R W Nelson

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (71)111.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies in humans identified the synthesis and secretion of inhibin from adrenocortical tumors, but not pheochromocytoma (PHEO). Inhibin has not been examined in dogs as a serum biomarker for adrenal gland tumors. To determine serum inhibin concentration in dogs with adrenal gland disease and in healthy dogs. Forty-eight neutered dogs with adrenal disease including pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH, 17), adrenocortical tumor (18), and PHEO (13), and 41 healthy intact or neutered dogs. Prospective observational study. Dogs were diagnosed with PDH, adrenocortical tumor (hyperadrenocorticism or noncortisol secreting), or PHEO based on clinical signs, endocrine function tests, abdominal ultrasound examination, and histopathology. Inhibin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in serum before and after ACTH stimulation, and before and after treatment. In neutered dogs, median inhibin concentration was significantly higher in dogs with adrenocortical tumors (0.82 ng/mL) and PDH (0.16 ng/mL) than in dogs with PHEO and healthy dogs (both undetectable). Median inhibin concentration was significantly higher in dogs with adrenocortical tumors than in those with PDH and decreased after adrenalectomy. Median inhibin concentration was significantly higher in intact than in neutered healthy dogs and was similar in pre- and post-ACTH stimulation. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of serum inhibin concentration for identifying an adrenal tumor as a PHEO were 100, 88.9, and 93.6%, respectively. Adrenocortical tumors and PDH but not PHEOs are associated with increased serum inhibin concentration; undetectable inhibin is highly supportive of PHEO in neutered dogs with adrenal tumors.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2013; 27(1):76-82. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alternative insulin preparations are needed when NPH insulin is ineffective in diabetic dogs. This study evaluated the efficacy of recombinant human protamine zinc insulin (rhPZI) for treating diabetic dogs. rhPZI is effective for treating diabetic dogs. Six newly diagnosed and 11 insulin-treated diabetic dogs. Prospective clinical trial. Dogs were treated with rhPZI for 60 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 60 by evaluation of history, physical examination, body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, and blood glucose concentrations measured before and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours after rhPZI administration. Adjustments in dosage of rhPZI were made as needed to control glycemia. rhPZI administration resulted in a significant decrease in 10-hour mean blood glucose (MBG(10h) ; 299 ± 115 versus 457 ± 38 mg/dL, X ± SD, P = .0003) and serum fructosamine (478 ± 83 versus 557 ± 104 μmol/L, P = .006) concentration at day 60, compared with day 1, respectively. By day 60, polyuria and polydipsia had improved in 14, body weight was stable or increased in 16, MBG(10h) had decreased in 16, and serum fructosamine concentration had decreased in 11 of 17 dogs, compared with day 1. Hypoglycemia (<80 mg/dL) was the only consistent adverse event. rhPZI is effective in diabetic dogs and can be considered as an alternative treatment in diabetic dogs that are poorly controlled using other insulin preparations.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2011; 26(1):109-15. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    R W Nelson, K Henley, C Cole
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the efficacy of a new protamine zinc recombinant human insulin (PZIR) preparation for treating diabetic cats. To evaluate effects of PZIR on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. One hundred and thirty-three diabetic cats 120 newly diagnosed and 13 previously treated. Prospective, uncontrolled clinical trial. Cats were treated with PZIR twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of change in water consumption, frequency of urination, appetite, and body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, and blood glucose concentrations determined 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZIR. Adjustments in dosage of PZIR were made as needed to control glycemia. PZIR administration resulted in a significant decrease in 9-hour mean blood glucose (199+/-114 versus 417+/-83 mg/dL, X+/-SD, P<.001) and serum fructosamine (375+/-117 versus 505+/-96 micromol/L, P<.001) concentration and a significant increase in mean body weight (5.9+/-1.4 versus 5.4+/-1.5 kg, P=.017) in 133 diabetic cats at day 45 compared with day 0, respectively. By day 45, polyuria and polydipsia had improved in 79% (105 of 133), 89% (118 of 133) had a good body condition, and 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, serum fructosamine concentration, or both had improved in 84% (112 of 133) of the cats compared with day 0. Hypoglycemia (<80 mg/dL) was identified in 151 of 678, 9-hour serial blood glucose determinations and in 85 of 133 diabetic cats. Hypoglycemia causing clinical signs was confirmed in 2 diabetic cats. PZIR is effective for controlling glycemia in diabetic cats and can be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in diabetic cats that do not respond to treatment with other insulin preparations.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 08/2009; 23(4):787-93. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma suggest that anesthetic complications and perioperative mortality are common. In humans, surgical outcome has improved with the use of phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) before adrenalectomy. Dogs treated with PBZ before adrenalectomy have increased survival compared with untreated dogs. Forty-eight dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. A retrospective medical record review for dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma at a veterinary medical teaching hospital over the period from January 1986 through December 2005. Twenty-three of 48 dogs were pretreated with PBZ (median dosage: 0.6 mg/kg PO q12h) for a median duration of 20 days before adrenalectomy. Duration of anesthesia and surgery, percentage of dogs with pheochromocytoma involving the right versus left adrenal gland, size of tumor, and presence of vascular invasion were similar for PBZ-treated and untreated dogs. Thirty-three (69%) of 48 dogs survived adrenalectomy in the perioperative period. PBZ-treated dogs had a significantly (P = .014) decreased mortality rate compared with untreated dogs (13 versus 48%, respectively). Additional significant prognostic factors for improved survival included younger age (P = .028), lack of intraoperative arrhythmias (P = .0075), and decreased surgical time (P = .0089). Results from this retrospective study support treatment with PBZ before surgical removal of pheochromocytoma in dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10/2008; 22(6):1333-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Identification and control of infections are important in the management of diabetic cats. Urinary tract infections have not been well characterized in diabetic cats. This retrospective study was performed to review and characterize urinary tract infections in diabetic cats.Hypothesis: Urinary tract infections are common in diabetic cats.Animals: A review was made of the medical records of 141 diabetic cats that had had urine obtained for culture by antepubic cystocentesis and that had not been treated with antibiotics, undergone urinary tract catheterization or urinary tract surgery within 2 weeks of urine collection or had urethral obstruction at the time of urine collection.Methods: A review of medical records.Results: Urinary tract infection was identified in 18 of 141 diabetic cats. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate (67%). Female cats were at increased risk (prevalence odds ratios [POR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 10.2; P= .013). Clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease and findings on urine sediment examination were good predictors of positive urine cultures.Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Urinary tract infections are common in diabetic cats regardless of status of diabetic control, suggesting routine monitoring with urine sediment exams or urine culture is warranted.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 06/2006; 20(4):850 - 855. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification and control of infections are important in the management of diabetic cats. Urinary tract infections have not been well characterized in diabetic cats. This retrospective study was performed to review and characterize urinary tract infections in diabetic cats. Urinary tract infections are common in diabetic cats. A review was made of the medical records of 141 diabetic cats that had had urine obtained for culture by antepubic cystocentesis and that had not been treated with antibiotics, undergone urinary tract catheterization or urinary tract surgery within 2 weeks of urine collection or had urethral obstruction at the time of urine collection. A review of medical records. Urinary tract infection was identified in 18 of 141 diabetic cats. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate (67%). Female cats were at increased risk (prevalence odds ratios [POR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 10.2; P = .013). Clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease and findings on urine sediment examination were good predictors of positive urine cultures. Urinary tract infections are common in diabetic cats regardless of status of diabetic control, suggesting routine monitoring with urine sediment exams or urine culture is warranted.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2006; 20(4):850-5. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • E C Feldman, R W Nelson
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 10/2000; 2(3):153-8. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcome of surgical versus medical treatment of dogs with beta cell neoplasia. Retrospective study. 39 dogs with clinical signs of hypoglycemia and serum glucose and insulin concentrations consistent with a diagnosis of beta cell neoplasia. Information on signalment; clinical history; physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and urinalysis; serum glucose and insulin concentrations; results of thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography; treatment and treatment complications; survival time; and cause of death were obtained from medical records. 26 dogs underwent exploratory celiotomy and partial pancreatectomy; 13 dogs were treated medically (i.e., dietary change and prednisone). Median survival time was significantly longer for dogs treated surgically than for dogs treated medically. Significant differences were not found in mean age, body weight, duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis, serum glucose and insulin concentration, or results of other serum biochemical tests between dogs treated surgically and dogs treated medically; also, there was no significant correlation between any of these parameters and survival time for either group of dogs. Results suggest that exploratory celiotomy and partial pancreatectomy are indicated once a tentative diagnosis of beta cell neoplasia is established in dogs.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 08/1999; 215(2):226-30. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To correlate serum fructosamine concentrations with established measures of glycemic control and to compare serum fructosamine and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations as a means for assessing glycemic control in diabetic cats. Longitudinal cohort study. 26 healthy cats, 5 cats with stress-induced hyperglycemia, 15 untreated diabetic cats, and 36 treated diabetic cats. Control of glycemia was classified and monitored and serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations were measured for 12 poorly controlled diabetic cats before and after improving glycemic control, 8 well-controlled treated diabetic cats before and after glycemic control deteriorated, and 5 cats with diabetes mellitus before and after onset of stress-induced hyperglycemia. Mean serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations were significantly higher in untreated diabetic cats, compared with healthy cats, and in 24 poorly controlled diabetic cats, compared with 12 well-controlled diabetic cats. Mean serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations decreased significantly in 12 poorly controlled diabetic cats after improving glycemic control and increased significantly in 8 well-controlled diabetic cats after glycemic control deteriorated. A significant stress-induced increase in mean blood glucose concentration was evident 12 hours after insulin administration, but not in 5 docile diabetic cats that became fractious. Serum fructosamine and blood GHb concentrations are clinically useful tools for monitoring control of glycemia in cats with diabetes mellitus.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 07/1999; 214(12):1794-8. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • J C Scott-Moncrieff, R W Nelson
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether measuring change in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration can be used as a test of thyroid function in dogs suspected of having hypothyroidism. Case-cohort study. 13 healthy dogs, 20 hypothyroid dogs, and 18 euthyroid dogs with concurrent diseases. Blood samples were collected before and 30 minutes after TRH administration, and serum TSH concentration was measured. The 13 healthy dogs were used to establish a reference range for change in TSH concentration after TRH administration. The remaining 38 dogs were categorized as hypothyroid or euthyroid on the basis of baseline total thyroxine (T4) and TSH concentrations, T4 concentration 4 hours after TRH administration, and clinical response to administration of sodium levothyroxine. Median baseline TSH concentration was 0.25 ng/ml (range, 0.03 to 0.44 ng/ml) in healthy dogs, 0.93 ng/ml (0.21 to 3.5 ng/ml) in hypothyroid dogs, and 0.21 ng/ml (0.03 to 0.63 ng/ml) in euthyroid dogs with concurrent diseases. Median percentage change in TSH concentration after TRH administration was 207% (range, 25 to 2,200%) in healthy dogs, 24% (-21 to 134%) in hypothyroid dogs, and 167% (69 to 1,800%) in euthyroid dogs with concurrent diseases. Overall accuracy of using the TRH-induced change in TSH concentration to identify hypothyroid dogs was 90%. Although percentage change in TSH concentration in response to TRH administration can be used to differentiate euthyroid from hypothyroid dogs, the test has little advantage over measurement of baseline TSH and total or free T4 concentration.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 12/1998; 213(10):1435-8. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine prevalence and severity of systemic arterial hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with naturally developing diabetes mellitus (DM) and to determine whether these abnormalities were related to age, sex, duration of DM, or degree of control of glycemia. Case series and cohort study. Fifty dogs with naturally developing DM. Blood pressure was measured in all 50 dogs. Thirty-eight dogs were evaluated once, and 12 were evaluated sequentially. Thirty-five were evaluated for proteinuria by determining protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine (n = 35) or by electrophoresis of urine (33). Hypertension was detected in 23 on the basis of a systolic pressure > 160 mm HG (12 dogs), a diastolic pressure > 100 mm HG (21), or a mean pressure > 120 mm HG (23). All dogs with systolic hypertension had concurrent diastolic and mean hypertension, and 19 of 21 dogs with diastolic hypertension had concurrent high mean pressure. Ten of 12 dogs reevaluated at subsequent visits had no change in blood pressure. Blood pressure remained consistent in 3 dogs tested at different times during the day on a single visit. Duration of DM and presence of proteinuria were significant predictors of hypertension. Seven of 35 (20%) dogs had an increased protein-to-creatinine ratio in their urine. Albumin concentration and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were significantly higher in urine from diabetic dogs, compared with healthy, nondiabetic dogs. Hypertension was associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Systemic hypertension and proteinuria may be common in diabetic dogs, but the clinical importance of these findings are, as yet, unknown.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10/1998; 213(6):822-5. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acromegaly was diagnosed in 3 cats with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus (DM) on the basis of history and physical examination findings, which ruled out other causes of insulin-resistant DM, and by documenting high plasma concentrations of growth hormone. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the area of the pituitary gland in each cat. Pituitary gland tumors were irradiated with cobalt 60, and none of the cats developed complications to radiotherapy. Each cat received a total dose of 48 Gy of cobalt 60 during 12 treatments. After completion of radiotherapy, insulin requirements were less for all cats, although in 1 cat, this improvement was transient. Diabetes mellitus resolved in 2 of 3 cats. After treatment, decreases in insulin requirements correlated with decreases in plasma growth hormone concentrations in 2 of 3 cats in which DM resolved. On the basis of these findings, irradiation of pituitary gland tumors appears to be a treatment option for cats with acromegaly.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 09/1998; 213(3):374-6. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of a high insoluble-fiber (HF) diet containing 12% cellulose in dry matter and a low insoluble-fiber (LF) diet on control of glycemia in dogs with naturally acquired insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Prospective randomized crossover controlled trial. 11 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus. Dogs were fed HF and LF diets for 8 months each in 1 of 2 randomly assigned diet sequences. Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted as needed to maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia, respectively. After a 2-month adaptation period, control of glycemia was evaluated every 6 weeks for 6 months. Variables assessed included serum glucose concentration measured during the preprandial state, blood glycosylated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose concentration measured every 2 hours for 24 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin injection, 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, mean serum glucose concentration fluctuation from the 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and 24-hour urinary excretion of glucose. Significant differences in mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or daily insulin dosage among dogs fed HF and LF diets were not found. Mean preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial serum glucose concentrations, 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and 24-hour urinary excretion of glucose were significantly lower in dogs fed the HF diet, compared with the LF diet. Results of this study support feeding of commercially available insoluble fiber diets to dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 03/1998; 212(3):380-6. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate use of an assay for measuring serum concentration of canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) as an aid for diagnosing thyroid disease in a population of dogs suspected of having hypothyroidism. Case-cohort study. 62 healthy dogs and 49 dogs with clinical signs consistent with hypothyroidism (16 were hypothyroid and 33 were euthyroid with concurrent disease). Samples from healthy dogs were used to establish a reference range for serum cTSH concentration. The 49 dogs were categorized as hypothyroid or euthyroid with concurrent disease on the basis of clinical signs, results of additional diagnostic and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response tests, and response to administration of levothyroxine sodium. Function of the thyroid gland was considered normal when serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration 6 hours after TSH administration was > 2.5 micrograms/dl. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed when serum T4 concentration after TSH administration was < or = 1.5 microgram/dl. Serum cTSH concentration differed significantly among all 3 groups. Four of 33 (12%) euthyroid dogs had cTSH concentrations that were greater than the reference range, whereas 6 of 16 (38%) hypothyroid dogs had cTSH concentrations within the reference range. Specificity for serum cTSH concentration was 0.88 and sensitivity was 0.63. When interpreted in combination with serum T4 concentration, specificity increased to 1.0. cTSH assay had good specificity for use in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Because this assay had low sensitivity, a diagnosis of hypothyroidism could not be excluded on the basis of a serum cTSH concentration that was within the reference range.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/1998; 212(3):387-91. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate use of urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio (UC:C) as a means of monitoring response to long-term mitotane treatment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Prospective uncontrolled study. 101 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Urine samples were obtained from dogs on the morning an ACTH stimulation test was performed, and owners were asked their opinion on the health of their dog to monitor response to mitotane treatment. Urine was assayed for cortisol and creatinine concentrations, and UC:C was calculated. The UC:C was compared with post-ACTH plasma cortisol concentration. Post-ACTH plasma cortisol concentration was used to categorize each dog's response to mitotane treatment. The UC:C did not correlate satisfactorily with results of ACTH stimulation testing. Twenty-seven of 85 (32%) dogs would have been incorrectly considered as having received appropriate doses using UC:C. In addition, 16 dogs that received overdoses could not be distinguished from 29 dogs that received appropriate doses. UC:C does not provide a consistent, correct assessment of mitotane-induced adrenocortical destruction. The ACTH stimulation test, although more time-consuming and expensive, is recommended for monitoring response to mitotane treatment.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 11/1997; 211(8):1002-4. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations in the blood of dogs with disorders that may affect serum glucose or blood GHb concentrations, and to determine whether changes in GHb concentration correlate with changes in control of diabetes in dogs. Prospective study. 63 healthy dogs, 9 dogs with anemia, 24 dogs with untreated hyperadrenocorticism, 12 dogs with pancreatic beta-cell neoplasia, 23 dogs with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, and 77 diabetic dogs treated with insulin. Control of diabetes in dogs treated with insulin was classified as good or poor on the basis of history, physical examination findings, changes in body weight, and measurement of serum glucose concentrations Sequential evaluations of control were performed and GHb concentration in blood was measured, by means of affinity chromatography, for 5 untreated diabetic dogs before and after initiating insulin treatment, for 10 poorly controlled diabetic dogs before and after increasing insulin dosage, and for 5 diabetic dogs before and after pancreatic islet cell transplantation. Mean (+/-SD) GHb concentration was 3.3 +/- 0.8% in the blood of healthy dogs. Compared with results from healthy dogs, mean GHb concentration was significantly lower in the blood of dogs with anemia and pancreatic beta-cell neoplasia and significantly higher in the blood of untreated diabetic dogs. Mean GHb concentration was significantly higher in the blood of 46 poorly controlled diabetic dogs, compared with 31 well-controlled diabetic dogs (7.3 +/- 1.8 vs 5.7 +/- 1.7%, respectively). Mean GHb concentration in blood decreased significantly in 5 untreated diabetic dogs after treatment (8.7 +/- 1.9 vs 5.3 +/- 1.9%). Mean GHb concentration in blood also decreased significantly in 10 poorly controlled diabetic dogs after control was improved and in 5 diabetic dogs after they had received a pancreatic islet cell transplant. Measurement of GHb concentration in blood may assist in monitoring control of diabetes in dogs.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10/1997; 211(6):723-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diabetic ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Retrospective study. 42 cats with DK or DKA. Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed. In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived were discharged 1 to 16 days (median, 5 days) after initiation of insulin treatment. Diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis recurred in 13 (42%) of these cats. A thorough diagnostic evaluation should be performed on cats with DK or DKA to identify concurrent disorders, formulate an appropriate treatment plan, and provide prognostic information to the owner.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 08/1997; 211(2):188-92. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare a technique in which samples obtained from selected venous sites are analyzed for parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration versus usefulness of cervical ultrasonography for localizing primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) in dogs. Prospective study. 12 dogs with PHP. For each dog, blood samples were collected from the left and right jugular veins and 1 cephalic vein for determination of serum PTH concentration. Ultrasonography of the neck was performed in each dog. Each dog underwent exploratory surgery of the neck. Abnormal appearing parathyroid tissue was removed. Dogs were included in the study if serum calcium concentration decreased within 12 hours after surgery, hypercalcemia completely resolved within 96 hours after surgery, and serum calcium concentration was maintained within the reference range for at least 6 months after surgery. Serum PTH concentrations from the 3 veins were similar in 11 of 12 dogs with PHP. In 1 dog, the serum PTH concentration from the jugular vein ipsilateral to a parathyroid adenoma was greater than that from the contralateral jugular or cephalic vein. Ultrasonography correctly identified a parathyroid mass and its location in 10 of 11 dogs with a solitary abnormal parathyroid gland and in 1 dog in which both parathyroid glands were enlarged. Surgeons may benefit from knowing the location of abnormal parathyroid tissue in dogs with PHP before surgical exploration. Ultrasonography has potential value for identifying and localizing abnormal parathyroid tissue, whereas sample collection from selected sites for PTH analysis is not likely to be helpful.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 08/1997; 211(1):54-6. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • E C Feldman, R W Nelson, M S Feldman
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate use of the oral hypoglycemic drug glipizide in diabetic cats. Prospective study. 50 cats with recently diagnosed but untreated diabetes mellitus. Each cat received glipizide (5 mg, q 12 h) for 16 weeks. Medication was not given during the subsequent 16 weeks; then glipizide treatment was repeated. Each cat was evaluated prior to treatment and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks during each of the 3 phases: blood samples for serum glucose and insulin determinations were obtained every 2 hours, from 8 AM to 6 PM. A preprandial blood glycosylated hemoglobin percentage was determined for the first sample obtained at each visit. During the first 22 weeks of the study, diabetes worsened in 28 of the 50 cats, which then were disqualified from the study and treated with insulin. Of the remaining 22 cats that improved clinically, 7 had corresponding metabolic improvement in each diabetes-related parameter assessed and did not become hypoglycemic. Six of the 22 cats became hypoglycemic. Glipizide was discontinued, and diabetes did not recur. Serum glucose concentration did not improve in 6. Three cats had metabolic and clinical improvement during initial glipizide treatment, but had recurrence of the disease during repeated treatment; glipizide was discontinued and insulin was administered. None of the 50 treated cats died, and observed morbidity was mild and transient. Transient anorexia and vomiting were observed in 8 cats, and 4 became transiently icteric with abnormal liver enzyme activities. Trial use of glipizide is feasible in diabetic cats of owners who are unable or unwilling to administer insulin.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 04/1997; 210(6):772-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess clinical signs, biochemical findings, results of modified water deprivation and other diagnostic tests, response to treatment, and survival time in dogs with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Retrospective study. 20 dogs with CDI. Signalment, history, physical examination, results of diagnostic tests, response to treatment, and survival time were extracted from the medical record of each dog and supplemented with information obtained from owners via telephone. Isosthenuria or hyposthenuria was a consistent finding. Seven dogs with complete CDI and 13 dogs with partial CDI were identified on the basis of results of a modified water deprivation test. Dogs treated with desmopressin acetate responded well to treatment. Seven dogs were alive 18 to 72 months (median, 36 months) after diagnosis, and 10 dogs died or were euthanatized 1 week to 2 years (median, 2 months) after diagnosis. Seven of 10 dogs that died developed neurologic signs after diagnosis of CDI. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the region of the pituitary gland in 5 of 7 dogs. Necropsy of 6 dogs, including 2 dogs on which computed tomography had been performed, revealed neoplasia in the pituitary gland. Onset of neurologic signs after diagnosis of CDI in middle- to old-aged dogs indicates that CDI may not be a benign disease that is treated easily. Brain imaging is recommended after diagnosis of CDI in middle- to old-aged dogs. Also, because many dogs are isosthenuric on initial examination, CDI cannot be ruled out as a cause of polyuria and polydipsia on the basis of lack of hyposthenuria.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 01/1997; 209(11):1884-8. · 1.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

879 Citations
111.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2009
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology
      • • Veterinary Medicine Teaching & Research Center
      • • School of Medicine
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1987–1998
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (VCS)
      West Lafayette, IN, United States
  • 1992
    • Shreveport Veterinary Internal Medicine
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States