A Arrigoni

Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (48)185.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the population coverage and diagnostic yield of offering an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (FIT) to non-responders to a flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) invitation. DESIGN: A cohort study conducted in a population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme. In this programme, eligible men and women aged 58 (Turin; 43 748 subjects) or 60 (Verona; 19 970 subjects) are invited, with a personal letter signed by their general practitioner, to undergo an FS. Bowel preparation is limited to a single enema self-administered at home. Subjects in whom one distal polyp >5 mm (≥10 mm in Turin) or at least one adenoma (one advanced adenoma or more than two adenomas in Turin) is detected at FS are referred for colonoscopy. People who do not respond to the invitation to undergo an FS are invited to have an FIT (OC-Sensor; Eiken, Tokyo, Japan; single sample, cut-off 100 ng/ml). Attendance rate and neoplasia yield were analysed in four consecutive birth cohorts. RESULTS: Overall participation rate for the FS invitation was 39.3% in Verona and 29.9% in Turin. Of the eligible non-responders to the FS invitation, 19.3% (95% CI 18.9% to 19.7%) underwent an FIT. As a result, the proportion of people undergoing screening by FS or FIT was 55.2% in Verona and 39.3% in Turin, with no gender differences in either centre. FIT detected 8.3% of all advanced adenomas and 20.4% of all CRCs diagnosed at screening. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy involving the sequential offer of FS and FIT is a feasible and efficient approach. FIT in people not attending for FS increases screening uptake and detection of advanced adenomas and CRCs.
    Gut 03/2012; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A single flexible sigmoidoscopy at around the age of 60 years has been proposed as an effective strategy for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening on CRC incidence and mortality. A questionnaire to assess the eligibility and interest in screening was mailed to 236,568 men and women, aged 55-64 years, who were randomly selected from six trial centers in Italy. Of the 56,532 respondents, interested and eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention group (invitation for flexible sigmoidoscopy; n = 17,148) or the control group (no further contact; n = 17,144), between June 14, 1995, and May 10, 1999. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed on 9911 subjects. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed to compare the CRC incidence and mortality rates in the intervention and control groups. Per-protocol analysis was adjusted for noncompliance. A total of 34,272 subjects (17,136 in each group) were included in the follow-up analysis. The median follow-up period was 10.5 years for incidence and 11.4 years for mortality; 251 subjects were diagnosed with CRC in the intervention group and 306 in the control group. Overall incidence rates in the intervention and control groups were 144.11 and 176.43, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. CRC-related death was noted in 65 subjects in the intervention group and 83 subjects in the control group. Mortality rates in the intervention and control groups were 34.66 and 44.45, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the rate of CRC incidence was statistically significantly reduced in the intervention group by 18% (rate ratio [RR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69 to 0.96), and the mortality rate was non-statistically significantly reduced by 22% (RR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.08) compared with the control group. In the per-protocol analysis, both CRC incidence and mortality rates were statistically significantly reduced among the screened subjects; CRC incidence was reduced by 31% (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.86) and mortality was reduced by 38% (RR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.96) compared with the control group. A single flexible sigmoidoscopy screening between ages 55 and 64 years was associated with a substantial reduction of CRC incidence and mortality.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 08/2011; 103(17):1310-22. · 14.07 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Duodenal biopsy is the current gold standard for diagnosis of celiac disease. Videocapsule endoscopy examines the entire small bowel and allows visualization of mucosal villi. We evaluated the potential of videocapsule endoscopy in assessing the severity and extent of mucosal changes in patients with suspected celiac disease. Consecutive patients with signs/symptoms suggesting celiac disease and positive anti-gliadin and/or anti-endomysial and/or anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and videocapsule endoscopy. Duodenal biopsies were classified according to modified Marsh's criteria. Capsule findings were evaluated for the presence of lesions compatible with celiac disease (scalloping of duodenal folds, fissures, flat mucosa, and mosaic appearance). Forty-three patients were studied. Duodenal histology was normal in 11 and compatible with celiac disease in 32. Using duodenal histology as the gold standard, the performance characteristics of capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis of celiac disease were: sensitivity 87.5% (95% CI 76.1-98.9%), specificity 90.9% (95% CI 81.0-100%), positive predictive value 96.5% (95% CI 90.1-100%), negative predictive value 71.4% (95% CI 55.8-87%), positive and negative likelihood ratios 9.6 and 0.14, respectively. Eighteen patients had mucosal changes extending beyond the duodenum, involving the entire small bowel in three. These patients tended to have more severe symptoms, but the difference was not statistically significant. Interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of celiac disease by capsule endoscopy ranged between 79.2 and 94.4%; kappa values ranged between 0.56 and 0.87. Videocapsule endoscopy shows good sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of villous atrophy in patients with suspected celiac disease.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2007; 102(8):1624-31. · 7.55 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - GASTROINTEST ENDOSCOP. 01/2006; 63(5).
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2006; 38.
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is general consensus concerning the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening, there is a lack of agreement about which routine screening strategy should be adopted. We compared the participation and detection rates achievable through different strategies of colorectal cancer screening. From November 1999 through June 2001 we conducted a multicenter, randomized trial in Italy among a sample of 55-64 year olds in the general population who had an average risk of colorectal cancer. People with previous colorectal cancer, adenomas, inflammatory bowel disease, a recent (< or =2 years) colorectal endoscopy or fecal occult blood test (FOBT), or two first-degree relatives with colorectal cancer were excluded. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned, within the roster of their general practitioner, to 1) biennial FOBT (delivered by mail), 2) biennial FOBT (delivered by general practitioner or a screening facility), 3) patient's choice of FOBT or "once-only" sigmoidoscopy, 4) "once-only" sigmoidoscopy, or 5) sigmoidoscopy followed by biennial FOBT. An immunologic FOBT was used. Participation and detection rates of the strategies tested were compared using multivariable logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, and screening center. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of 28 319 people sampled, 1637 were excluded and 26 682 were randomly assigned to a screening arm. After excluding undelivered letters (n = 427), the participation rates for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 30.1% (682/2266), 28.1% (1654/5893), 27.1% (970/3579), 28.1% (1026/3650), and 28.1% (3049/10 867), respectively. Of the 2858 subjects screened by FOBT, 122 (4.3%) had a positive test result, 10 (3.5 per 1000) had colorectal cancer, and 39 (1.4%) had an advanced adenoma. Among the 4466 subjects screened by sigmoidoscopy, 341 (7.6%) were referred for colonoscopy, 18 (4 per 1000) had colorectal cancer, and 229 (5.1%) harbored an advanced adenoma. The participation rates were similar for sigmoidoscopy and FOBT. The detection rate for advanced neoplasia was three times higher following screening by sigmoidoscopy than by FOBT.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 04/2005; 97(5):347-57. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of a hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) identification and surveillance policy. Familial clustering of colorectal cancer (CRC) and extracolonic cancers (ECs) was investigated in 1520 consecutive CRC patients and relatives. HNPCC was identified by Amsterdam criteria, and individuals at risk were offered biennial colonoscopy and other examinations, starting from age 25 years. Twenty-two HNPCC families were identified. The CRC prevalence was 27.8% (121/435), decreasing from 59.4% in the first generation to 24.4% and 8% in the second and third generation, respectively. Twenty-nine patients had multiple CRC and 34 patients (in 12 families) had ECs.A total of 199/331 at-risk individuals accepted surveillance. The mean follow-up was 48+/-32 months. CRCs were detected at first surveillance in four out of 199 surveilled individuals (2%); in two surveilled individuals (1%), three CRCs developed during follow-up. The overall CRC incidence was 7/199 (3.5%) in surveilled individuals and 5/132 (3.7%) in unsurveilled individuals. CRCs were less advanced in surveilled than in unsurveilled patients. Eleven individuals had 22 adenomas (one with high-grade dysplasia). Three individuals had adenomas at first surveillance; two of them and eight more individuals during surveillance. Seven surveilled individuals and six unsurveilled individuals, all belonging to families with a history of EC, had EC during the study period. All patients with CRC detected by surveillance are alive. One of the unsurveilled patients who had CRC died 18 months after the diagnosis. Data confirm the importance of the family history collected in each patient with CRC for identification of HNPCC and support the efficacy of repeated colonoscopies for early diagnosis and prevention of CRC in at-risk members. Reasons for surveillance failure could be an accelerated progression of small adenomas and a lesion missing at colonoscopy. Longer follow-up is required to assess the efficacy of surveillance for EC.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 03/2005; 17(2):213-9. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited colorectal polyposis has been linked to constitutive mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene. Recently, germline mutations in the base excision repair gene MYH have been associated with a recessively inherited form of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate germline mutation frequencies of both MYH and APC susceptibility genes in Italian patients with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. The analysis was performed in 14 unrelated patients by using the protein truncation test for APC and genomic DNA sequencing for MYH. Overall, we identified 7 of 14 (50%) mutation carriers. Two patients were heterozygotes for an APC truncating mutation (2 of 14 [14%]), whereas 5 proved to be homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for MYH gene alterations (5 of 14 [36%]). Two MYH missense mutations, Y165C and G382D, already found to be frequent among patients from northern Europe, were also preponderant in our survey. Individuals with APC-associated syndrome showed a dominant family history of polyposis, whereas patients with MYH-associated disease were either apparently sporadic cases or had a family history consistent with recessive inheritance. MYH biallelic mutation carriers were up to 60% (5 of 8) among patients showing at least 30 adenomas and a family history with no vertical transmission of polyposis. On the basis of our data, patients with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis with >30 adenomas and no obvious vertical transmission of the disease should be considered for MYH gene testing.
    Gastroenterology 06/2004; 126(7):1681-5. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biallelic germline mutations in the base excision repair gene MYH have been reported in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas and cancer and in sporadic FAP patients not showing a detectable APC germline mutation. In this study, the prevalence of the common Y165C and G382D germline variants of the MYH gene was examined in 70 FAP/AAPC patients with no detectable APC mutation and a family history compatible with recessive inheritance. In addition, 141 normal-population adenoma patients (mean number of adenomas, 2.8; range, 1-9) and 52 clean colon controls were studied. The entire coding region of the MYH gene was analyzed in Y165C or G382D heterozygous patients. Since the same second mutational event (a 3 bp deletion in exon 14, 1395delGGA) was detected in 3 patients, the prevalence of this variant was also examined in all groups. In all, 14 of 70 patients in the FAP/AAPC group (20%; 95% CI = 11.7-31.6%) had biallelic germline MYH variants and 3 were heterozygotes (4.3%). None of the 141 normal-population adenoma patients carried biallelic germline MYH variants (95% CI = 0.06-4.1%) and 3 were heterozygotes (2.1%). In the control group, no MYH variants were detected. These results indicated that MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is present in about 20% of Italian FAP/AAPC patients, in whom no germline APC mutation is detectable and showing a family history compatible with recessive inheritance, and in a small fraction of patients with colorectal adenomas in the general population. In addition, our data suggest that mutation 1395delGGA is a subpolymorphic MYH mutational event in some Caucasian populations.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2004; 109(5):680-4. · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Endoscopy 04/2004; 36(3):248-9. · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal diseases. A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients undergoing a laparoscopic colorectal procedure (LCP) for large bowel disease. All operations were performed by a single experienced team. Patients were divided chronologically into three consecutive groups (G1, G2, and G3). Data collection included the incidence and cause of both "proper" and "mandatory" conversions to laparotomy, the incidence and type of early and late postoperative complications, incidence of operative mortality, and the length of hospital stay. The incidences of conversion to laparotomy and of early and late postoperative complications were also determined as related to diagnosis, type of LCP attempted, and chronological group. Between January 1996 and December 2001, a total of 108 patients (49 men and 59 women) with a mean age of 65.1 years underwent an LCP for colorectal disease. Proper conversion to open surgery was necessary in five patients (4.6%), whereas a mandatory conversion was needed in 10 with patients advanced cancer (9.2%). The overall morbidity rate was 11.9%. There were no anastomotic leaks. In two patients (1.85%) developed a complication requiring reoperation. Postoperative mortality was nil. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.2 days. The rates of conversion and of early and late complications decreased through the three chronological periods. No trocar site recurrences were observed in the cancer patients. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed in experienced centers is safe; the observed morbidity and mortality rates are low and acceptable and compare favorably to those observed after standard open surgery.
    Surgical Endoscopy 04/2004; 18(3):427-32. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in APC tumor suppressor gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A major role of these genetic changes is the constitutive activation of beta-catenin-Tcf-4 mediated transcription of nuclear target genes, but other cellular functions can be misregulated. To assess how different APC mutations can drive the early steps of colonic tumorigenesis, we studied the effect of 10 different germline-truncating alterations on the phenotype of the corresponding adenomas. A significant reduction of apoptosis, uncoupled with an increased c-myc and cyclin-D1 expression, was seen with a frameshift mutation on codon 1383, in the 20-aa repeats of the beta-catenin degradation domain, independent of a somatic alteration on the wild-type allele. The decreased apoptotic level was associated with a higher incidence of cancerization. No other APC mutation was linked with a similar effect, even in presence of a somatic allelic loss. These findings suggest that mutations in critical sites of the beta-catenin degradation domain of APC gene can convey a selective advantage to the colonic neoplastic clones by altering the apoptotic surveillance rather than enhancing the beta-catenin-Tcf-4 transcription of growth-promoting genes.
    Modern Pathology 02/2003; 16(1):57-65. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of APC is an initial, rate-limiting event in inherited and sporadic colorectal tumorigenesis. Rare germline APC mutations have been identified in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas. Recently, the E1317Q APC variant has been associated with a predisposition to the development of multiple colorectal adenomas. In this study, the prevalence of the E1317Q variant was examined in 182 patients with single or multiple colorectal adenomas, and in 235 controls. In all, E1317Q was identified in two of 182 patients with adenomatous polyps (1.1%) and in two of 235 controls (0.8%) (p = 0.59). The risk of harboring adenoma(s) among subjects bearing the E1317Q variant was 1.29 (95% CI 0.09-18.0). No difference in the prevalence of E1317Q between cases with single (2.0%) or multiple colorectal adenomas (0.7%) and controls (0.8%) was found. None of the subjects with a family history of colorectal cancer carried the E1317Q variant. In conclusion, our results confirm that only a very small fraction of colorectal adenomas may be associated with the presence of E1317Q.
    Genetic Testing 02/2002; 6(4):313-7. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at higher risk of hepatitis C (HCV) and B virus (HBV) infection, because of surgical and/or endoscopic procedures. However, the prevalence of HCV and HBV infection in CD is unknown. This issue may be relevant because of the growing use of immunomodulatory drugs in CD. The purpose of this study was to assess, in a multicenter study, the prevalence and risk factors of HCV and HBV infection in CD. The effect of immunomodulatory drugs for CD on the clinical course of hepatitis virus infections and of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on the course of CD was examined in a small number of patients. Sera from 332 patients with CD and 374 control subjects (C) were tested for the following: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), HBcAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, anti-HCV, and HCV-RNA. An additional 162 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were tested as a disease control group. Risk factors were assessed by multivariate statistical analysis. Infection by either HCV or HBV was detected in 24.7% of patients with CD. In the age groups younger than 50 years, HCV prevalence was higher in CD than in C (p = 0.01). HCV infection in CD was associated with surgery (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.00-2.93; p = 0.04), blood transfusions (OR 3.39; 95% CI 1.04-11.04; p = 0.04), and age (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.61-3.56; p < 0.001). The event CD-related surgery appeared to be the main risk factor for HCV infection in CD. HCV prevalence was higher in CD (7.4%) than in UC (0.6%) (p = 0.001). HBcAb positivity was higher in CD (10.9%) and UC (11.5%) than in C (5.1%) (CD vs. C: p = 0.016; UC vs. C: p = 0.02), associated with age (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.37-3.17; p = 0.001) and female gender (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.37-3.17; p = 0.001) in CD and to UC duration (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.06-1.36; p = 0.002). Immunomodulatory drugs did not influence the course of HBV or HCV infection in seven patients with CD, and IFN-alpha for chronic hepatitis C did not affect CD activity in six patients with CD. It is concluded that HBV prevalence is higher in CD than in C at all ages, whereas HCV prevalence is increased in young patients with CD, because of a greater need for surgery. The higher HCV (but not HBV) prevalence in CD than in UC suggests that the host immune response may influence the risk of HCV infection. Although a relatively high proportion of patients with CD showed HBV and/or HCV infections, this should not influence treatment strategies for CD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 11/2001; 7(4):287-94. · 5.12 Impact Factor
  • Acta Endoscopica 04/2001; 31(3):297-299. · 0.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish whether tailoring the dosage of interferon (IFN)-alpha2b in non-cirrhotic naive patients with chronic hepatitis C according to hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and viraemic level improves the rate of sustained response (normal alanine aminotransferase values and HCV-RNA negativity 6 months after the end of therapy). A total of 538 consecutively collected HCV-positive patients with non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis who had not been previously treated. Quantitative viraemia and genotype were determined in each patient by a core laboratory. The patients were randomized to: Group 1, 86 patients with genotype non-1 and viraemia < 1,000,000 HCV genome equivalents/ml (GenEq/ml) treated with 3 Million Units (MU) IFN three times weekly (t.i.w.) for 1 year; Group 2, 42 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia < 1,000,000 GenEq/ ml treated with 3 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 3, 46 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia < 1,000,000 GenEq/ ml treated with 5 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 4, 85 patients with genotype non-1 and viraemia > 1,000,000 GenEq/ml treated with 3 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 5, 88 patients with genotype non-1 and viraemia > 1,000,000 GenEq/ml treated with 5 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 6, 94 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia > 1,000,000 GenEq/ml treated with 3 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 7, 97 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia > 1,000,000 GenEq/ml treated with 5 MU IFN daily for 2 months followed by 5 MU t.i.w. for a further 10 months. According to an intention-to-treat analysis, a sustained virological response (negative HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction 6 months after the end of therapy) was observed in 42% of Group 1 patients, in 21% of Group 2 patients versus 24% of Group 3 patients [P = not significant (NS)], in 28% of Group 4 patients versus 35% of Group 5 patients (P = NS), and in 8.5% of Group 6 patients versus 12% of Group 7 patients (P = NS). Even though a trend towards a therapeutic improvement is observed, the adoption of more aggressive IFN protocols, such as induction therapy, does not appear to significantly improve the rate of sustained response in patients with chronic hepatitis C associated with HCV genotype 1 and highly viraemic levels compared with standard therapy. Moreover, patients with only one unfavourable predictive factor (genotype 1 or high viraemia) do not gain major therapeutic benefits when treated with high doses of IFN.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 02/2001; 13(2):149-55. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To establish whether tailoring the dosage of interferon (IFN)-α2b in non-cirrhotic naive patients with chronic hepatitis C according to hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and viraemic level improves the rate of sustained response (normal alanine aminotransferase values and HCV-RNA negativity 6 months after the end of therapy). Patients: A total of 538 consecutively collected HCV-positive patients with non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis who had not been previously treated. Methods: Quantitative viraemia and genotype were determined in each patient by a core laboratory. The patients were randomized to: Group 1, 86 patients with genotype non-1 and viraemia < 1 000 000 HCV genome equivalents/ml (GenEq/ml) treated with 3 Million Units (MU) IFN three times weekly (t.i.w.) for 1 year; Group 2, 42 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia < 1 000 000 GenEq/ml treated with 3 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 3, 46 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia < 1 000 000 GenEq/ml treated with 5 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 4, 85 patients with genotype non-1 and viraemia > 1 000 000 GenEq/ml treated with 3 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 5, 88 patients with genotype non-1 and viraemia > 1 000 000 GenEq/ml treated with 5 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 6, 94 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia > 1 000 000 GenEq/ml treated with 3 MU IFN t.i.w. for 1 year; Group 7, 97 patients with genotype 1 and viraemia > 1 000 000 GenEq/ml treated with 5 MU IFN daily for 2 months followed by 5 MU t.i.w. for a further 10 months. Results: According to an intention-to-treat analysis, a sustained virological response (negative HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction 6 months after the end of therapy) was observed in 42% of Group 1 patients, in 21% of Group 2 patients versus 24% of Group 3 patients [P = not significant (NS)], in 28% of Group 4 patients versus 35% of Group 5 patients (P = NS), and in 8.5% of Group 6 patients versus 12% of Group 7 patients (P = NS). Conclusions: Even though a trend towards a therapeutic improvement is observed, the adoption of more aggressive IFN protocols, such as induction therapy, does not appear to significantly improve the rate of sustained response in patients with chronic hepatitis C associated with HCV genotype 1 and highly viraemic levels compared with standard therapy. Moreover, patients with only one unfavourable predictive factor (genotype 1 or high viraemia) do not gain major therapeutic benefits when treated with high doses of IFN.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 01/2001; 13(2):149-155. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2001; 33.
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2001; 33.