Takashi Sazuka

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (37)133.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dilute acid-pretreated sorghum bagasse, which was predominantly composed of glucan (59%) and xylose (7.2%), was used as a lignocellulosic feedstock for d-phenyllactic acid (PhLA) production by a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing phenylpyruvate reductase from Wickerhamia fluorescens. During fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum bagasse as a carbon source, the PhLA yield was reduced by 35% compared to filter paper hydrolysate, and metabolomics analysis revealed that NAD(P)H regeneration and intracellular levels of erythrose-4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate for PhLA biosynthesis markedly reduced. Compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with sorghum bagasse hydrolysate, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sorghum bagasse under glucose limitation conditions yielded 4.8-fold more PhLA with less accumulation of eluted components, including p-coumaric acid and aldehydes, which inhibited PhLA fermentation. These results suggest that gradual enzymatic hydrolysis during SSF enhances PhLA production under glucose limitation and reduces the accumulation of fermentation inhibitors, collectively leading to increased PhLA yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioresource Technology 04/2015; 182. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to attain high ethanol concentration by concentrating sweet sorghum juice using a two-step membrane separation process. Ultrafiltration permeation of the juice was used to remove residues, followed by nanofiltration concentration to increase the sugar concentration. The concentrated juice containing 180.0gL(-1) sucrose, 59.3gL(-1) glucose and 49.3gL(-1) fructose supplemented with nitrogen sources (10 and 20gL(-1) of yeast extract and polypeptone, respectively) was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 to produce 133.5gL(-1) of ethanol (87.6% of theoretical yield) after 48h fermentation. Importantly, the addition of lower concentrations of exogenous nitrogen sources (3 and 6gL(-1) of yeast extract and polypeptone, respectively) or no exogenous nitrogen sources resulted in the production of 131.4 and 132.8gL(-1) of ethanol (84.8% and 86.0% of theoretical yield), respectively, after 48h fermentation.
    Bioresource Technology 07/2014; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intrinsic bending was due to an uneven cell proliferation between the lower and upper sides of culm internodes. GA treatment alleviated the bending and dwarfism in mutants, whereas the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, uniconazole, induced such phenotypes in wild-type plants- both in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating an important role of GA in controlling erectness of the sorghum culm. Finally, we propose that because of the tight relationship between GA deficiency-induced dwarfism and culm bending in sorghum, GA-related mutations have unlikely been selected in the history of sorghum breeding, as could be inferred from previous QTL and association studies on sorghum plant height that did not pinpoint GA-related genes.
    Scientific Reports 06/2014; 4:5287. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Target leaf spot is one of the major sorghum diseases in southern Japan and caused by a necrotrophic fungus, Bipolaris sorghicola. Sorghum resistance to target leaf spot is controlled by a single recessive gene (ds1). A high-density genetic map of the ds1 locus was constructed with simple sequence repeat markers using progeny from crosses between a sensitive variety, bmr-6, and a resistant one, SIL-05, which allowed the ds1 gene to be genetically located within a 26-kb region on the short arm of sorghum chromosome 5. The sorghum genome annotation database for BTx623, for which the whole genome sequence was recently published, indicated a candidate gene from the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase family in this region. The candidate protein kinase gene was expressed in susceptible plants but was not expressed or was severely reduced in resistant plants. The expression patterns of ds1 gene and the phenotype of target leaf spot resistance were clearly correlated. Genomic sequences of this region in parental varieties showed a deletion in the promoter region of SIL-05 that could cause reduction of gene expression. We also found two ds1 alleles for resistant phenotypes with a stop codon in the coding region. The results shown here strongly suggest that the loss of function or suppression of the ds1 protein kinase gene leads to resistance to target leaf spot in sorghum.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 03/2011; 123(1):131-42. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a critical role in many aspects of plant growth and development; however, complete pathways of biosynthesis, localization and many aspects of functions of IAA in rice remain unclear. Here, we report the analysis of a rice tryptophan- (Trp-) and IAA-deficient mutant, tryptophan deficient dwarf1 (tdd1), which is embryonic lethal because of a failure to develop most organs during embryogenesis. Regenerated tdd1 plants showed pleiotropic phenotypes: dwarfing, narrow leaves, short roots and abnormal flowers. TDD1 encodes a protein homologous to anthranilate synthase beta-subunit, which catalyses the first step of the Trp biosynthesis pathway and functions upstream of Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis. TDD1-uidA and DR5-uidA expression overlapped at many sites in WT plants but was lacking in tdd1, indicating that TDD1 is involved in auxin biosynthesis. Both Trp and IAA levels in flowers and embryos were much lower in tdd1 than in wild type (WT). Trp feeding completely rescued the mutant phenotypes and moderate expression of OsYUCCA1, which encodes a key enzyme in Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis, also rescued plant height and root length, indicating that the abnormal phenotypes of tdd1 are caused predominantly by Trp and IAA deficiency. In tdd1 embryos, the expression patterns of OSH1 and OsSCR, which mark the presumptive apical region and the L2 layer, respectively, are identical to those in WT, suggesting a possibility either that different IAA levels are required for basic pattern formation than for organ formation or that an orthologous gene compensates for TDD1 deficiency during pattern formation.
    The Plant Journal 07/2009; 60(2):227-41. · 6.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the predominant auxin in plants, plays a critical role in various plant growth and developmental processes, its biosynthesis and regulation have not been clearly elucidated. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of IAA synthesis in rice (Oryza sativa), we identified seven YUCCA-like genes (named OsYUCCA1-7) in the rice genome. Plants overexpressing OsYUCCA1 exhibited increased IAA levels and characteristic auxin overproduction phenotypes, whereas plants expressing antisense OsYUCCA1 cDNA displayed defects that are similar to those of rice auxin-insensitive mutants. OsYUCCA1 was expressed in almost all of the organs tested, but its expression was restricted to discrete areas, including the tips of leaves, roots, and vascular tissues, where it overlapped with expression of a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter. These observations are consistent with an important role for the rice enzyme OsYUCCA1 in IAA biosynthesis via the tryptophan-dependent pathway.
    Plant physiology 04/2007; 143(3):1362-71. · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SPINDLY (SPY) encodes an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase that is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA) signaling through an unknown mechanism. To understand the function of SPY in GA signaling in rice, we isolated a rice SPINDLY homolog (OsSPY) and produced knockdown transgenic plants in which OsSPY expression was reduced by introducing its antisense or RNAi construct. In knockdown plants, the enhanced elongation of lower internodes was correlated with decreased levels of OsSPY expression, similar to the spindly phenotype of Arabidopsis spy mutants, suggesting that OsSPY also functions as a negative factor in GA signaling in rice. The suppressive function of OsSPY in GA signaling was supported by the findings that the dwarfism was partially rescued and OsGA20ox2 (GA20 oxidase) expression was reduced in GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants by the knockdown of OsSPY function. The suppression of OsSPY function in a GA-insensitive mutant, gid2, also caused an increase in the phosphorylation of a rice DELLA protein, SLR1, but did not change the amount of SLR1. This indicates that the function of OsSPY in GA signaling is not via changes in the amount or stability of SLR1, but probably involves control of the suppressive function of SLR1. In addition to the GA-related phenotypes, OsSPY antisense and RNAi plants showed increased lamina joint bending, which is a brassinosteroid-related phenotype, indicating that OsSPY may play roles both in GA signaling and in the brassinosteroid pathway.
    The Plant Journal 12/2006; 48(3):390-402. · 6.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since auxin was first isolated and characterized as a plant hormone, the underlying molecular mechanism of auxin signaling has been elucidated primarily in dicot plants represented by Arabidopsis. In monocot plants, the molecular mechanism of auxin signaling has remained unclear, despite various physiological experiments. To understand the function and mechanism of auxin signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), we focused on the IAA gene, a well-studied gene in Arabidopsis that serves as a negative regulator of auxin signaling. We found 24 IAA gene family members in the rice genome. OsIAA3 is one of these family members whose expression is rapidly increased in response to auxin. We produced transgenic rice harboring mOsIAA3-GR, which can overproduce mutant OsIAA3 protein containing an amino acid change in domain II to cause a gain-of-function phenotype, by treatment with dexamethasone. The transgenic rice was insensitive to auxin and gravitropic stimuli, and exhibited short leaf blades, reduced crown root formation, and abnormal leaf formation. These results suggest that, in rice, auxin is important for development and its signaling is mediated by IAA genes.
    The Plant Journal 05/2006; 46(2):297-306. · 6.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: That plant dwarfism is caused by hormonal defects related to gibberellin and brassinosteroid has been well documented. Other contributing elements, however, have not been elucidated. Here, we report on one of the most severe dwarf mutants of rice, dwarf bamboo shoot 1 (dbs1). Most mutant plants died within 1 month after sowing, but a few (5.2%) survived and grew. Vacuolation enlarged cells in the leaf primordia and seminal root before abortion, which disrupted the organized cell files in these organs. Relative to the severe defects in shoot and root growth, the overall structure of the dbs1 embryo was almost normal. Similarly, initiation and organogenesis of the leaf primordia at the shoot apical meristem and those of the lateral root primordia at the root elongation zone occurred normally. These observations suggest that DBS1 is involved in the growth and development of organs but not in organ initiation or organogenesis. Positional cloning of DBS1 revealed that it encoded a NACK-type kinesin-like protein (OsNACK), homologous to the essential components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade during plant cytokinesis. A BLAST search indicated that DBS1 was the only gene encoding the OsNACK-type protein in the rice genome, and the dbs1 mutant produced only small amounts of the translatable DBS1 mRNA. Thus, we conclude that the dbs1 mutation causes a severe defect in DBS1 function but does not completely shut it down. We discuss the leaky phenotype of dbs1 under the restricted functioning of OsNACK.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 01/2006; 46(12):1934-43. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular genetic studies of plant dwarf mutants have indicated that gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) are two major factors that determine plant height; dwarf mutants that are caused by other defects are relatively rare, especially in monocot species. Here, we report a rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf mutant, dwarf and gladius leaf 1 (dgl1), which exhibits only minimal response to GA and BR. In addition to the dwarf phenotype, dgl1 produces leaves with abnormally rounded tip regions. Positional cloning of DGL1 revealed that it encodes a 60-kD microtubule-severing katanin-like protein. The protein was found to be important in cell elongation and division, based on the observed cell phenotypes. GA biosynthetic genes are up-regulated in dgl1, but the expression of BR biosynthetic genes is not enhanced. The enhanced expression of GA biosynthetic genes in dgl1 is not caused by inappropriate GA signaling because the expression of these genes was repressed by GA3 treatment, and degradation of the rice DELLA protein SLR1 was triggered by GA3 in this mutant. Instead, aberrant microtubule organization caused by the loss of the microtubule-severing function of DGL1 may result in enhanced expression of GA biosynthetic genes in that enhanced expression was also observed in a BR-deficient mutant with aberrant microtubule organization. These results suggest that the function of DGL1 is important for cell and organ elongation in rice, and aberrant DGL1-mediated microtubule organization causes up-regulation of gibberellin biosynthetic genes independently of gibberellin signaling.
    Plant physiology 09/2005; 138(4):1982-93. · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large number of proteins in the tonoplast, including pumps, carriers, ion channels and receptors support the various functions of the plant vacuole. To date, few proteins involved in these activities have been identified at the molecular level. In this study, proteomic analysis was used to identify new tonoplast proteins. A primary requirement of any organelle analysis by proteomics is that the purity of the isolated organelle needs to be high. Using suspension-cultured Arabidopsis cells (Arabidopsis Col-0 cell suspension), a method was developed for the isolation of intact highly purified vacuoles. No plasma membrane proteins were detected in Western blots of the isolated vacuole fraction, and only a few proteins from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. The proteomic analysis of the purified tonoplast involved fractionation of the proteins by SDS-PAGE and analysis by LC-MS/MS. Using this approach, it was possible to identify 163 proteins. These included well-characterized tonoplast proteins such as V-type H+ -ATPases and V-type H+ -PPases, and others with functions reasonably expected to be related to the tonoplast. There were also a number of proteins for which a function has not yet been deduced.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 07/2004; 45(6):672-83. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A proteomic approach was developed for the identification of membrane-bound proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana. A subcellular fraction enriched in vacuolar membranes was prepared from 4-week-old plants and was washed with various agents to remove peripheral membrane proteins and contaminating soluble proteins. The remaining membrane-bound proteins were then subjected to proteomic analysis. Given that these proteins were resolved poorly by standard two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we subjected them instead to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and to protein digestion within gel slices with lysylendopeptidase. The resulting peptides were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and subjected to Edman sequencing. From the 163 peptide peaks analyzed, 69 peptide sequences were obtained, 64 of which were informative. The proteins corresponding to these peptide sequences were identified as belonging to 42 families, including two subfamilies, by comparison with the protein sequences predicted from annotation of the A. thaliana genome. A total of 34 proteins was identified definitively with protein-specific peptide sequences. Transmembrane proteins detected in the membrane fraction included transporters, channels, receptors, and unknown molecules, whereas the remaining proteins, categorized as membrane-anchored proteins, included small GTPases, GTPase binding proteins, heat shock protein 70-like proteins, ribosomal proteins, and unknown proteins. These membrane-anchored proteins are likely attached to membranes by hydrophobic anchor molecules or through tight association with other membrane-bound proteins. This proteomic approach has thus proved effective for the identification of membrane-bound proteins.
    DNA Research 05/2004; 11(2):101-13. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the role of SigC (Sll0184), a sigma factor of RNA polymerase (RNAP), in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. On the inactivation of sigC, which is an Escherichia coli rpoD homolog, cells were viable but had a low survival rate in the stationary phase of growth under normal physiological conditions, indicating that SigC is a group 2 type sigma factor. In analyses of transcript and protein levels using the sigC knockout strain, it was found that expression of glnB, a nitrogen key regulatory gene, is controlled by SigC in the stationary phase. Primer extension revealed that the glnB nitrogen promoter (P2) was specifically recognized by SigC in the stationary phase under conditions of nitrogen starvation. In vitro studies with purified enzymes indicated effective transcription, on supercoiled DNA templates, from P2 by SigC-RNAP with NtcA which is an activator for nitrogen gene transcription. DNase I footprinting also indicated binding and related sites of NtcA and/or RNAP with SigC on the nitrogen promoter. The unique promoter architecture and the mechanism of transcription by RNAP with SigC are also discussed.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 04/2004; 68(3):477-87. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Sazuka
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    ABSTRACT: A protein-gene linkage map of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 was successfully constructed for 123 relatively abundant proteins. The total proteins extracted from the cell were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the amino-terminal sequences of the protein spots were determined. By comparing the determined amino-terminal sequences with the entire genome sequence, the putative translation initiation sites of 87 genes were successfully assigned on the genome. The elucidated sequence features surrounding the translation initiation sites were as follows: (1) GTG and TTG in addition to the ATG were used as rare initiation codons; (2) the core sequences (GAGG, GGAG and AGGA) of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence were identified in the appropriate position preceding the 51 initiation sites (58.6%); (3) the nucleotides at the two regions, from -35 to -33, and from -19 to -17 (relative to the first nucleotide in the initiation codon) were preferentially adenines or thymines; (4) the nucleotides at the region from -14 to -8 were preferentially purines; (5) the nucleotide at position -1 was biased towards non-guanine (96.6%); (6) the nucleotide at the position +5 was preferentially cytosine (63.2%). It was evident that removal of the translation initiator methionine was dependent on the side-chain bulkiness of the penultimate amino acid residue. The predicted putative signal peptide sequences were also indicated. Besides confirming the existence of many predicted proteins, the data will serve as a starting point for the study of signals important in post-translational processing and nucleotide sequences important in the initiation of translation.
    Photosynthesis Research 02/2003; 78(3):279-91. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Sazuka, Minoru Yamaguchi, Osamu Ohara
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    ABSTRACT: The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is an interesting model organism for preoteome study because it is a photosynthetic procaryote and its genomic sequence has already been determined at our institute. We thus initiated characterization of this organism from a proteomic viewpoint by exploiting two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis coupled with N-terminal protein sequencing. In a previous study, we linked 130 protein spots on two dimensional gels with the genes that encoded them. As an extension of the previous study, the number of protein spots linked to their corresponding genes was increased to 227 in this study by separately analyzing cyanobacterial proteins in four different fractions (soluble, insoluble, thylakoid membrane, and secretory protein fractions). The resultant updated 2-D protein-gene linkage database, named Cyano2Dbase, will serve as an indispensable tool in future cyanobacterial proteomic studies. From the data compiled in the Cyano2Dbase, we can extract many items of information concerning translation, posttranslational processing including characteristics of cyanobacterial signal sequences and modification of cyanobacterial proteins. The Cyano2Dbase is available to the public through the World Wide Web (http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tech/sazuka/cyano/pr oteome.html).
    Electrophoresis 09/1999; 20(11):2160-71. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), a method which can be used to analyze the expression of many proteins, is a promising and powerful approach which we have begun to use in the characterization of the complex pathologic processes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, a reliable 2-DE database of human brain proteins was created by improving the reproducibility of 2-DE images using an immobilized pH gradient (IPG) for the first dimension gel electrophoresis and Melanie II as the program for data analysis. The brain samples were taken from the temporal cortex of brains at autopsy from 15 AD patients and 15 age-matched controls with non-neurological disorders. About 700 spots were located as consistently expressed proteins in the human brain, all of which were expressed also in AD brains. Comparing the density of spots between AD and normal control, we found that five protein spots were significantly increased, 28 spots were significantly decreased and nine spots were detected only in AD. Two spots among those significantly increased and one spot among those significantly decreased were identified as glial fibrillary acidic proteins. The database of brain proteins in AD constructed for the present study, including the statistical data of density changes in AD, should be a useful beginning for a comprehensive human 2-DE database available via the Internet, which will facilitate further investigation of pathogenic protein alterations in AD.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/1999; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Sazuka, Minoru Yamaguchi, Osamu Ohara
    Electrophoresis 01/1999; 20(11):2160-2171. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Sazuka, Osamu Ohara
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    ABSTRACT: Following the complete sequencing of the genome of the univellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 within our institute, a protein-gene linkage map of this photosynthetic microorganism was successfully constructed for 130 high abundance proteins present on two-dimensional gels. An additional six proteins were analyzed, but were probably encoded extrachromosomally. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this protein-gene linkage map, we analyzed the changes that occur in cellular proteins after illumination of PCC6803 cells. The results indicate that this protein-gene linkage map greatly simplifies the identification process of such modulated genes. After illumination, at least three distinctive spots with reduced intensity were detected on two-dimensional gels and the corresponding genes of two of these were successfully identified as chaperonin 2 and a Tortula ruralis rehydrin-related gene. Thus, the combination of the protein-gene linkage map and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis should permit a comprehensive analyses of the proteins encoded by the genome (i.e., "proteome") of this photosynthetic autotroph. This post-genome project represents a productive way of exploiting the information obtained from the sequencing of the cyanobacterium genome.
    Electrophoresis 09/1997; 18(8):1252-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    M Hirosawa, T Sazuka, T Yada
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a computer program, GeneHackerTL, which predicts the most probable translation initiation site for a given nucleotide sequence. The program requires that information be extracted from the nucleotide sequence data surrounding the translation initiation sites according to the framework of the Hidden Markov Model. Since the translation initiation sites of 72 highly abundant proteins have already been assigned on the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 by amino-terminal analysis, we extracted necessary information for GeneHackerTL from the nucleotide sequence data. The prediction rate of the GeneHackerTL for these proteins was estimated to be 86.1%. We then used GeneHackerTL for prediction of the translation initiation sites of 24 other proteins, of which the initiation sites were not assigned experimentally, because of the lack of a potential initiation codon at the amino-terminal position. For 20 out of the 24 proteins, the initiation sites were predicted in the upstream of their amino-terminal positions. According to this assignment, the processed regions represent a typical feature of signal peptides. We could also predict multiple translation initiation sites for a particular gene for which at least two initiation sites were experimentally detected. This program would be effective for the prediction of translation initiation sites of other proteins, not only in this species but also in other prokaryotes as well.
    DNA Research 07/1997; 4(3):179-84. · 4.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
133.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Bio-Agricultural Sciences
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1994–2004
    • Kazusa DNA Research Institute
      Kizarazu, Chiba, Japan
  • 1992
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Biological Sciences
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan