Ken-ichiro Shimada

Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

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Publications (39)62.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of inulin with three different degrees of polymerization (DP) on microbial dietary fiber fermentation were compared in an in vitro simulator of the porcine large bowel. The three inulin isolates had a DP of 15 (from chicory grown in Hokkaido, Japan), and 10 and 24 (from Orafti, Belgium), while cellulose was used as a control. The Lactobacillus level in the DP 10 group at 48 h and bifidobacteria levels in the DP 15 and DP 24 groups at 24 and 48 h were significantly higher than in the carbohydrate-free and cellulose groups. The SCFA concentrations in all the inulin groups were significantly higher than in the carbohydrate-free and cellulose groups at 24 and 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations in all the inulin groups were significantly lower than those in the carbohydrate-free and cellulose groups at 24 and 48 h. The three different inulin types were fermentable by gut microbiota as indicated by substantial increases in SCFA. In particular, inulin DP 15 exhibited a clear potential to be used as a prebiotic with significant increases in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations, and concomitantly propionate and butyrate productions than cellulose at the early incubation time. There was a negative correlation between SCFA and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. These results indicate DP 15 product has similar potential as a prebiotic to DP 10 or DP 24 product and showed substantial equivalence to DP 10 and DP 24 products.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2014; 60(3):206-212. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-Cysteine works as a precursor of the antioxidant, glutathione. We investigated the effects of L-cysteine (1% and 2%) on lipid metabolism and the antioxidative system in rats fed a normal diet. Administering L-cysteine dependently decreased the food intake, fat mass weight and body weight dose. Dietary L-cysteine also decreased the triglyceride levels in the serum and liver. However, there were no significant differences in the hepatic TBARS and glutathione (GSH) levels among the groups. The activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the rats receiving 2% L-cysteine were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control rats. These results suggest that dietary L-cysteine dose-dependently affected the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid levels in the serum and liver which might be related to the reduced food intake.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inulin-type fructan ameliorates metabolic diseases associated with obesity in animals. However, relatively little information is available on the comparative effects of inulins with different degree of polymerization (DP) on the lipid or glucose metabolism. AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inulins with various DP on metabolic disorders associated with obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet under food restriction. METHODS: Rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5 % inulin-GR (Raftiline GR), inulin-Tokachi (Tokachi), or inulin-HP (Raftiline HP) without cellulose for 28 days at normal energy intakes or 14.5 % energy restriction. RESULTS: Under food restriction, the dietary inulin-Tokachi (mean DP 15) and -HP (mean DP 24), but not -GR (mean DP 10), reduced (p < 0.05) the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and liver triglyceride concentration in rats, compared to the control diet. The cecal neutral steroid, bile acid, and propionate concentrations in the Tokachi and HP groups were higher (p < 0.05) than in the CONT group, and the cecal Bifidobacterium count in the Tokachi group was higher (p < 0.05) than in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that, depending on DP, dietary supplementation with inulin (DP 15 or DP 24) in rats fed a high-fat diet, regardless of food intake, positively modulates lipid metabolism and fecal microbiota but not glucose metabolism.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 04/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the mechanism for differential effects of low- (LPPS) and high-phosphorus (HPPS) potato starches and high-amylose cornstarch (HACS) on rat cecal fermentation, the n-butyrate proportion in particular. In ileorectostomized rats, the in vivo resistant starch (RS) contents were determined to be 66% (LPPS), 66% (HPPS) and 36% (HACS), but the carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of the ileal digesta were comparable among the respective starch diets. In intact rats fed diets including similar amounts of RS, the cecal n-butyrate proportions in the LPPS- and HPPS-fed rats were equally higher than in the HACS-fed rats. The cecal starch contents were fivefold greater in the LPPS- and HPPS-fed rats than in the HACS-fed rats. The results suggest that potato starches and HACS are not equivalent n-butyrate producers in the rat cecum and that the slower fermentation rate of potato starches relative to HACS might be responsible for the higher n-butyrate proportion.
    Bioscience of microbiota, food and health. 01/2013; 32(4):149-56.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the adverse effects of Japanese butterbur leaves (Petasites japonicus, Compositae) in male F344/DuCrj rats. The rats were fed a control diet or a treatment diet containing 5% butterbur leaf powder for 4 weeks. No differences were observed in body weight gain, food intake or feed efficiency between treatments, but relative liver weight in the butterbur group was significantly higher than that of the control group. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and glutathione levels in the serum and liver of the butterbur group were higher than those of the control group. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities and mRNA expression in the butterbur leaf group were higher than in the control group. Furthermore, hepatic cytochrome 2E1 mRNA expression was higher than in the control group. In vitro, an acetone extract of the butterbur leaf powder showed the strongest increase in TBARs level in a hepatic homogenate through 4 d. Our findings suggest that feeding 5% butterbur leaf powder to rats can cause adverse effects by increasing oxidative stress.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 11/2012; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of betaine supplementation on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice were examined by measuring the accumulation of fat in the livers of NASH model mice compared to a control. Betaine from sugar beets was provided to the model mice as a dietary supplement. After 3 wk of dietary supplementation, there were no significant differences in body weight or liver weight between the groups. However, the liver to body weight ratio in the high-fat diet with betaine (HFB) group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the high-fat diet (HF) group. There were no differences in serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations, AST and ALT activities, or hepatic glutathione concentrations between the groups. Hepatic TG level in the HFB group was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that in the HF group. Hepatic cells obtained from the HF group showed increased occurrence of explosive puff and necrosis as compared with those in the HFB group. Betaine supplementation had an inhibitory effect on fat accumulation in the liver: the Oil red-positive area in the HFB group (0.82±0.85%) was significantly (p<0.001) smaller than that in the HF group (9.06±2.24%). These results indicate the potential of betaine to serve as an agent for amelioration of hepatic steatosis in NASH model mice.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2012; 58(5):371-375. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A commercial adzuki bean extract (AE) was evaluated for antioxidant effectiveness in cured and uncured cooked pork sausages. TBARS values, instrumental color evaluation and sensory panel scores were assessed. For uncured sausages, AE at 0.2% was equally effective as 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing TBARS values. Similarly, AE at 0.2% significantly (P<0.01) reduced the TBARS in cured sausages. Incorporation of 0.2% AE into sausages produced higher (P<0.05) CIE lab color a* value and lower (P<0.05) L* and b* values. Sensory panels did not detect any difference in color, odor, taste, flavor, and overall acceptance in uncured pork sausages with addition of 0.2% AE. However, there were adverse changes in the color and odor of cured sausages, even though the taste, flavor, and overall acceptance were similar. Therefore, the results suggest that AE is a potential antioxidant.
    Meat Science 10/2011; 89(2):150-3. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of betaine supplementation on D-galactosamine-induced liver injury were examined in terms of hepatic and serum enzyme activities and of the levels of glutathione and betaine-derived intermediates. The rats induced with liver injury showed marked increases in serum enzyme activity, but those receiving dietary supplementation of 1% betaine showed enzyme activity levels similar to a control group without liver injury. Administration of betaine also increased both hepatic and serum glutathione levels, even following D-galactosamine injection. The activity of glutathione-related enzymes was markedly decreased following injection of D-galactosamine, but remained comparable to that of the control group in rats receiving 1% betaine. The concentrations of hepatic S-adenosyl methionine and cysteine showed similar trends to that observed for hepatic glutathione levels. These results indicate that 1% betaine has a hepatoprotective effect by increasing hepatic and serum glutathione levels along with glutathione-related enzyme activities in rats.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2011; 75(7):1335-41. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this work was to examine the effects of using five types of commercial starter cultures in fermented sausages. During the fermentation stage, changes in proteolytic characteristics were observed in fermented sausages. Proteolytic activity was high in Lsb + Sc:(Lactobacillus sakei + Staphylococcus carnosus) and Pp + Sx:(Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus xylosus) starter-inoculated sausages during processing. Moreover, a slight increase in proteolytic activity was detected during storage in both these sausages. Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were also affected by this starter culture addition, during the fermentation, ripening and intense proteolysis were observed in both the fermented sausages. The content of free amino acids was similar at the beginning of the fermentation stage for all the studied batches. However, the high differences in the content of free amino acids at the end of the process could be attributed to the starter culture activity.
    Food Chemistry. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The hypocholesterolaemic ability of two potato peptide preparations in rats was compared. Experimental groups were fed for 4weeks, with casein as the basal diet, in comparison with two diets containing 20% potato peptide preparations PPS (short hydrolysis preparation; 16h) and PPL (long hydrolysis preparation; 25h). Serum total cholesterol and serum triacylglycerol levels were lower in PPS-fed group compared with CN- and PPL-fed groups. Lower non-HDL cholesterol level (P
    Journal of Functional Foods. 01/2010; 2(2):118-125.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of fermented bean pastes derived from bean vinegar by-products on serum cholesterol in rats. The rats were fed boiled paste from adzuki (A), kintoki (K), or tebou (T), or fermented paste from adzuki (AP), kintoki (KP), or tebou (TP) for 4 weeks. The serum non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in all the experimental groups, except for A group, were significantly lower than in the control (CN) group. Likewise, the serum triglyceride levels in K and all the fermented bean groups were significantly lower than in the CN group. The levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA in all the experimental groups except for A were significantly lower than in the CN group. These findings indicate that fermented bean pastes also suppress cholesterol synthesis, resulting in a reduced serum cholesterol concentration. These effects might be related not only to the resistant starch but also to the protein or peptide in the fermented bean paste.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 11/2009; 73(11):2506-12. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of porcine artery elastin on serum cholesterol level was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Rats were fed for 4weeks, with a diet (ED) containing 15% casein and 5% of porcine artery elastin in comparison with a diet (CD) containing 20% casein. The total serum and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations were lower (P
    Journal of Functional Foods 10/2009; 1(4):405-409. · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of potato peptides (PPC) in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, in comparison with two cholesterol-enriched diets containing soy peptides (SPC) or casein (CNC), and a cholesterol-free diet containing casein (CN) for 4 weeks. The serum non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was lower in the PPC- (–18.39%) and SPC-fed (–32.76%) groups (p <0.05) than in the CNC-fed group at the end of the feeding period. The low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA level in the PPC-fed group, and cholesterol 7-hydroxylase and scavenger receptor class B type 1 mRNA levels in the SPC-fed group, were higher (p <0.05) than in the CN- and CNC-fed groups. Faecal neutral sterol and caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the PPC- and SPC-fed groups were higher (p <0.05) than in the CN- and CNC-fed groups. The faecal total acidic sterol concentration was higher in the SPC-fed group than in the CN- and PPC-fed groups. Caecal anaerobe and Bifidobacterium populations were higher (p <0.05) in the PPC- and SPC-fed groups than in the CN-fed group. This study suggests that potato peptides, as soy peptides, alter caecal fermentation and steroid absorption and reduce the serum non-HDL cholesterol level in rats fed cholesterol.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 08/2009; 111(9):884 - 892. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we characterised the presence of ubiquitin and some ubiquitinated proteins (conjugates), which were considered as ubiquitin conjugates in the sarcoplasmic fraction of postmortem skeletal and cardiac muscles using SDS–PAGE and Western blot. In this study, an ubiquitin conjugate around 27 kDa was subjected to identification. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis generated by Edman degradation resulted in a 13 amino acid sequence (KIQFTVPLLEPHL), which is similar to that of Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor 1. Based on this result, Western blot analysis was performed by using a polyclonal antibody for Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor 1 and the conjugate was recognised and reacted clearly. Thus, the ubiquitinated protein around 27 kDa is identified as Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor 1.
    Food Chemistry 08/2009; 115(4):1509-1511. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of white wheat bread powder (BP) and white wheat bread powder containing sugar beet fiber (BBP) on serum cholesterol. The total cholesterol (-11%, -16%), HDL-cholesterol (-12%, -11%), non-HDL-cholesterol (-9%, -18%) and triacylglycerol (-44%, -58%) concentrations in the BP and BBP groups, respectively, were significantly different from those in the control group. The fecal excretion of neutral sterols in the BP and BBP groups and of acidic sterols in the BBP group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA level in the BP and BBP groups was significantly higher than that in the control group. The cecal total short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the BBP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that the observed changes in serum lipid levels in the BP and BBP groups were due to the increased fecal lipid and CYP7A1 mRNA levels.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2009; 73(6):1280-5. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficiency of using lactic acid (LA) as a surface decontaminator for carcasses contaminated with spinal chord (SC) tissues was evaluated. Four representative places with surface area of 5 × 5 cm, were marked on the inner side of the porcine carcasses. 0.200 μl of 0.5% SC solution was applied to each marked area and separately washed in a specially designed spraying cabinet, which comprises 15 nozzles adjusted to spray 1% LA or tap water with a scatter pressure of 0.49 MPa. Samples were collected after washing for 15, 30, 60 and 90 s and analyzed by Ridascreen kit ELISA test. 1% LA reduces the SC materials to pre-contaminated levels while having negligible effect on the color of carcasses. Furthermore washing with LA insignificantly reduced the total microbial counts. Using very low concentration of LA (1%) in production lines of slaughter houses may help to decontaminate the carcasses to some extent without having adverse impact on quality attributes.
    Food Control 04/2009; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various countries including Japan issued the complete removal of brain and spinal cord (SC) tissues from meat products due to BSE risk factor. In this study using commercially available Ridascreen® risk material test kit, we tried to evaluate the efficiency of removing specific risk material (SRM) from meat products. Brain and SC tissues were added to grind meats in different concentrations and respective absorption values were obtained using Ridascreen® test kit. The kit detected both brain and SC at 0.1%, below its claimed sensitivity level, for brain and SC combined. Thus, using this commercial test kit, we tested cross-section of samples sold in Obihiro area, Japan. In the test standard controls 0, 0.2%, 1% and 2% were practiced. All most all the tested samples absorption values near to standard 0, and it is concluded that all the samples that we tested were absence or at a very minimal levels of SRM.
    Food Control. 01/2009; 20(3):187-190.
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary plant and animal peptides have been shown to reduce serum lipids. However, the potential of food-derived peptides has yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the physiological importance of potato peptides in rats fed on a cholesterol-free diet containing 20% potato peptides (PP), when compared with two diets containing either 20% casein (CN) or 20% soy peptides (SP). The high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (+13.8%) and serum triglyceride (-38%) concentrations in the PP-fed group, non-HDL-cholesterol level in the PP- (-22.5%) and SP- (-15.7%) fed groups, and serum total cholesterol concentration (-12%) in the SP-fed group, were significantly different from the control group at the end of the experiment. The fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols was higher in the PP- and SP-fed groups, respectively, relative to the control group. These results indicate that the observed changes in the serum cholesterol levels in rats fed on soy and potato peptide appear to have been due to different mechanisms.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 05/2008; 72(4):943-50. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding rats potato resistant starch improves large bowel health; however, there is little information on the physiological effects of preprocessed starch like potato flakes in animal experiments. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the consumption of various colored potato (white, red and purple) flakes on cecal fermentation and fecal bile acid excretions in rats. The control group was fed a basal diet (BD) containing alpha-cornstarch for 4 weeks. The potato flake-treated groups were fed one of the following diets containing a mixture of 299.5 g/kg alpha-cornstarch plus 250 g/kg Hokkai kogane flakes (HK, white), Hokkai No. 91 flakes (H91, red) or Hokkai No. 92 flakes (H92, purple). There were no significant differences in the body weight, food intake and cecum weight among the groups. Cecal pH values in the HK, H91 and H92 groups were significantly lower than that in the BD group, and matter excretion in the H91 group was significantly higher than in the BD and HK groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the HK, H91 and H92 groups were significantly higher than in the BD group, and the molar ratio of butyrate to total SCFA in the HK, H91 and H92 groups was greatly increased compared with the BD group. Rats fed the HK, H91 and H92 potato flake diets presented significantly higher counts of total anaerobes in the cecum than rats fed the BD. The cecal Lactobacillus count in the H91 group was significantly increased compared to the BD group and the Bifidobacterium count was similar for all groups. Fecal total bile acid excretion in the H92 flake group and secondary bile acid excretions in the H91 and H92 groups were significantly greater than those in the other groups and in the BD and HK groups, respectively. The results indicate that potato flakes act like resistant starch and raise bowel SCFA, probably through anaerobic bacterial activities and fermentation of residual starch. These actions are helpful for the improvement of the colonic environment.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 02/2008; 52(1):1-7. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2008; 53(6):501-7. · 0.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

197 Citations
62.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Food Science
      • • Department of Animal Science
      • • Department of Life Science and Agriculture
      Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2011
    • University of Peradeniya
      • Department of Animal Science
      Kandy, Central Province, Sri Lanka
  • 2008
    • Iwate University
      • United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences
      Morioka, Iwate, Japan