Yoshifumi Yokota

University of Fukui, Hukui, Fukui, Japan

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Publications (51)306.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mammalian circadian oscillator is composed of interacting positive and negative transcription events. The clock proteins PER1 and PER2 play essential roles in a negative limb of the feedback loop that generates the circadian rhythm in mammals. In addition, the proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 (also known as ARNTL) form a heterodimer that drives the Per genes via the E-box consensus sequences within their promoter regions. In the present study, we demonstrate that Id2 is involved in stabilization of the amplitudes of the circadian oscillations by suppressing transcriptional activation of clock genes Clock and Bmal1. Id2 shows dynamic oscillation in the SCN, with a peak in the late subjective night. Under constant dark conditions (DD), Id2(-/-) mice showed no apparent difference in locomotor activity, however, under constant light conditions (LL), Id2(-/-) mice exhibit aberrant locomotor activity, with lower circadian oscillation amplitudes, although the free running periods in Id2(-/-) mice show no differences from those in either wild type or heterozygous mice. Id2(-/-) animals also exhibit upregulation of Per1 in constant light, during both the subjective night and day. In wild type mice, Id2 is upregulated by constant light exposure during the subjective night. We propose that Id2 expression in the SCN contributes to maintenance of dynamic circadian oscillations.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 12/2013; 30(12):1011-8. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ids are versatile transcriptional repressors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and appropriate subcellular localization of the Id proteins is important for their functions. We previously identified distinct functional nuclear export signals (NESs) in Id1 and Id2, but no active NES has been reported in Id3. In this study, we found that treatment with the stress-inducing metalloid arsenite led to the accumulation of GFP-tagged Id3 in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic accumulation was impaired by a mutation in the Id3 NES-like sequence resembling the Id1 NES, located at the end of the HLH domain. It was also blocked by co-treatment with the CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB), but not with the inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Importantly, we showed that the closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3 interacted with the arsenic derivative phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and were essential for the arsenite-induced cytoplasmic accumulation, suggesting that arsenite induces the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of Id3 via binding to the N-terminal cysteines. Finally, we demonstrated that Id3 significantly repressed arsenite-stimulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 and that this repression activity was inversely correlated with the arsenite-induced nuclear export. Our results imply that Id3 may be involved in the biological action of arsenite.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ids function as negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and their expression is rapidly induced by serum stimulation in various cell types. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of serum-induced expression of the mouse Id2 gene in NIH3T3 cells. A small-molecule inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor kinases blocked the serum induction of Id2 mRNA. The chemical compound and several inhibitory proteins specific for BMP signaling suppressed the serum-induced activation of the luciferase construct with the mouse Id2 4.6-kb promoter region. Importantly, serum stimulation evoked rapid phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and significant activation of the reporter plasmid containing the recently identified BMP-responsive element (BRE) of the mouse Id2. Mutation analysis demonstrated that the binding sites for Smad proteins in the Id2 BRE were critical for serum response of the 4.6-kb whole construct. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the serum-inducible binding of Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 to the Id2 BRE in vitro and in vivo. Finally, a knockdown experiment revealed the functional importance of Smad1 in the serum induction of Id2 expression. Thus, we concluded that BMP signaling is primarily responsible for the serum-induced Id2 expression. Our results also suggest that some of the cellular effects caused by serum are mediated through BMP signaling.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 420(2):281-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maxillofacial dysmorphogenesis is found in 5% of the population. To begin to understand the mechanisms required for maxillofacial morphogenesis, we employed the inhibitors of the differentiation 2 (Id2) knock-out mouse model, in which Id proteins, members of the regulator of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We now report that spatially-restricted growth defects are localized at the skull base of Id2 KO mice. Curiously, at birth, neither the mutant Id2 KO nor wild-type (WT) mice differed, based upon cephalometric and histological analyses of cranial base synchondroses. In postnatal week 2, a narrower hypertrophic zone and an inhibited proliferative zone in presphenoid synchondrosis (PSS) and spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) with maxillary hypoplasia were identified in the Id2 mutant mice. Complementary studies revealed that exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) enhanced cartilage growth, matrix deposition, and chondrocyte proliferation in the WT but not in the mutant model. Id2-deficient chondrocytes expressed more Smad7 transcripts. Based on our results, we assert that Id2 plays an essential role, acting downstream of BMP signaling, to regulate cartilage formation at the postnatal stage by enhancing BMP signals through inhibiting Smad7 expression. As a consequence, abnormal endochondral ossification was observed in cranial base synchondroses during the postnatal growth period, resulting in the clinical phenotype of maxillofacial dysmorphogenesis.
    Bone 01/2012; 50(1):69-78. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibitor of differentiation Id2 is expressed in mesoderm of the second heart field, which contributes myocardial and mesenchymal cells to the primary heart tube. The role of Id2 in cardiac development is insufficiently known. Heart development was studied in sequential developmental stages in Id2 wildtype and knockout mouse embryos. Expression patterns of Id2, MLC-2a, Nkx2.5, HCN4, and WT-1 were analyzed. Id2 is expressed in myocardial progenitor cells at the inflow and outflow tract, in the endocardial and epicardial lineage, and in neural crest cells. Id2 knockout embryos show severe cardiac defects including abnormal orientation of systemic and pulmonary drainage, abnormal myocardialization of systemic and pulmonary veins, hypoplasia of the sinoatrial node, large interatrial communications, ventricular septal defects, double outlet right ventricle, and myocardial hypoplasia. Our results indicate a role for Id2 in the second heart field contribution at both the arterial and the venous poles of the heart.
    Developmental Dynamics 11/2011; 240(11):2561-77. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) genes are the targets of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in various types of cells. We investigated the molecular basis of BMP6-induced gene expression of mouse Id2 in C2C12 myoblasts. BMP6-dependent Id2 expression occurred immediately without de novo protein synthesis and was blocked by an inhibitor of the BMP type I receptors. A reporter assay identified a BMP6-responsive region 3.0kb upstream of the transcription initiation site. The region showed sequence similarity to the mouse Id1 promoter and shared potential Smad binding sites with it, two GGCGCC palindromes and one GTCT element. Mutation analysis demonstrated the involvement of these elements in the BMP response. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the physical binding of Smad proteins to these elements. The 3'-positioned GGCGCC palindrome and the GTCT element were separated by 5-bp and conformed to the canonical BMP-responsive sequence. In addition, the 5'-positioned GGCGCC was accompanied by a previously uncharacterized CGCC element, which were separated by a 5-bp space, and this configuration coincided with that of a similar but distinct sequence to which a Drosophila homolog of the Smad complex can bind. Reporter and gel shift assays revealed the importance of this bipartite sequence. Therefore, we have identified the BMP-responsive elements in mouse Id2 and also shown that the CGCC sequence contributes to target recognition by Smad proteins.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2010; 399(3):416-21. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM1) is mainly known as a detoxification enzyme but it has also been shown to be a negative regulator of apoptosis-related signaling cascades. Recently GSTM1 has been reported to be a significant risk factor for hematological relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Glucocorticoids play a crucial role in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, therefore we hypothesized that GSTM1 plays important roles in glucocorticoid-induced apoptotic pathways. To clarify the relationship between GSTM1 and drug resistance, GSTM1 was transfected into a T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, CCRF-CEM (CEM), and we established the GSTM1-expressing cell lines CEM/M1-4 and CEM/M1-9. Transduction of GSTM1 into CEM selectively decreased cellular sensitivity to dexamethasone in a manner that was independent of glutathione conjugation, but was due to apoptosis inhibition. Dexamethasone-induced p38-MAPK and Bim activation were concomitantly suppressed. Interestingly, nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kappaB) p50 activity was upregulated in GSTM1-expressing CEM. Inhibition of NF-kappaB by the pharmacological agent BAY11-7082 greatly enhanced the sensitivity of the GSTM1-expressing CEM to dexamethasone and was accompanied by an increase in Bim expression. Thus, we propose that GSTM1, a novel regulator of dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, causes dexamethasone resistance by suppression of Bim through dual mechanisms of both downregulation of p38-MAPK and upregulation of NF-kappaB p50.
    Cancer Science 03/2010; 101(3):767-73. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) is a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and is involved in the control of cellular differentiation and proliferation. By using a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol, we evaluated the role of Id2 in skin tumor formation in mice. Twenty weeks after the initiation, the number of tumors formed in the Id2(-/-) mice was 3.5-fold higher than that in their wild-type littermates, whereas the diameter of tumors in the Id2(-/-) mice was about half of that of the tumors in the wild-type mice. In the Id2(-/-) mice, epidermal gammadelta T cells, which play a key role in immunosurveillance against skin tumor development, were barely detectable. Although histological analyses demonstrated no apparent difference in tumor cell type, tumor vessel formation or apoptosis, the proportion of proliferating cells was reduced in the tumors in the Id2(-/-) mice compared with those in the wild-type mice. In the wild-type mice, the expression of Id2 was enhanced in skin tumors compared with that in ear epidermal cells. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that cyclin D1 was reduced at the protein level in the tumors in the Id2(-/-) mice, whereas other factors such as cyclin E and p27 were not altered significantly. Our results reveal that Id2 plays a dual role in skin tumorigenesis by suppressing tumor development through the establishment of epidermal gammadelta T cell-mediated skin immunosurveillance and by promoting tumor cell proliferation via the control of the cyclin D1 protein level.
    Carcinogenesis 08/2009; 30(9):1645-50. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-21 exerts pleiotrophic immunomodulatory activities on a variety of target cells including B cells that undergo class switch recombination (CSR) to IgE. In this study, we examined whether IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis was controlled by in vivo administration of IL-21 using the peanut allergy model in mice and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the IL-21-induced regulation of IgE. The anaphylactic reaction was completely abolished by the administration of recombinant mouse IL-21 or an IL-21 expression plasmid in terms of the change of body temperature and anaphylactic symptoms. The recombinant mouse IL-21 treatment remarkably suppressed IgE CSR in splenic B cells, resulting in significant decrease in serum concentrations of total as well as allergen-specific IgE. In the meanwhile, IL-21 provoked B cells in normal as well as allergic mice to express the inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) gene that was shown to be crucially involved in the regulation of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase and IgE CSR. Moreover, mice genetically deficient for Id2 were completely unsusceptible to IL-21-induced prevention of IgE CSR and anaphylaxis. The present study strongly suggests that IL-21 is capable of regulating systemic allergic reactions by inducing the transcriptional regulator Id2, and the cytokine may be useful for clinical intervention for allergic diseases including anaphylaxis.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2008; 179(12):8554-61. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The E proteins are indispensable for early T cell development. On the other hand, we previously demonstrated that their inhibitor Id2 is essential for NK lineage commitment from bipotent progenitors generating both T and NK cells (p-T/NK). To shed more light on the role of E proteins and Id2 in the development of early intrathymic progenitors, we performed a clonal analysis: individual fetal thymic CD4(-)CD8(-)CD44(+)CD25(-)CD122(-) (DN1CD122(-)) cells were retrovirally transduced with an Id2-internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Id2-GFP) gene or a control IRES-GFP (GFP) gene, and cultured in a modified fetal thymus organ culture able to support T and NK cell development. After the culture, both T and NK cells, T cells and no NK cells, NK cells and no T cells, or completely no cells were generated from single cells in each lobe. Hence, the seeded cells were regarded as p-T/NK, unipotent progenitors generating T cells (p-T), unipotent NK progenitors, or cells without progenitor activity, respectively. With Id2-GFP transduction, p-T disappeared and more p-T/NK emerged than with GFP transduction. This increase corresponded to the number of p-T that was counted when the vector-transduced-DN1CD122(-) cells of the same number were examined. Additionally, a fraction of GFP(-) NK cells obtained after Id2-GFP transduction underwent TCRbeta D-J rearrangement. Our data strongly suggest that forced expression of Id2 allows some progeny of p-T to adopt an NK cell fate, and that p-T retain a program for NK lineage development that can be implemented by inhibiting the function of E proteins.
    International Immunology 11/2007; 19(10):1175-82. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Kui-Rong Wang, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Yoshifumi Yokota
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    ABSTRACT: Id2, a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is involved in regulating cell differentiation and proliferation. To obtain insight into the role of Id2 in cell cycle control, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the immediate early response of Id2 expression to serum stimulation in NIH3T3 cells. Luciferase reporter analysis with deletion and point mutants demonstrated the serum response element of Id2 (Id2-SRE) to be a consensus binding site for RFX1 (regulatory factor for X-box 1) present 3.0 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site of Id2. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the binding of RFX1 to Id2-SRE in vitro and in vivo, respectively. In both assays, RFX1 binding was observed not only in serum-stimulated cells, but also in serum-starved cells. Knockdown of RFX1 by RNA interference disturbed the immediate early response of Id2 expression in cells and abrogated the Id2-SRE-mediated induction of luciferase activity by serum. These alterations were rescued by the introduction of RNA interference-resistant RFX1 into cells. On the other hand, in the Id2-SRE-mediated reporter assay, RFX1 with an N-terminal deletion abrogated the serum response, whereas RFX1 with a C-terminal deletion enhanced the reporter activity in serum-starved cells. Furthermore, HDAC1 was recruited to Id2-SRE in serum-starved cells. These results demonstrate that RFX1 mediates the immediate early response of the Id2 gene by serum stimulation and suggest that the function of RFX1 is regulated intramolecularly in its suppression in growth-arrested cells. Our results unveil a novel transcriptional control of immediate early gene expression.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2007; 282(36):26167-77. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microarray gene expression profiling is a powerful tool for generating molecular cancer classifications. However, elucidating biological insights from these large data sets has been challenging. Previously, we identified a gene expression-based classification of primary uveal melanomas that accurately predicts metastatic death. Class 1 tumors have a low risk and class 2 tumors a high risk for metastatic death. Here, we used genes that discriminate these tumor classes to identify biological correlates of the aggressive class 2 signature. A search for Gene Ontology categories enriched in our class-discriminating gene list revealed a global down-regulation of neural crest and melanocyte-specific genes and an up-regulation of epithelial genes in class 2 tumors. Correspondingly, class 2 tumors exhibited epithelial features, such as polygonal cell morphology, up-regulation of the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin, colocalization of E-cadherin and beta-catenin to the plasma membrane, and formation of cell-cell adhesions and acinar structures. One of our top class-discriminating genes was the helix-loop-helix inhibitor ID2, which was strongly down-regulated in class 2 tumors. The class 2 phenotype could be recapitulated by eliminating Id2 in cultured class 1 human uveal melanoma cells and in a mouse ocular melanoma model. Id2 seemed to suppress the epithelial-like class 2 phenotype by inhibiting an activator of the E-cadherin promoter. Consequently, Id2 loss triggered up-regulation of E-cadherin, which in turn promoted anchorage-independent cell growth, a likely antecedent to metastasis. These findings reveal new roles for Id2 and E-cadherin in uveal melanoma progression, and they identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Cancer Research 06/2006; 66(9):4602-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gene encoding streptolysin O (slo), a cytolysin of hemolytic streptococci, is transcribed polycistronically from the promoter of the preceding NAD-glycohydrolase (NADase) gene (nga). Between nga and slo, a putative open reading frame (orf1) is located whose function has been totally unknown. Present investigation demonstrated that the orf1 encodes a protein designated as streptococcal NADase inhibitor (SNI). From its nucleotide sequence, SNI was inferred to comprise 161 amino acid residues and the deduced molecular weight was 18,800. This protein was detectable only within cells. Coexpression of SNI was essential for production of streptococcal NADase, and NADase precursor existed as an inactive complex with SNI, in recombinant Escherichia coli. Monomeric NADase and SNI rapidly formed in vitro a stable heterodimer complex in the ratio 1:1, resulting in complete suppression of the hydrolase activity. Unlike other bacterial NADase inhibitors, SNI was thermostable. This protein, coexpressed and complexed with NADase, may protect the producer cocci from exhaustion of NAD.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2006; 281(14):9181-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Id proteins play important roles in cellular differentiation and proliferation by negatively regulating basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Although their intracellular localization may change depending on the biological situation, little is known about the molecular determinants underlying such changes. Here we report the identification of a nuclear export signal (NES) in Id1. The identified NES was different from that of Id2, but had the ability to confine heterologous green fluorescent protein to the cytoplasm. Thus, our results indicate that the intracellular localization of Id1 is regulated differently from that of Id2.
    FEBS Letters 04/2006; 580(7):1812-6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Id proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and are involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Four members of the Id gene family exhibit closely related but distinct expression patterns in various mammalian organs of not only embryos but also adults. Among them, Id2 is known to be expressed in Purkinje cells and neurons in the cortical layers of the adult mouse brain, suggesting that Id2 is involved in some neural functions in the adult. To get insight into the role of Id2 in the nervous system, we investigated the localization of Id2 mRNA-expressing cells in the adult mouse brain in detail by in situ hybridization with the radiolabeled antisense probe and compared it with the localization of other Id gene family members. The results indicated that Id2 mRNA is detected in more varied brain regions than previously reported. These regions include the amygdaloid complex, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and the anterior part of the subventricular zone. These results suggest the possibility that Id2 plays a role in the neural activity and cognitive functions. On the other hand, Id1 was barely detectable. Although moderate or low expression of Id3 was observed diffusely, high expression was observed in some specific regions including the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the external capsule. Id4 mRNA was detected in the regions such as the caudate putamen and the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Thus, the expression pattern of Id2 is distinct from those of other Id gene family members.
    Brain Research 03/2006; 1073-1074:93-102. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hypoxia has been newly proposed as a common mechanism of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the progression of various chronic inflammatory renal diseases, where plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) through inhibition of plasmin-dependent ECM degradation. In the present study, we investigated the presence of PAI-1 in renal tubular cells by immunostaining renal biopsy samples. We also closely examined the effects of hypoxia and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on PAI-1 expression in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Confluent cells growth-arrested in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for 24 hours were exposed to hypoxia (1% O(2)) and/or TNF-alpha at 10 ng/mL for up to 48 hours. Amounts of PAI-1 protein and mRNA after stimulation were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or cDNA array analysis, respectively, and compared to those in cells incubated under control conditions (18% O(2) without TNF-alpha). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) was demonstrated by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses. Human PAI-1 promoter activity was estimated by luciferase reporter gene assay. In crescentic glomerulonephritis, clusters of proximal tubules were specifically stained for PAI-1. cDNA array analysis identified PAI-1 as a major gene highly induced by hypoxia in HPTECs. Treatment of 24 hours with hypoxia, TNF-alpha, and their combination induced a 2.8-fold, a 1.8-fold, and a 4.6-fold increase in PAI-1 protein secretion, and produced a 3.6-fold, a 3.3-fold, and a 12.1-fold increase at the PAI-1 mRNA level, respectively. Immunoblot analysis and immunocytochemistry revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) was markedly accumulated in the cell lysates and exclusively translocated to nuclei after 16 hours' exposure of HPTECs to hypoxia but not to TNF-alpha. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that hypoxia, TNF-alpha, and their combination increased PAI-1 transcription activity by 1.8-fold, 1.4-fold, and 2.2-fold, respectively. A dominant-negative form of HIF-1alpha significantly suppressed PAI-1 transcription activity induced by hypoxia. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) caused a moderate decrease in PAI-1 production under hypoxia. Hypoxia induces PAI-1 expression via remarkable nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha and partially via NF-kappaB activation in HPTECs. TNF-alpha can synergistically enhance this hypoxia-induced PAI-1 expression.
    Kidney International 09/2005; 68(2):569-83. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CpG motif in DNA plays a critical role in immunity via modulating the Th1/Th2 balance. In B cells, CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) inhibit IL-4-mediated class switch recombination (CSR) to IgG1 and IgE through inhibition of the germline transcription (GLT) of these isotypes. However, the molecular mechanism of this inhibitory effect remains elusive. We showed here that Id2 and Bcl6, both of which inhibit IgE GLT and CSR, are not involved in this inhibitory pathway. We demonstrated that there is reduced activity of NF kappa B binding to the IgE promoter and a reduction of Irf4 protein in CpG ODN-treated B cells. These data indicate the critical role of NF kappa B and Irf4 in the regulation of IgE CSR through actions downstream of CpG signaling.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2005; 328(2):499-506. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Hisanori Kurooka, Yoshifumi Yokota
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    ABSTRACT: Id proteins function as negative regulators for basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factors that play important roles in cell fate determination. They preferentially associate with ubiquitously expressed E proteins of the basic helix-loop-helix family and prevent them from binding to DNA and activating transcription. Although their small size suggests that Id proteins enter and exit the nucleus by passive diffusion, several studies have indicated that other pathways may regulate their subcellular localization. In this study, we obtained evidence that Id2 has the ability to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. When passive diffusion was prevented by fusion with green fluorescent protein (GFP), Id2 was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Using GFP fusion constructs, we demonstrated that the C-terminal region is required for cytoplasmic localization. Nuclear accumulation of GFP-Id2 in cells treated with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B suggests that the nuclear export receptor chromosome region maintenance protein 1 mediates the cytoplasmic localization of Id2. Id2 contains two putative leucine-rich nuclear export signals, and the nuclear export signal in the C-terminal region is essential for nuclear export. On the other hand, the helix-loop-helix domain is important for nuclear localization. Finally, experiments using reporter assays revealed an inverse correlation between nuclear export and transcriptional repression via the E-box sequence. Based on all these findings, we propose that nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling is a novel mechanism for the regulation of Id2 function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(6):4313-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mice deficient for Id2, a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, exhibit a defect in lactation due to impaired lobuloalveolar development during pregnancy, similar to the mice lacking the CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) beta. Here, we show that Id2 is a direct target of C/EBPbeta. Translocation of C/EBPbeta into the nucleus, which was achieved by using a system utilizing the fusion protein between C/EBPbeta and the ligand-binding domain of the human estrogen receptor (C/EBPbeta-ERT), demonstrated the rapid induction of endogenous Id2 expression. In reporter assays, transactivation of the Id2 promoter by C/EBPbeta was observed and, among three potential C/EBPbeta binding sites found in the 2.3 kb Id2 promoter region, the most proximal element was responsible for the transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified this element as a core sequence to which C/EBPbeta binds. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) furthermore confirmed the presence of C/EBPbeta in the Id2 promoter region. Northern blotting showed that Id2 expression in C/EBPbeta-deficient mammary glands was reduced at 10 days post coitus (d.p.c.), compared with that in wild-type mammary glands. Thus, our data demonstrate that Id2 is a direct target of C/EBPbeta and provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying mammary gland development during pregnancy.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(6):1924-34. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptolysin O (SLO), an oxygen-labile cytolysin, is the cholesterol-binding exotoxin of hemolytic streptococci. Besides microbiological and pathological interests, this cytolysin has been used as a tool for permeabilization of biomembranes. SLO serves as a diagnostic reagent for determination of anti-SLO antibody titer in streptococcal infection. Availability of highly purified SLO, however, has been limited by low yield in streptococcal culture and purification process. Present subcloning of mature-type full-length SLO gene into an expression vector having strictly controllable araBAD promoter enabled efficient production of the cytolysin. Further, anti-SLO antibody with high specificity was obtained by immunizing with purified SLO protein.
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2005; 10(1):64-8. · 1.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
306.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • University of Fukui
      • Division of Molecular Genetics
      Hukui, Fukui, Japan
  • 2002–2007
    • Fukui University
      Hukui, Fukui, Japan
  • 2000–2007
    • Kyoto University
      • • Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      • • Graduate School of Medicine / Faculty of Medicine
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 1997–2000
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany