Anupam Agarwal

University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States

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Publications (101)521.55 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renal tubular cells elicit adaptive responses following exposure to nephrotoxins, such as cadmium. One response is the up-regulation of the 32-kDa redox-sensitive protein, heme oxygenase-1. Exposure of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to 10 mum cadmium demonstrated induction ( approximately 20-fold) of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA and protein. Using a 4.5-kb human heme oxygenase-1 promoter construct, the importance of a previously identified cadmium response element (TGCTAGAT) in HeLa cells was verified in renal epithelial cells. Specific protein-DNA interaction with this sequence was demonstrated using nuclear extracts from cadmium-treated cells. Yeast one-hybrid screen of a human kidney cDNA library resulted in the identification of pescadillo, a unique nucleolar, developmental protein, as an interacting protein with the cadmium response element and was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation in vivo and gel shift assays with purified glutathione S-transferase-pescadillo protein in vitro. The specificity of the DNA-protein interaction was verified by the absence of a binding complex when the core sequence of the cadmium response element was mutated or deleted. In addition, B23/nucleophosmin, another nucleolar protein, did not interact with the cadmium response sequence. Overexpression of pescadillo resulted in increased activity of the 4.5-kb human heme oxygenase-1 promoter construct but failed to activate this construct when the cadmium response sequence was mutated. The findings demonstrate the important and previously unrecognized role of pescadillo as a DNA-binding protein interacting specifically with the cadmium response element of the human heme oxygenase-1 gene.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2006; 281(34):24423-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of gene and cell-based therapies may provide significant advantages over existing treatments in terms of their effectiveness. However, long-term efficient gene delivery has been difficult to achieve in many cell types, including endothelial cells. We developed a freeze-thaw technique which significantly increases the transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in human aortic endothelial cells (23-fold) and in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (128-fold) in comparison to current methods for transduction. Freeze-thaw resulted in a transient but significant increase in cell surface area by 1,174 +/- 69.8 microM2 per cell. Reduction of cryogenic medium volume and repeated freeze-thaw further increased transduction efficiency by 2.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Trypsinization, dimethylsulfoxide, and cold temperatures, which are also involved in cell preservation, had no significant impact on transduction efficiency. Increased transduction was also observed in mesenchymal stem cells (42-fold) by the freeze-thaw method. The potential mechanism of this novel technique likely involves an increase in the net permeable area of biological membranes caused by water crystallization. These findings provide a new approach for gene delivery in various cell types, particularly in those resistant to transduction by conventional methods.
    AJP Cell Physiology 09/2006; 291(2):C386-92. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Anupam Agarwal
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2006; 290(4):F787-8. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a key role in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recent studies have shown that nitrite (NO(2)(-)) serves as an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO), particularly in the presence of hypoxia and acidosis. Nanomolar concentrations of NO(2)(-) reduce injury following I/R in the liver and heart in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of NO(2)(-) in renal I/R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral nephrectomy followed by 45 min of ischemia of the contralateral kidney or sham surgery under isoflurane anesthesia. Animals received normal saline, sodium NO(2)(-), or sodium nitrate (NO(3)(-); 1.2 nmol/g body wt ip) at 22.5 min after induction of ischemia or 15 min before ischemia. A separate set of animals received saline, NO(2)(-), or NO(3)(-) (0.12, 1.2, or 12 nmol/g body wt iv) 45 min before ischemia. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were increased following I/R injury but were not significantly different among treatment groups at 24 and 48 h after acute renal injury. Interestingly, NO(3)(-) administration appeared to worsen renal injury. Histological scoring for loss of brush border, tubular necrosis, and red blood cell extravasation showed no significant differences among the treatment groups. The results indicate that, contrary to the protective effects of NO(2)(-) in I/R injury of the liver and heart, NO(2)(-) does not provide protection in renal I/R injury and suggest a unique metabolism of NO(2)(-) in the kidney.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2006; 290(4):F779-86. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitroalkenes are a class of cell signaling mediators generated by NO and fatty acid-dependent redox reactions. Nitrated fatty acids such as 10- and 12-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (nitrolinoleic acid, LNO(2)) exhibit pluripotent antiinflammatory cell signaling properties. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is up-regulated as an adaptive response to inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. LNO(2) (1-10 microM) induced HO-1 mRNA and protein up to 70- and 15-fold, respectively, in human aortic endothelial cells. This induction of HO-1 occurred within clinical LNO(2) concentration ranges, far exceeded responses to equimolar amounts of linoleic acid and oxidized linoleic acid, and rivaled that induced by hemin. Ex vivo incubation of rat aortic segments with 25 microM LNO(2) resulted in a 40-fold induction of HO-1 protein that localized to endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Actinomycin D inhibited LNO(2) induction of HO-1 in human aortic endothelial cells, and LNO(2) activated a 4.5-kb human HO-1 promoter construct, indicating transcriptional regulation of the HO-1 gene. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) receptor antagonist GW9662 did not inhibit LNO(2)-mediated HO-1 induction, and a methyl ester derivative of LNO(2) with diminished PPARgamma binding capability also induced HO-1, affirming a PPARgamma-independent mechanism. The NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and oxymyoglobin partially reversed induction of HO-1 by LNO(2), revealing that LNO(2) regulates HO-1 expression by predominantly NO-independent mechanisms. In summary, the metabolic and inflammatory signaling actions of nitroalkenes can be transduced by robust HO-1 induction.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2006; 103(11):4299-304. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity has been previously noted to be responsive to changes in O2 tension. While prior studies have focused on the extremes (0-3% and 95-100%) of O2 tensions, we report the influence of 10% O2 on endothelial cell XOR, a concentration resembling modest arterial hypoxia commonly found in patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells to 10% O2 increased XOR mRNA and protein abundance by 50%. Concomitantly, there was a 3-fold increase in XOR activity, XOR-dependent reactive oxygen species production, and cellular export of active enzyme. Although increases in mRNA and immunoreactive protein levels were observed, inhibition of transcription, translation, or protein degradation did not significantly alter cellular XOR specific activity, suggesting only modest contributions to 10% O2-induced effects. Exposure to 10% O2 did not increase cellular HIF-1alpha protein levels and hypoxia mimics did not alter XOR activity. Treatment of control cells with adenosine resulted in increased XOR activity similar to hypoxia. Exposure to the adenosine receptor agonist NECA increased enzymatic activity 4-fold while 8SPT, an adenosine receptor antagonist, reduced hypoxic induction of XOR activity approximately 50%. Combined, these data reveal that moderate hypoxia significantly enhances endothelial XOR specific activity, release, and XOR-derived reactive oxygen species generation. These effects appear to be mediated in part via adenosine-dependent processes.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2006; 40(6):952-9. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapamycin inhibits the development and progression of vascular disease. We previously showed that rapamycin induces the cytoprotective protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and more importantly, chemically inhibiting HO-1 blocked the antiproliferative actions of rapamycin. In this study, we evaluated whether HO-1 is required for the vascular protective effects of rapamycin in vivo using a rat monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension model. Rats were exposed to monocrotaline with or without rapamycin and HO activity was altered using the chemical inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin or the inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin. We also evaluated possible mechanisms of rapamycin-dependent induction of HO-1, and how HO-1 mediates growth factor-dependent antiproliferative actions of rapamycin. Proliferation and cell cycle progression were examined in smooth muscle cells derived from both wild-type and HO-1 knockout (HO-1-/-) mice in response to growth factors and rapamycin. Similar to our previous findings in vitro, rapamycin induced HO-1 in rat lung. Rapamycin also inhibited the development of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, and this protective effect was blocked with the addition of tin protoporphyrin. In addition, treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin resulted in a substantial protection in this model of pulmonary hypertension. Rapamycin induction of HO-1 was dependent upon a transcriptional event; however, it was not mediated through an altered redox state or mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibition. Unlike wild-type cells, the growth of HO-1-/- mouse aortic smooth muscle cells was not inhibited or cell cycle arrested in G1 in response to rapamycin. This study demonstrates that HO-1 is critical for the antiproliferative and vascular protective effects of rapamycin in vitro and in vivo in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.
