J. Kopecky

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Budejovice, Jihočeský, Czech Republic

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Publications (254)640 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The winter beehive debris containing bodies of honeybee parasitic mite Varroa destructor is used for veterinary diagnostics. The Varroa sucking honeybee haemolymph serves as a reservoir of pathogens including bacteria. Worker bees can pick up pathogens from the debris during cleaning activities and spread the infection to healthy bees within the colony. The aim of this study was to detect entomopathogenic bacteria in the Varroa collected from the winter beehive debris. Methods and results: Culture-independent approach was used to analyse the mite-associated bacterial community. Total DNA was extracted from the samples of 10 Varroa female individuals sampled from 27 different sites in Czechia. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal bacterial primers, cloned and sequenced, resulting in a set of 596 sequences representing 29 operational taxonomic units (OTU97 ). To confirm the presence of bacteria in Varroa, histological sections of the mites were observed. Undetermined bacteria were observed in the mite gut and fat tissue. Conclusion: Morganella sp. was the most frequently detected taxon, followed by Enterococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Rahnella sp., Erwinia sp., and Arsenophonus sp. The honeybee putative pathogen Spiroplasma sp. was detected at one site and Bartonella-like bacteria were found at four sites. PCR-based analysis using genus-specific primers enabled detection of the following taxa: Enterococcus, Bartonella-like bacteria, Arsenophonus and Spiroplasma. Significance and impact of the study: We found potentially pathogenic (Spiroplasma) and parasitic bacteria (Arsenophonus) in mites from winter beehive debris. The mites can be reservoirs of the pathogenic bacteria in the apicultures.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2015; 119(3):640-654. DOI:10.1111/jam.12899 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Next generation sequencing and proteomics have helped to comprehensively characterize gene expression in tick salivary glands at both the transcriptome and the proteome level. Functional data are, however, lacking. Given that tick salivary secretions are critical to the success of the tick transmission lifecycle and, as a consequence, for host colonization by the pathogens they spread, we thoroughly review here the literature on the known interactions between tick saliva (or tick salivary gland extracts) and the innate and adaptive vertebrate immune system. The information is intended to serve as a reference for functional characterization of the numerous genes and proteins expressed in tick salivary glands with an ultimate goal to develop novel vector and pathogen control strategies. We overview all the known interactions of tick saliva with the vertebrate immune system. The provided information is important, given the recent developments in high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of gene expression in tick salivary glands, since it may serve as a guideline for the functional characterization of the numerous newly-discovered genes expressed in tick salivary glands. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of proteomics 07/2015; 128. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2015.07.005 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid/carbohydrate background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimie 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.07.001 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio) determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, on metabolic flexibility. Therefore, adult male mice received isocaloric high-fat diets with either predominantly PUFAs (HFpu diet) or predominantly SFAs (HFs diet) but similar n6/n3 ratio for six months, during and after which several biomarkers for health were measured. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the response to an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting and re-feeding test and an oxygen restriction test (OxR; normobaric hypoxia). The latter two are non-invasive, indirect calorimetry-based tests that measure the adaptive capacity of the body as a whole. We found that the HFs diet, compared to the HFpu diet, increased mean adipocyte size, liver damage, and ectopic lipid storage in liver and muscle; although, we did not find differences in body weight, total adiposity, adipose tissue health, serum adipokines, whole body energy balance, or circadian rhythm between HFs and HFpu mice. HFs mice were, furthermore, less flexible in their response to both fasting- re-feeding and OxR, while glucose tolerance was indistinguishable. To conclude, the HFs versus the HFpu diet increased ectopic fat storage, liver damage, and mean adipocyte size and reduced metabolic flexibility in male mice. This study underscores the physiological relevance of indirect calorimetry-based challenge tests.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128515. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128515 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coevolution of ticks and the vertebrate immune system has led to the development of immunosuppressive molecules that prevent immediate response of skin-resident immune cells to quickly fend off the parasite. In this article, we demonstrate that the tick-derived immunosuppressor sialostatin L restrains IL-9 production by mast cells, whereas degranulation and IL-6 expression are both unaffected. In addition, the expression of IL-1β and IRF4 is strongly reduced in the presence of sialostatin L. Correspondingly, IRF4- or IL-1R-deficient mast cells exhibit a strong impairment in IL-9 production, demonstrating the importance of IRF4 and IL-1 in the regulation of the Il9 locus in mast cells. Furthermore, IRF4 binds to the promoters of Il1b and Il9, suggesting that sialostatin L suppresses mast cell-derived IL-9 preferentially by inhibiting IRF4. In an experimental asthma model, mast cell-specific deficiency in IRF4 or administration of sialostatin L results in a strong reduction in asthma symptoms, demonstrating the immunosuppressive potency of tick-derived molecules. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2015; 195(2). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401823 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transmission of pathogens by ticks is greatly supported by tick saliva released during feeding. Dendritic cells (DC) act as immunological sentinels and interconnect the innate and adaptive immune system. They control polarization of the immune response towards Th1 or Th2 phenotype. We investigated whether salivary cystatins from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, sialostatin L (Sialo L) and sialostatin L2 (Sialo L2), influence mouse dendritic cells exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi and relevant Toll-like receptor ligands. DCs derived from bone-marrow by GM-CSF or Flt-3 ligand, were activated with Borrelia spirochetes or TLR ligands in the presence of 3 μM Sialo L and 3 μM Sialo L2. Produced chemokines and IFN-β were measured by ELISA test. The activation of signalling pathways was tested by western blotting using specific antibodies. The maturation of DC was determined by measuring the surface expression of CD86 by flow cytometry. We determined the effect of cystatins on the production of chemokines in Borrelia-infected bone-marrow derived DC. The production of MIP-1α was severely suppressed by both cystatins, while IP-10 was selectively inhibited only by Sialo L2. As TLR-2 is a major receptor activated by Borrelia spirochetes, we tested whether cystatins influence signalling pathways activated by TLR-2 ligand, lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Sialo L2 and weakly Sialo L attenuated the extracellular matrix-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) pathway. The activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was decreased only by Sialo L2. In response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the activation of Erk1/2 was impaired by Sialo L2. Production of IFN-β was analysed in plasmacytoid DC exposed to Borrelia, TLR-7, and TLR-9 ligands. Sialo L, in contrast to Sialo L2, decreased the production of IFN-β in pDC and also impaired the maturation of these cells. This study shows that DC responses to Borrelia spirochetes are affected by tick cystatins. Sialo L influences the maturation of DC thus having impact on adaptive immune response. Sialo L2 affects the production of chemokines potentially engaged in the development of inflammatory response. The impact of cystatins on Borrelia growth in vivo is discussed.
    Parasites & Vectors 05/2015; 8(1):275. DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0887-1 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Th17 cells constitute a subset of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes playing a crucial role in protection against extracellular bacteria and fungi. They are also associated with tissue injury in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we report that serpin from the tick Ixodes ricinus, IRS-2, inhibits Th17 differentiation by impairment of IL-6/STAT-3 signalling pathway. Following activation, mature dendritic cells produce an array of cytokines including pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, which triggers IL-6 signalling pathway. The major transcription factor activated by IL-6 is STAT-3. We show that IRS-2 selectively inhibits production of IL-6 in dendritic cells stimulated with Borrelia spirochetes, which leads to attenuated STAT-3 phosphorylation and finally to impaired Th17 differentiation. Presented results extend the knowledge about the effect of tick salivary serpins on innate immunity cells and their function in driving adaptive immune response. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Infection and Immunity 02/2015; 83(5). DOI:10.1128/IAI.03065-14 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with considerable health benefits, including the prevention of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, incorporation of the main omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at the systemic level has been found to be more efficient when these fatty acids are supplied in the form of marine phospholipids compared to triglycerides. In this work, the uptake of omega-3 fatty acids and their incorporation in specific lipids were studied in adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues of mice given high-fat diets with or without omega-3 supplements in the form of phospholipids or triglycerides using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The results demonstrate significant uptake of EPA and DHA, and the incorporation of these fatty acids in specific lipid molecules, in all three tissue types in response to the dietary omega-3 supplements. Moreover, the results indicate reduced concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and depletion of lipids containing AA in tissue samples from mice given supplementary omega-3, as compared to the control mice. The effect on the lipid composition, in particular the DHA uptake and AA depletion, was found to be significantly stronger when the omega-3 supplement was supplied in the form of phospholipids, as compared to triglycerides. TOF-SIMS was found to be a useful technique for screening the lipid composition and simultaneously obtaining the spatial distributions of various lipid classes on tissue surfaces. Graphical abstract Lipid-specific analysis of TOF-SIMS spectra was used to study dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse adipose, muscle and liver tissue. Ion images shows the lateral distribution of molecular species, herephosphocholine (red), protein fragment (green) and diacylglycerol (blue), on the tissue surfaces
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2015; 407(17). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8515-7 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • Jan Kopecky
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is present in most vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and most of the fish. This tissue is formed from mesoderm during embryonic development and is comprised of several fat depots around the body. It is composed from adipocytes, the cells forming the majority of the tissue when studied in histological sections, as well as several other cell types, namely preadipocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes and innate immune cells. In all mammals including humans, two types of adipose tissue are recognized, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively), which are engaged in two major distinct and opposite functions: energy storage (in WAT) and energy dissipation (in BAT). White adipocytes are spherical unilocular cells, filled by a large lipid droplet, with all cellular organelles packed in a thin cytoplasmic rim in the vicinity of plasma membrane. Brown adipocytes are polygonal multilocular cells, with cytoplasmic space filled with typical mitochondria containing many cristae. Brown adipocytes are marked by the presence of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates cold- and diet-inducible non-shivering thermogenesis that is adrenergically regulated.
    Lipids and Skin Health, 01/2015: pages 201-224; , ISBN: 978-3-319-09942-2
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    ABSTRACT: Carpoglyphus lactis is a stored product mite infesting saccharide rich stored commodities including dried fruits, wine, beer, milk products, jams and honey. The association with microorganisms can improve the survival of mites on dried fruits. The microbial communities associated to C. lactis were studied in specimens originating from the packages of dried apricot, plums and figs and compared to the laboratory strain reared on house dust mite diet (HDMd). Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region were constructed and analyzed by OTU approach. The 16S rRNA gene libraries differed among the compared diets. The sequences classified to the genera Leuconostoc, Elizabethkingia, Ewingella, Erwinia, Bacillus and Serratia were prevailing in mites sampled from the dried fruits. The ITS library showed smaller differences between the laboratory strain on HDMd and the isolates from dried fruits packages, with the exception of the mite strain from dried plums. The population growth was used as an indirect indicator of fitness and decreased in the order from yeast diet to HDMd, and dried fruits. The treatment and pretreatment of mites by antibiotics did not reveal the presence of antagonistic bacteria which might slow down the C. lactis population growth. The shifts of the microbial community in the gut of C. lactis were induced by the diet changes. The identified yeasts and bacteria are suggested as the main food source of stored product mites on dried fruits. The study describes the adaptation of C. lactis to feeding on dried fruits including the interaction with microorganisms. We also identified potentially pathogenic bacteria carried by the mites to dried fruits for human consumption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 12/2014; 118(2). DOI:10.1111/jam.12714 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of Ixodes ricinus tick saliva on the production of various cytokines and chemokines by mouse splenocytes was tested by a cytokine array. We demonstrated a strong upregulation of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), thymus-derived chemotactic agent 3 (TCA-3) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). MCP-1 could be induced by tick saliva itself. While TCA-3 and MIP-2 are engaged in Th2 polarization of the host immune response associated with tick feeding, MCP-1 may act as a histamine release factor, increasing blood flow into the feeding lesion thus facilitating tick engorgement in the late, rapid feeding phase.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Parasite Immunology 12/2014; 37(2). DOI:10.1111/pim.12168 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN), mainly produced by dendritic cells (DC), is critical in the host defence against tick-transmitted pathogens. Here we report that salivary cysteine protease inhibitor from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, sialostatin L2, affects IFN-β mediated immune reactions in mouse dendritic cells. Following IFN receptor ligation, the Janus activated kinases/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is activated. We show that sialostatin L2 attenuates phosphorylation of STATs in spleen dendritic cells upon addition of recombinant IFN-β. LPS stimulated dendritic cells release IFN-β which in turn leads to the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) through JAK/STAT pathway activation. The induction of two ISG, interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and IP-10, was suppressed by sialostatin L2 in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells. Finally, the interference of sialostatin L2 with IFN action led to the enhanced replication of tick-borne encephalitis virus in DC. In summary, we present here that tick salivary cystatin negatively affects IFN-β responses which may consequently increase the pathogen load after transmission via tick saliva.
