TP regimen chemotherapy was an effective salvage treatment. Younger age, treatment with the TP regimen and an irradiation dose ≥60 Gy might improve the patients' treatment outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the differences between the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), single/partial-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (SA/PA-VMAT) techniques in treatment planning for locally advanced lung cancer.
12 patients were retrospectively studied. In each patient's case, several parameters were analyzed based on the dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the IMRT, SA/PA-VMAT plans respectively. Also, each plan was delivered to a phantom for time comparison.
The SA-VMAT plans showed the superior target dose coverage, although the minimum/mean/maximum doses to the target were similar. For the total and contralateral lungs, the higher V5/10, lower V20/30 and mean lung dose (MLD) were observed in the SA/PA-VMAT plans (p < 0.05, respectively). The PA-VMAT technique improves the dose sparing (V20, V30 and MLD) of the controlateral lung more notably, comparing to those parameters of the IMRT and SA-VMAT plans respectively. The delivered monitor units (MUs) and treatment times were reduced significantly with VMAT plans, especially PA-VMAT plans (for MUs: mean 458.3 vs. 439.2 vs. 435.7 MUs, p < 0.05 and for treatment time: mean 13.7 vs. 10.6 vs. 6.4 minutes, p < 0.01).
The SA-VMAT technique achieves highly conformal dose distribution to the target. Comparing to the IMRT plans, the higher V5/10, lower V20/30 and MLD were observed in the total and contralateral lungs in the VMAT plans, especially in the PA-VMAT plans. The SA/PA-VMAT plans also reduced treatment time with more efficient dose delivering. But the clinical benefit of the VMAT technique for locally advanced lung cancer needs further investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the impacts of multileaf collimator (MLC) widths (standard MLC width of 10 mm [SMLC] and micro-MLC width of 4 mm [MMLC]) on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients with NPC were recruited in this study. In each patient's case, plans were generated with the same machine setup parameter and optimizing methods in a treatment planning system according to 2 commercial Elekta MLC devices. All of the parameters were collected from dose-volume histograms of paired plans and evaluated. The average conformity index (CI) and homogeneous index (HI) for the planning gross target volume in IMRT plans with MMLC were 0.790 ± 0.036 and 1.062 ± 0.011, respectively. Data in plans with SMLC were 0.754 ± 0.038 and 1.070 ± 0.010, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Compared with CI and HI for planning target volume in paired plans, data with MMLC obviously were better than those with SMLC (CI: 0.858 ± 0.026 vs. 0.850 ± 0.021, p < 0.05; and HI: 1.185 ± 0.011 vs. 1.195 ± 0.011, p < 0.05). However, there was no statistical significance between evaluated parameters (Dmean, Dmax, D₅, gEUD, or NTCP) for organs at risk (OARs) in the 2 paired IMRT plans. According to these two kinds of Elekta MLC devices, IMRT plans with the MMLC have significant advantages in dose coverage for the targets, with more efficiency in treatment for NPC but fail to improve dose sparing of the OARs.
Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists 01/2011; 36(2):153-9. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility of using intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans in 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning for lung cancers, respectively.
Twelve patients with bulky lung tumors and 14 patients with small lung tumors were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient took two sets of CT in the same position with active breathing control (ABC) technique before and after intravenous contrast agent (CA) injections. Bulky tumors were planned with 3D-CRT, while SBRT plans were generated for patients with small tumors based on CT scans with intravenous CA. In addition, IMRT plans were generated for patients with bulky tumors to continue on a planning study. All plans were copied and replaced on the scans without intravenous CA. The radiation doses calculated from the two sets of CTs were compared with regard to planning volumes (PTV), the organ at-risk (OAR) and the lungs using Wilcoxon's signed rank test.
In comparisons for 3D-CRT plans, CT scans with intravenous CA reduced the mean dose and the maximum dose of PTV with significant differences (p<0.05) that were within 1.0%. Comparing IMRT and SBRT plans, CT scans with intravenous CA obviously increased the minimum irradiation dose and dose of 95% volume of target received (D(95)) for targets, respectively (p<0.05). There was no statistical significance for lung parameters between two sets of scans in SBRT plans and IMRT plans.
The enhanced CT scans can be used for both target delineation and treatment planning in 3D-CRT. The dose difference caused by intravenous CA is small. But for SBRT and IMRT, the minimum irradiation dose in targets may be estimated to be increased up to 2.71% while the maximum dose may be estimated to be decreased up to 1.36%. However, the difference in dose distribution in most cases were found to be clinical tolerable.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 03/2010; 96(1):73-7. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the impacts of multileaf collimators (MLC) width [standard MLC width of 10 mm (sMLC) and micro-MLC width of 4 mm (mMLC)] in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for the upper thoracic esophageal cancer (UTEC).
10 patients with UTEC were retrospectively planned with the sMLC and the mMLC. The monitor unites (MUs) and dose volume histogram-based parameters [conformity index (CI) and homogeneous index (HI)] were compared between the IMRT plans with sMLC and with mMLC.
The IMRT plans with the mMLC were more efficient (average MUs: 703.1 +/- 68.3) than plans with the sMLC (average MUs: 833.4 +/- 73.8) (p < 0.05). Also, compared to plans with the sMLC, the plans with the mMLC showed advantages in dose coverage of the planning gross tumor volume (Pgtv) (CI 0.706 +/- 0.056/HI 1.093 +/- 0.021) and the planning target volume (PTV) (CI 0.707 +/- 0.029/HI 1.315 +/- 0.013) (p < 0.05). In addition, the significant dose sparing in the D5 (3260.3 +/- 374.0 vs 3404.5 +/- 374.4)/gEUD (1815.1 +/- 281.7 vs 1849.2 +/- 297.6) of the spinal cord, the V10 (33.2 +/- 6.5 vs 34.0 +/- 6.7), V20 (16.0 +/- 4.6 vs 16.6 +/- 4.7), MLD (866.2 +/- 174.1 vs 887.9 +/- 172.1) and gEUD (938.6 +/- 175.2 vs 956.8 +/- 171.0) of the lungs were observed in the plans with the mMLC, respectively (p < 0.05).
Comparing to the sMLC, the mMLC not only demonstrated higher efficiencies and more optimal target coverage, but also considerably improved the dose sparing of OARs in the IMRT planning for UTEC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficiency and toxicities of nedaplatin and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic carcinoma of the esophagus.
Thirty-nine untreated patients with confirmed metastatic tumors were enrolled. Patients were treated with nedaplatin 80 mg/m(2) and paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) on day 1. Treatment was repeated every 21 days.
Thirty-six patients were eligible to be evaluated to have had a response. The overall response rate was 43.6% (17/39), with complete response and partial response rates of 2.6 and 41%, respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival time was 6.1 and 10.3 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicities were only observed in six patients [neutropenia in three patients (7.7%) and nausea/vomiting in three patients (7.7%)].
Comparing to other regimens, combination of nedaplatin and paclitaxel achieved an encouraging clinical outcome, with relatively minimal toxicities for patients with metastatic esophageal carcinoma.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2009; 64(2):327-33. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Online adaptive correction in image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy appeared to be a promising approach for precision radiation treatment in head and neck tumors. This protocol was designed to evaluate the clinical feasibility and effect of online cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance in IMRT of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).
The Elekta Synergy system, which integrates an X-ray volumetric imager (XVI), was used to deliver radiation treatment for 22 cases of NPC. The acquired CBCT was registered to the planning CT for online and offline analysis. The systematic and random setup errors, as well as planning target volume (PTV) margin, were calculated at different correction threshold levels. The impact of online setup correction on dosimetry was evaluated by simulation of pre-correction errors.
The correction-of-setup-errors frequencies for 1, 2 and 3mm thresholds were 41.3-53.9%, 12.7-21.2% and 6.3-10.3%, respectively. Online correction was effective at the 2mm threshold level for all three axes. The pre-correction systematic errors for the whole group ranged 1.1-1.3mm, and the random errors were also 1.1-1.3mm. After online correction, the systematic and random errors ranged 0.4-0.5mm and 0.7-0.8mm, respectively, in the three directions. The PTV margins for the pre-correction, pretreatment and post-treatment positions were 3.5-4.2mm, 1.6-1.8mm and 2.5-3.2mm, respectively, in three directions. Analysis of hypothetical dosimetric change due to a translational isocenter shift of 3mm showed that if no correction was applied, the mean maximum dose to both the brain stem and spinal cord would be increased by 10Gy, the mean dose to the left and right parotids would be increased by 7.8 and 8.5Gy, respectively, and the dose to target volumes would be decreased: 4Gy for 95% GTV and 5.6Gy for 95% CTV(60.)
CBCT-based online correction increased the accuracy of IMRT for NPC and reduced irradiated margins, by decreasing both the systematic and random errors. Online CBCT correction reduces the radiation dose to normal tissue and creates room for further dose escalation of tumors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 11/2008; 90(2):221-7. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatments for cancer spinal metastasis were always palliative. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and effectiveness of IG-IMRT for these patients.
10 metastatic lesions were treated with conventionally-fractionated IG-IMRT. Daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) scan was applied to ensure accurate positioning. Plans were evaluated by the dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis.
Before set-up correction, the positioning errors in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 0.3 +/- 3.2, 0.4 +/- 4.5 and -0.2 +/- 3.9 mm, respectively. After repositioning, those errors were 0.1 +/- 0.7, 0 +/- 0.8 and 0 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively. The systematic/random uncertainties ranged 1.4-2.3/3.0-4.1 before and 0.1-0.2/0.7-0.8 mm after online set-up correction. In the original IMRT plans, the average dose of the planning target volume (PTV) was 61.9 Gy, with the spinal cord dose less than 49 Gy. Compared to the simulated PTVs based on the pre-correction CBCT, the average volume reduction of PTVs was 42.3% after online correction. Also, organ at risk (OAR) all benefited from CBCT-based set-up correction and had significant dose reduction with IGRT technique. Clinically, most patients had prompt pain relief within one month of treatment. There was no radiation-induced toxicity detected clinically during a median follow-up of 15.6 months.
IG-IMRT provides a new approach to treat cancer spinal metastasis. The precise positioning ensures the implementation of optimal IMRT plan, satisfying both the dose escalation of tumor targets and the radiation tolerance of spinal cord. It might benefit the cancer patient with spinal metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We here report a case of mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenopathy presenting as superior cava vena syndrome (SCVS). It was a 68-year-old male patient, who had been admitted to hospital because of cough over 3 months. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a mass in the superior lobe of right lung, and the widening mediastinum that compressed the superior cava vena (SCV). Mediastinoscopy biopsy indicated that it was nonmalignant tuberculous lymphadenopathy. After successful anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, the upper mediastinum diminished.