    Laboratory Investigation 02/2006; 86(1):62-71. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-10 is a pluripotent cytokine that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Whereas short-term administration of IL-10 has shown benefit in acute glomerulonephritis, no studies have addressed the potential benefits of IL-10 in chronic renal disease. Chronically elevated blood levels of IL-10 in rats were achieved by administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 IL-10 (rAAV1-IL-10) vector. Control rats were given a similar dose of rAAV1-GFP. Four weeks after injection, IL-10 levels in serum were measured by ELISA, and chronic renal disease was induced by a 5/6 nephrectomy (n = 6 in each group). Eight weeks later, rats were killed and renal tissue was obtained for RNA, protein, and immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 were 12-fold greater in the rAAV1-IL-10 group by 4 wk after rAAV1-IL-10 administration (345 +/- 169 versus 28 +/- 15 pg/ml; P = 0.001), and levels were maintained throughout the experiment. rAAV1-IL-10 treatment resulted in less proteinuria (P < 0.05), lower serum creatinine (P < 0.05), and higher creatinine clearances (P < 0.01) compared with rAAV1-GFP-treated rats. Renal interstitial infiltration was significantly attenuated by rAAV1-IL-10 administration as assessed by numbers of CD4+, CD8+, monocyte-macrophages (ED-1+) and dendritic (OX-62+) cells (P < 0.05), and this correlated with reductions in the renal expression of monocyte (renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein) and T cell (RANTES mRNA) chemokines. rAAV1-IL-10 administration decreased mRNA levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in the kidney. The reduction in inflammatory cells was associated with a significant reduction in glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. It is concluded that IL-10 blocks inflammation and improves renal function in this model of chronic renal disease. The feasibility of long-term overexpression of a gene using the AAV serotype 1 vector system in a model of renal disease is also demonstrated.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2006; 16(12):3651-60. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The signaling pathways leading to high NaCl-induced activation of the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/osmotic response element binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP) remain incompletely understood. High NaCl has been reported to produce oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a component of oxidative stress, contribute to regulation of transcription factors. The present study was undertaken to test whether the high NaCl-induced increase in ROS contributes to tonicity-dependent activation of TonEBP/OREBP. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells were used as a model. We find that raising NaCl increases ROS, including superoxide. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, and MnTBAP, an inhibitor of superoxide, reduce high NaCl-induced superoxide activity and suppress both high NaCl-induced increase in TonEBP/OREBP transcriptional activity and high NaCl-induced increase in expression of BGT1mRNA, a transcriptional target of TonEBP/OREBP. Catalase, which decomposes hydrogen peroxide, does not have these effects, whether applied exogenously or overexpressed within the cells. Furthermore, NAC and MnTBAP, but not catalase, blunt high NaCl-induced increase in TonEBP/OREBP transactivation. N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine, a general inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, has no significant effect on either high NaCl-induced increase in superoxide or TonEBP/OREBP transcriptional activity, suggesting that the effects of ROS do not involve nitric oxide. Ouabain, an inhibitor of Na-K-ATPase, attenuates high NaCl-induced superoxide activity and inhibits TonEBP/OREBP transcriptional activity. We conclude that the high NaCl-induced increase in ROS, including superoxide, contributes to activation of TonEBP/OREBP by increasing its transactivation.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 09/2005; 289(2):F377-85. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and its derivative 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im) are multifunctional molecules with potent antiproliferative, differentiating, and anti-inflammatory activities. At nanomolar concentrations, these agents rapidly increase the expression of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Transfection studies using a series of reporter constructs show that activation of the human HO-1 promoter by the triterpenoids requires an antioxidant response element (ARE), a cyclic AMP response element, and an E Box sequence. Inactivation of one of these response elements alone partially reduces HO-1 induction, but mutations in all three sequences entirely eliminate promoter activity in response to the triterpenoids. Treatment with CDDO-Im also elevates protein levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor previously shown to bind ARE sequences, and increases expression of a number of antioxidant and detoxification genes regulated by Nrf2. The triterpenoids also reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species in cells challenged with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, but this cytoprotective activity is absent in Nrf2 deficient cells. These studies are the first to investigate the induction of the HO-1 and Nrf2/ARE pathways by CDDO and CDDO-Im, and our results suggest that further in vivo studies are needed to explore the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of the triterpenoids.
    Cancer Research 07/2005; 65(11):4789-98. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with well known antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory properties. Chronic allograft rejection, characterized by vascular neointimal proliferation, is a major cause of organ transplant loss, particularly in heart and kidney transplant recipients. In a Dark Agouti to Lewis rat model of aortic transplantation, we evaluated the effects of a single intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (serotype 1) encoding IL-10 (rAAV1-IL-10) on neointimal proliferation and inflammation. rAAV1-IL-10 treatment resulted in a significant reduction of neointimal proliferation and graft infiltration with macrophages and T and B lymphocytes. The mechanism underlying the protective effects of IL-10 in aortic allografts involved heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) because inhibition of HO activity reversed not only neointimal proliferation but also inflammatory cell infiltration. Our results indicate that IL-10 attenuates neointimal proliferation and inflammatory infiltration and strongly imply that HO-1 is an important intermediary through which IL-10 regulates the inflammatory responses associated with chronic vascular rejection.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2005; 102(20):7251-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, a great deal of interest and attention has been directed toward a population of regulatory T cells (Treg) coexpressing the markers CD4 and CD25. The hallmark phenotype of this cell population resides in its ability to dominantly maintain peripheral tolerance and avert autoimmunity. Despite robust research interest in Treg, their mechanism of action and interaction with other cell populations providing immune regulation remains unclear. In this study, we present a model for Treg activity that implicates carbon monoxide, a by-product of heme oxygenase-1 activity, as an important and underappreciated facet in the suppressive capacity of Treg. Our hypothesis is based on recent evidence supporting a role for heme oxygenase-1 in regulating immune reactivity and posit carbon monoxide to function as a suppressive molecule. Potential roles for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, costimulatory molecules, and cytokines in tolerance induction are also presented. This model, if validated, could act as a catalyst for new investigations into Treg function and ultimately result in novel methods to modulate Treg biology toward therapeutic applications.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2005; 174(9):5181-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced as an adaptive and protective response to tissue injury. HO-1 degrades heme into carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin; the latter is then converted to bilirubin. These reaction products have powerful antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects. Manipulation of the HO-1 system by administration of micromolar doses of exogenous CO or bilirubin has been performed in several organ systems, but the dose-related effects of these reaction products have not been investigated in the kidney. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and dose-related protective effects of 1 or 10 muM bilirubin flush before a 20-min period of warm ischemia. In an effort to minimize interactions with other chemical messengers or organ systems, we elected to use an isolated, perfused rat kidney model with an acellular, oxygenated perfusate. Using this model, we demonstrated that bilirubin treatment resulted in significant improvements in renal vascular resistance, urine output, glomerular filtration rate, tubular function, and mitochondrial integrity after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Beneficial effects on organ viability were achieved most consistently with a dose of 10 muM bilirubin. We conclude that the protective effects of HO-1 activity during IRI in the kidney are mediated, at least in part, by bilirubin and that pretreatment with micromolar doses of bilirubin may offer a simple and inexpensive method to improve renal function after IRI.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2005; 288(4):F778-84. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide is an important mediator of intracellular signaling, which potently enhances the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and upregulates synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The purpose of the present study was to explore the involvement of HO-1 in regulation of H(2)O(2)-mediated induction of VEGF synthesis. We provide genetic evidence that basal and H(2)O(2)-induced VEGF synthesis is partially dependent on HO-1. Inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) resulted in downregulation of VEGF synthesis in murine fibroblasts and human keratinocytes. The relationship between HO-1 and VEGF was corroborated by using cells derived from HO-1 knockout mice, which demonstrated lower basal and H(2)O(2)-induced production of VEGF. Additionally, knock out of HO-1 gene impaired induction of VEGF by hemin, lysophosphatidylcholine, and prostaglandin-J(2). Our results provide confirmation for the involvement of HO-1 in regulation of angiogenesis.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2005; 326(3):670-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively successful elsewhere, gene delivery aimed at the vasculature and kidney has made very little progress. In the kidney, the hurdles are related to the unique structure-function relationships of this organ and in the blood vessels to a variety of, mostly endothelial, factors making the delivery of transgenes very difficult. Among gene-therapeutic approaches, most viral gene delivery systems utilized to date have shown significant practical and safety-related limitations due to the level and duration of recombinant transgene expression as well as their induction of a significant host immune response to vector proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors appear to offer a vehicle for safe, long-term transgene expression. rAAV-based vectors are characterized by a relative non-immunogenicity and the absence of viral coding sequences. Furthermore, they allow for establishment of long-term latency without deleterious effects on the host cell. This brief review addresses problems related to transgene-delivery to kidney and vasculature with particular attention given to rAAV vectors. The potential for gene therapy as a strategy for selected renal and vascular diseases is also discussed.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 02/2005; 52(2):293-9. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an attractive tool for gene therapy because of its ability to transduce both dividing and nondividing cells, elicit a limited immune response, and the capacity for imparting long-term transgene expression. Previous studies have utilized rAAV serotype 2 predominantly and found that transduction of vascular cells is relatively inefficient. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the transduction efficiency of rAAV serotypes 1 through 5 in human and rat aortic endothelial cells (HAEC and RAEC). rAAV vectors with AAV2 inverted terminal repeats containing the human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were transcapsidated using helper plasmids to provide viral capsids for the AAV1 through 5 serotypes. True type rAAV2 and 5 vectors encoding beta-galactosidase or green fluorescence protein were also studied. Infection with rAAV1 resulted in the most efficient transduction in both HAEC and RAEC compared to other serotypes (p < 0.001) at 7 days posttransduction. Interestingly, expression was increased in cells transduced with rAAV5 to levels surpassing rAAV1 by day 14 and 21. Transduction with rAAV1 was completely inhibited by removal of sialic acid with sialidase, while heparin had no effect. These studies are the first demonstration that sialic acid residues are required for rAAV1 transduction in endothelial cells. Transduction of rat aortic segments ex vivo and in vivo demonstrated significant transgene expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells with rAAV1 and 5 serotype vectors, in comparison to rAAV2. These results suggest the unique potential of rAAV1 and rAAV5-based vectors for vascular-targeted gene-based therapeutic strategies.
    Human Gene Therapy 02/2005; 16(2):235-47. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    Jessy Deshane, Marcienne Wright, Anupam Agarwal
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation resulting in the formation of iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin, which is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The biological effects exerted by the products of this enzymatic reaction have gained much attention. The anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions associated with HO-1 are attributable to one or more of its degradation products. Induction of HO-1 occurs as an adaptive and beneficial response to several injurious stimuli including heme and this inducible nature of HO-1 signifies its importance in several pathophysiological disease states. The beneficial role of HO-1 has been implicated in several clinically relevant disease states involving multiple organ systems as well as significant biological processes such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammation/immune dysfunction and transplantation. HO-1 has thus emerged as a key target molecule with therapeutic implications.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 02/2005; 52(2):273-84. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite multiple causes, Chronic Kidney Disease is commonly associated with proteinuria. A previous study on Non Obese Diabetic mice (NOD), which spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes, described histological and gene expression changes incurred by diabetes in the kidney. Because proteinuria is coincident to diabetes, the effects of proteinuria are difficult to distinguish from those of other factors such as hyperglycemia. Proteinuria can nevertheless be induced in mice by peritoneal injection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). To gain more information on the specific effects of proteinuria, this study addresses renal changes in diabetes resistant NOD-related mouse strains (NON and NOD.B10) that were made to develop proteinuria by BSA overload. Proteinuria was induced by protein overload on NON and NOD.B10 mouse strains and histology and microarray technology were used to follow the kidney response. The effects of proteinuria were assessed and subsequently compared to changes that were observed in a prior study on NOD diabetic nephropathy. Overload treatment significantly modified the renal phenotype and out of 5760 clones screened, 21 and 7 kidney transcripts were respectively altered in the NON and NOD.B10. Upregulated transcripts encoded signal transduction genes, as well as markers for inflammation (Calmodulin kinase beta). Down-regulated transcripts included FKBP52 which was also down-regulated in diabetic NOD kidney. Comparison of transcripts altered by proteinuria to those altered by diabetes identified mannosidase 2 alpha 1 as being more specifically induced by proteinuria. By simulating a component of diabetes, and looking at the global response on mice resistant to the disease, by virtue of a small genetic difference, we were able to identify key factors in disease progression. This suggests the power of this approach in unraveling multifactorial disease processes.
    BMC Nephrology 02/2005; 6:17. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    Thomas D Hock, Harry S Nick, Anupam Agarwal
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    ABSTRACT: The human HO-1 (haem oxygenase-1) gene encodes a microsomal enzyme responsible for the breakdown of haem, and is also cytoprotective in response to various cellular insults. HO-1 transcription is induced by a vast array of compounds including, but certainly not limited to, haem and heavy metals such as cadmium. In the present study, we show that upstream stimulatory factors, USF1 and USF2, ubiquitous proteins belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper family of transcription factors, constitutively bind to the class B E-box located in the proximal promoter of the human HO-1 gene and are responsible for the enhancement of HO-1 gene transcription in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Dimethylsulphate in vivo footprinting studies have identified three protected guanine residues in the E-box of the HO-1 proximal promoter. One of these guanine contact points is essential for USF binding, and when mutated mimics a deletion mutation of the entire E-box palindrome sequence encompassing all three guanine contact points. Binding of USF1 and USF2 to the HO-1 E-box was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel-shift assays. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of USF1 or USF2 enhances the basal expression of HO-1 and that expression of a USF dominant negative form reduces its expression. These results demonstrate for the first time that USF proteins bind to the human HO-1 promoter in vivo and are required for high-level expression of HO-1 by haem and cadmium in human renal epithelial cells.
    Biochemical Journal 11/2004; 383(Pt 2):209-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
654 Downloads
521.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Division of Nephrology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Medicine
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2011
    • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2009
    • University of Debrecen
      • Medical and Health Science Centre
      Debrecen, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary
  • 2003
    • University of Miami
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States