    Parasite Immunology 11/2014; 37(2). DOI:10.1111/pim.12162 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg-1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112919. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112919 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to development of insulin resistance and other disorders. Accumulation of immune cells, especially macrophages, and macrophage polarization from M2 to M1 state, affect intrinsic WAT signaling, namely anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines, fatty acids (FA), and lipid mediators derived from both n-6 and n-3 long-chain PUFA such as (i) arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and endocannabinoids, and (ii) specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators including resolvins derived from both eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), lipoxins (AA metabolites), protectins and maresins (DHA metabolites). In this respect, potential differences in modulating adipocyte metabolism by various lipid mediators formed by inflammatory M1 macrophages typical of obese state, and non-inflammatory M2 macrophages typical of lean state remain to be established. Studies in mice suggest that (i) transient accumulation of M2 macrophages could be essential for the control of tissue FA levels during activation of lipolysis, (ii) a currently unidentified M2 macrophage-borne signaling molecule(s) could inhibit lipolysis and re-esterification of lipolyzed FA back to triacylglycerols (TAG/FA cycle), and (iii) the egress of M2 macrophages from rebuilt WAT and removal of the negative feedback regulation could allow for a full unmasking of metabolic activities of adipocytes. Thus, M2 macrophages could support remodeling of WAT to a tissue containing metabolically flexible adipocytes endowed with a high capacity of both TAG/FA cycling and oxidative phosphorylation. This situation could be exemplified by a combined intervention using mild calorie restriction and dietary supplementation with EPA/DHA, which enhances the formation of "healthy" adipocytes.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 10/2014; 1851(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.09.023 · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) in the diet protect against insulin resistance and obesity. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (Fgf21) is a hormonal factor released mainly by the liver that has powerful anti-diabetic effects. Here, we tested whether the beneficial metabolic effects of LC n-3 PUFA involve the induction of Fgf21. C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to an obesogenic, corn-oil-based, high-fat diet (cHF), or a diet in which corn oil was replaced with a fish-derived LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF + F) using two experimental settings: short-term (3 weeks) and long-term treatment (8 weeks). CHF + F reduced body weight gain, insulinemia, and triglyceridemia compared to cHF. cHF increased plasma Fgf21 levels and hepatic Fgf21 gene expression compared with controls, but these effects were less pronounced or absent in cHF + F-fed mice. In contrast, hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α target genes were more strongly induced by cHF + F than cHF, especially in the short-term treatment setting. The expression of genes encoding Fgf21, its receptors, and Fgf21 targets was unaltered by short-term LC n-3 PUFA treatment, with the exception of Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1) and adiponectin genes, which were specifically up-regulated in white fat. In the long-term treatment setting, the expression of Fgf21 target genes and receptors was not differentially affected by LC n-3 PUFA. Collectively, our findings indicate that increased Fgf21 levels do not appear to be a major mechanism through which LC n-3 PUFA ameliorates high-fat-diet-associated metabolic disorders.
    Lipids 09/2014; 49(11). DOI:10.1007/s11745-014-3948-x · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    J-Ch Sublet · J. Kopecky · R. A. Forrest
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    ABSTRACT: The European Activation File (EAF) project has been an ongoing process performed through European and world-wide cooperation that has led to the creation of succeeding EAF versions. The latest release, EAF-99, has benefited from the generation and maintenance of comprehensive activation files and the maturing of the processing code SYMPAL. Recently, for the first time, results of integral experiments have been used to adjust data. Validation of activation code predictions, and thereby of cross section and decay data, has been performed by means of direct comparison with measurements of sample structural material under fusion-relevant neutron spectra. The EAF-99 library contains 12,468 excitation functions involving 766 different targets from 1H to 257Fm, atomic numbers 1 to 100, in the energy range 10−5 eV to 20 MeV. The 1,500,000 lines that make up the pointwise file are then processed into numerous groupwise files with different micro-flux weighting spectra to meet various user needs. Uniquely, an uncertainty file is also provided that quantifies the degree of confidence placed on the data for each reaction channel.
    Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 08/2014; 37(sup1):835-839. DOI:10.1080/00223131.2000.10875007 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sodium channels (SCs) in mites and insects are target sites for pesticides, including pyrethroids. Point mutations in the SC gene have been reported to change the structural conformation of the protein and its sensitivity to pesticides. To find mutations in the SC gene of the mite Varroa destructor (VmNa), the authors analysed the VmNa gene sequences available in GenBank and prepared specific primers for the amplification of two fragments containing the regions coding for (i) the domain II S4-S6 region (bp 2805-3337) and (ii) the domain III S4-3' terminus region (bp 4737-6500), as determined according to the VmNa cDNA sequence AY259834. Sensitive and resistant mite populations did not differ in the amino acid sequences of the III S4-3' terminus VmNa region. However, differences were found in the IIS4-IIS6 fragment. In the resistant population, the mutation C(3004) → G resulted in the substitution L(1002) → V (codon ctg → gtg) at the position equivalent to that of the housefly L925 in the domain II S5 helix. Additionally, the mutation F(1052) → L (codon ttc → ctc) at the position equivalent to that of the housefly F975 in the domain II P-loop connecting segments S5 and S6 was detected in both the resistant and sensitive populations. All individuals that survived the tau-fluvalinate treatment in the bioassay harboured the L(1002) → V mutation combined with the F(1052), while dead individuals from both the sensitive and resistant populations harboured mostly the L(1002) residue and either of the two residues at position 1052. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Pest Management Science 06/2014; 70(6). DOI:10.1002/ps.3679 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    Jan Kopecký · Marta Nesvorná · Jan Hubert
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed.
    Experimental and Applied Acarology 04/2014; 64(1). DOI:10.1007/s10493-014-9811-1 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    P Flachs · M Rossmeisl · J Kopecky
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent major complications of obesity and associated metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome). This review focuses on the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) on insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, which are improved by omega-3 in many animal models of metabolic syndrome, but remain frequently unaffected in humans. Here we focus on: (i) mechanistic aspects of omega-3 action, reflecting also our experiments in dietary obese mice; and (ii) recent studies analysing omega-3's effects in various categories of human subjects. Most animal experiments document beneficial effects of omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism even under conditions of established obesity and insulin resistance. Besides positive results obtained in both cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies on healthy human populations, also some intervention studies in prediabetic subjects document amelioration of impaired glucose homeostasis by omega-3. However, the use of omega-3 to reduce a risk of new-onset diabetes in prediabetic subjects still remains to be further characterized. The results of a majority of clinical trials performed in T2D patients suggest that omega-3 have none or marginal effects on metabolic control, while effectively reducing hypertriglyceridemia in these patients. Despite most of the recent randomized clinical trials do not support the role of omega-3 in secondary prevention of CVD, this issue remains still controversial. Combined interventions using omega-3 and antidiabetic or hypolipidemic drugs should be further explored and considered for treatment of patients with T2D and other diseases.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 02/2014; 63 Suppl 1:S93-S118. · 1.29 Impact Factor

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  • 2006–2015
    • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
      • • Faculty of Science
      • • Department of Medical Biology (KME)
      Budejovice, Jihočeský, Czech Republic
  • 1995–2015
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • • Department of Adipose Tissue Biology
      • • Division of Autotrophic Microorganisms - Algatech
      • • Biology Centre
      • • Institute of Hydrobiology
      • • Laboratory of Biotransformation
      • • Institute of Physiology
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2010–2014
    • Crop Research Institute
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2000–2011
    • The Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2005
    • Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKEM)
      • Diabetes Center
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2001
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Julius-von-Sachs-Institut of Biosciences
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994
    • The Jackson Laboratory
      BHB, Maine, United States
  • 1992
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Physics
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia
  • 1978–1990
    • Charles University in Prague
      • • Institute of Physiology (Pilsen)
      • • Institute of Medical Biochemistry (1. LF)
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1981–1989
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1983
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche ed Oncologia Umana (DIMO)
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 1982
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Division of Physics of Man
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands