S Southwood

La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology, La Jolla, CA, United States

Are you S Southwood?

Claim your profile

Publications (122)702.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chinese rhesus macaques are of particular interest in simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) research as these animals have prolonged kinetics of disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared to their Indian counterparts, suggesting that they may be a better model for HIV. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism(s) accounting for these kinetics remains unclear. The study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC/peptide-binding motifs, provides valuable information for measuring cellular immune responses and deciphering outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. In this study, we have provided detailed characterization of six prevalent Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I alleles, yielding a combined phenotypic frequency of 29 %. The peptide-binding specificity of two of these alleles, Mamu-A2*01:02 and Mamu-B*010:01, as well as the previously characterized allele Mamu-B*003:01 (and Indian rhesus Mamu-B*003:01), was found to be analogous to that of alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family. Specific alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family, including HLA-B*27:05, have been associated with long-term nonprogression to AIDS in humans. All six alleles characterized in the present study were found to have specificities analogous to HLA supertype alleles. These data contribute to the concept that Chinese rhesus macaque MHC immunogenetics is more similar to HLA than their Indian rhesus macaque counterparts and thereby warrants further studies to decipher the role of these alleles in the context of SIV infection.
    Immunogenetics 02/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Classic ways to determine MHC restriction involve inhibition with locus-specific antibodies and antigen presentation assays with panels of cell lines matched or mismatched at the various loci of interest. However, these determinations are often complicated by T cell epitope degeneracy and promiscuity. We describe a selection of 46 HLA DR, DQ, and DP specificities that provide worldwide population (phenotypic) coverage of almost 90 % at each locus, and account for over 66 % of all genes at each locus. This panel afforded coverage of at least four HLA class II alleles in over 95 % of the individuals in four study populations of diverse ethnicity from the USA and South Africa. Next, a panel of single HLA class II-transfected cell lines, corresponding to these 46 allelic variants was assembled, consisting of lines previously developed and 15 novel lines generated for the present study. The novel lines were validated by assessing their HLA class II expression by FACS analysis, the in vitro peptide binding activity of HLA molecules purified from the cell lines, and their antigen presenting capacity to T cell lines of known restriction. We also show that these HLA class II-transfected cell lines can be used to rapidly and unambiguously determine HLA restriction of epitopes recognized by an individual donor in a single experiment. This panel of lines will enable high throughput determination of HLA restriction, enabling better characterization of HLA class II-restricted T cell responses and facilitating the development of HLA tetrameric staining reagents.
    Immunogenetics 02/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This unit describes a technique for the direct and quantitative measurement of the capacity of peptide ligands to bind Class I and Class II MHC molecules. The binding of a peptide of interest to MHC is assessed based on its ability to inhibit the binding of a radiolabeled probe peptide to purified MHC molecules. This unit includes protocols for the purification of Class I and Class II MHC molecules by affinity chromatography, and for the radiolabeling of peptides using the chloramine T method. An alternate protocol describes alterations in the basic protocol that are necessary when performing direct binding assays, which are required for (1) selecting appropriate high-affinity, assay-specific, radiolabeled ligands, and (2) determining the amount of MHC necessary to yield assays with the highest sensitivity. After a predetermined incubation period, dependent upon the allele under examination, the bound and unbound radiolabeled species are separated, and their relative amounts are determined. Three methods for separation are described, two utilizing size-exclusion gel-filtration chromatography and a third using monoclonal antibody capture of MHC. Data analysis for each method is also explained. Curr. Protoc. Immunol. 100:18.3.1-18.3.36. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 02/2013; Chapter 18:Unit18.3.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A panel of 133 allergens derived from 28 different sources, including fungi, trees, grasses, weeds, and indoor allergens, was surveyed utilizing prediction of HLA class II-binding peptides and ELISPOT assays with PBMC from allergic donors, resulting in the identification of 257 T cell epitopes. More than 90% of the epitopes were novel, and for 14 allergen sources were the first ever identified to our knowledge. The epitopes identified in the different allergen sources summed up to a variable fraction of the total extract response. In cases of allergens in which the identified T cell epitopes accounted for a minor fraction of the extract response, fewer known protein sequences were available, suggesting that for low epitope coverage allergen sources, additional allergen proteins remain to be identified. IL-5 and IFN-γ responses were measured as prototype Th2 and Th1 responses, respectively. Whereas in some cases (e.g., orchard grass, Alternaria, cypress, and Russian thistle) IL-5 production greatly exceeded IFN-γ, in others (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillum, and alder) the production of IFN-γ exceeded IL-5. Thus, different allergen sources are associated with variable polarization of the responding T cells. The present study represents the most comprehensive survey to date of human allergen-derived T cell epitopes. These epitopes might be used to characterize T cell phenotype/T cell plasticity as a function of seasonality, or as a result of specific immunotherapy treatment or varying disease severity (asthma or rhinitis).
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2012; 189(4):1800-11. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable, dose-independent and potentially life threatening; this makes them a major factor contributing to the cost and uncertainty of drug development. Clinical data suggest that many such reactions involve immune mechanisms, and genetic association studies have identified strong linkages between drug hypersensitivity reactions to several drugs and specific HLA alleles. One of the strongest such genetic associations found has been for the antiviral drug abacavir, which causes severe adverse reactions exclusively in patients expressing the HLA molecular variant B*57:01. Abacavir adverse reactions were recently shown to be driven by drug-specific activation of cytokine-producing, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that required HLA-B*57:01 molecules for their function; however, the mechanism by which abacavir induces this pathologic T-cell response remains unclear. Here we show that abacavir can bind within the F pocket of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B*57:01, thereby altering its specificity. This provides an explanation for HLA-linked idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, namely that drugs can alter the repertoire of self-peptides presented to T cells, thus causing the equivalent of an alloreactive T-cell response. Indeed, we identified specific self-peptides that are presented only in the presence of abacavir and that were recognized by T cells of hypersensitive patients. The assays that we have established can be applied to test additional compounds with suspected HLA-linked hypersensitivities in vitro. Where successful, these assays could speed up the discovery and mechanistic understanding of HLA-linked hypersensitivities, and guide the development of safer drugs.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2012; 109(25):9959-64. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The SIV-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of AIDS disease systems, providing insight into pathogenesis and a model system for testing novel vaccines. The understanding of cellular immune responses based on the identification and study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC:peptide-binding motif, provides valuable information to decipher outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. Detailed characterization of Mamu-B*039:01, a common allele expressed in Chinese rhesus macaques, revealed a unique MHC:peptide-binding preference consisting of glycine at the second position. Peptides containing a glycine at the second position were shown to be antigenic from animals positive for Mamu-B*039:01. A similar motif was previously described for the D(d) mouse MHC allele, but for none of the human HLA molecules for which a motif is known. Further investigation showed that one additional macaque allele, present in Indian rhesus macaques, Mamu-B*052:01, shares this same motif. These "G2" alleles were associated with the presence of specific residues in their B pocket. This pocket structure was found in 6% of macaque sequences but none of 950 human HLA class I alleles. Evolutionary studies using the "G2" alleles points to common ancestry for the macaque sequences, while convergent evolution is suggested when murine and macaque sequences are considered. This is the first detailed characterization of the pocket residues yielding this specific motif in nonhuman primates and mice, revealing a new supertype motif not present in humans.
    Immunogenetics 02/2012; 64(6):421-34. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rhesus and pigtail macaques have proven to be valuable animal models for several important human diseases, including HIV, where they exhibit similar pathology and disease progression. Because rhesus macaques have been extensively characterized in terms of their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles, their demand has soared, making them increasingly difficult to obtain for research purposes. This problem has been exacerbated by a continued export ban in place since 1978. Pigtail macaques represent a potential alternative animal model. However, because their MHC class I alleles have not been characterized in detail, their use has been hindered. To address this, in the present study, we have characterized the peptide binding specificity of the pigtail macaque class I allele Mane-A1*082:01 (formerly known as Mane A*0301), representative of the second most common MHC class I antigen detected across several cohorts. The motif was defined on the basis of binding studies utilizing purified MHC protein and panels of single amino acid substitution analog peptides, as well as sequences of peptide ligands eluted from Mane-A1*082:01. Based on these analyses, Mane-A1*082:01 was found to recognize a motif with H in position 2 and the aromatic residues F and Y, or the hydrophobic/aliphatic residue M, at the C-terminus. Finally, analysis of the binding of a combinatorial peptide library allowed the generation of a detailed quantitative motif that proved effective in the prediction of a set of high-affinity binders derived from chimeric SIV/HIV, an important model virus for studying HIV infection in humans.
    Immunogenetics 01/2012; 64(6):461-8. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese rhesus macaques' major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for composition and function should facilitate greater utilization of the species. Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese-origin M. mulatta (Mamu) class I alleles are more polymorphic than their Indian counterparts, perhaps inferring a model more representative of human MHC, human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Furthermore, the Chinese rhesus macaque class I allele Mamu-A1*02201, the most frequent allele thus far identified, has recently been characterized and shown to be an HLA-B7 supertype analog, the most frequent supertype in human populations. In this study, we have characterized two additional alleles expressed with high frequency in Chinese rhesus macaques, Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301. Upon the development of MHC-peptide-binding assays and definition of their associated motifs, we reveal that these Mamu alleles share peptide-binding characteristics with the HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypes, respectively, the next most frequent human supertypes after HLA-B7. These data suggest that Chinese rhesus macaques may indeed be a more representative model of HLA gene diversity and function as compared to the species of Indian origin and therefore a better model for investigating human immune responses.
    Immunogenetics 01/2011; 63(5):275-90. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS outcomes than the Indian rhesus macaque, the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques have not been well-characterized for their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) composition and function, reducing their greater utilization. In this study, we characterized a total of 50 unique Chinese rhesus macaques from several varying origins for their entire MHC class I allele composition and identified a total of 58 unique complete MHC class I sequences. Only nine of the sequences had been associated with Indian rhesus macaques, and 28/58 (48.3%) of the sequences identified were novel. From all MHC alleles detected, we prioritized Mamu-A1*02201 for functional characterization based on its higher frequency of expression. Upon the development of MHC/peptide binding assays and definition of its associated motif, we revealed that this allele shares peptide binding characteristics with the HLA-B7 supertype, the most frequent supertype in human populations. These studies provide the first functional characterization of an MHC class I molecule in the context of Chinese rhesus macaques and the first instance of HLA-B7 analogy for rhesus macaques.
    Immunogenetics 07/2010; 62(7):451-64. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza virus remains a significant health concern, with current circulating strains that affect millions each year plus the threat of newly emerging strains, such as swine-origin H1N1 and avian H5N1. Our hypothesis is that influenza-derived HLA-class I-restricted epitopes can be identified for use as a reagent to monitor and quantitate human CD8(+) T-cell responses and for vaccine development to induce protective cellular immunity. Protein sequences from influenza A virus strains currently in circulation, agents of past pandemics and zoonotic infections of man were evaluated for sequences predicted to bind to alleles representative of the most frequent HLA-A and -B (class I) types worldwide. Peptides that bound several different HLA molecules and were conserved among diverse influenza subtypes were tested for their capacity to recall influenza-specific immune responses using human donor PBMC. Accordingly, 28 different epitopes antigenic for human donor PBMC were identified and 25 were 100% conserved in the newly emerged swine-origin H1N1 strain. The epitope set defined herein should provide a reagent applicable to quantitate CD8(+) T cell human responses irrespective of influenza subtype and HLA composition of the responding population. In addition, these epitopes may be suitable for vaccine applications directed at the induction of cellular immunity.
    Human immunology 02/2010; 71(5):468-74. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to design a vaccine that would provide universal protection against infection of humans with diverse influenza A viruses. Accordingly, protein sequences from influenza A virus strains currently in circulation (H1N1, H3N2), agents of past pandemics (H1N1, H2N2, H3N2) and zoonotic infections of man (H1N1, H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N2) were evaluated for the presence of amino acid sequences, motifs, that are predicted to mediate peptide epitope binding with high affinity to the most frequent HLA-DR allelic products. Peptides conserved among diverse influenza strains were then synthesized, evaluated for binding to purified HLA-DR molecules and for their capacity to induce influenza-specific immune recall responses using human donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Accordingly, 20 epitopes were selected for further investigation based on their conservancy among diverse influenza strains, predicted population coverage in diverse ethnic groups and capacity to recall influenza-specific responses. A DNA plasmid encoding the epitopes was constructed using amino acid spacers between epitopes to promote optimum processing and presentation. Immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine was measured using HLA-DR4 transgenic mice and the TriGrid in vivo electroporation device. Vaccination resulted in peptide-specific immune responses, augmented HA-specific antibody responses and protection of HLA-DR4 transgenic mice from lethal PR8 influenza virus challenge. These studies demonstrate the utility of this vaccine format and the contribution of CD4(+) T cell responses to protection against influenza infection.
    Vaccine 11/2009; 28(3):664-72. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A potential etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is autoimmunity. We determined whether T cells from men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome would recognize peptides derived from the normal self-prostatic proteins prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. CD4 T cells purified from peripheral blood of 31 patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and from the buffy coat preparation of 27 normal male blood donors were stimulated in vitro with a panel of immunogenic peptides from prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, and assayed for reactivity with the peptides by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Intermediate resolution HLA typing was done by polymerase chain reaction. Peptides were also tested by binding assay against different class II alleles. Peptide PAP(173-192) was recognized more frequently by CD4 T cells from patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome than from healthy donors. The recognition of prostate specific antigen peptides was not statistically different when comparing cases to normal male blood donors individually. Peptide reactivity was more common in patients than in normal male blood donors for any prostate specific antigen peptide or any tested peptide. All peptides showed high promiscuity on binding assays. There was no association of cases with any specific HLA class II phenotype at intermediate resolution. CD4 T cells from patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome have a higher rate of recognizing the self-prostatic proteins prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen compared to those from normal male blood donors. Data provide further evidence to support the role of autoimmunity in some men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
    The Journal of urology 09/2009; 182(5):2483-9. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein sequences from multiple hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates were analyzed for the presence of amino acid motifs characteristic of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes with the goal of identifying conserved epitopes suitable for use in a therapeutic vaccine. Specifically, sequences bearing HLA-A1, -A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, and -DR supertype binding motifs were identified, synthesized as peptides, and tested for binding to soluble HLA. The immunogenicity of peptides that bound with moderate to high affinity subsequently was assessed using HLA transgenic mice (CTL) and HLA cross-reacting H-2(bxd) (BALB/c x C57BL/6J) mice (HTL). Through this process, 30 CTL and 16 HTL epitopes were selected as a set that would be the most useful for vaccine design, based on epitope conservation among HBV sequences and HLA-based predicted population coverage in diverse ethnic groups. A plasmid DNA-based vaccine encoding the epitopes as a single gene product, with each epitope separated by spacer residues to enhance appropriate epitope processing, was designed. Immunogenicity testing in mice demonstrated the induction of multiple CTL and HTL responses. Furthermore, as a complementary approach, mass spectrometry allowed the identification of correctly processed and major histocompatibility complex-presented epitopes from human cells transfected with the DNA plasmid. A heterologous prime-boost immunization with the plasmid DNA and a recombinant MVA gave further enhancement of the immune responses. Thus, a multiepitope therapeutic vaccine candidate capable of stimulating those cellular immune responses thought to be essential for controlling and clearing HBV infection was successfully designed and evaluated in vitro and in HLA transgenic mice.
    Journal of Virology 02/2008; 82(1):435-50. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CD8(+) T-cell responses are central for the resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and viral escape from these CD8(+) T-cell responses has been suggested to play a major role in HCV persistence. However, the factors determining the emergence of CD8 escape mutations are not well understood. Here, the first identification of four HLA-A26-restricted CD8(+) T-cell epitopes is reported. Of note, two of these four epitopes are located in the NS3/4A and NS5A/5B cleavage sites. The latter epitope is targeted in all (three of three) patients with acute, resolving HCV infection and in a relatively high proportion (four of 14) of patients with chronic HCV infection. Importantly, the epitope corresponding to the NS5A/5B cleavage site is characterized by the complete absence of sequence variations, despite the presence of functional virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in our cohort. These results support previous findings that showed defined functional constraints within this region. They also suggest that the absence of viral escape may be determined by viral fitness cost and highlight an attractive target for immunotherapies.
    Journal of General Virology 08/2007; 88(Pt 7):1986-91. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2007; 46.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to broaden the possibility for anti-HER-2/neu (HER-2) immune targeting, it is important to identify HLA-A24 restricted peptide epitopes derived from HER-2, since HLA-A24 is one of the most common alleles in Japanese and Asian people. In the present study, we have screened HER-2-derived, HLA-A24 binding peptides for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. A panel of HER-2-derived peptides with HLA-A24 binding motifs and the corresponding analogs designed to enhance HLA-A24 binding affinity were selected. Identification of HER-2-reactive and HLA-A24 restricted CTL epitopes were performed by a reverse immunology approach. To induce HER-2-reactive and HLA-A24 restricted CTLs, PBMCs from healthy donors were repeatedly stimulated with monocytes-derived, mature DCs pulsed with HER-2 peptide. Subsequent peptide-induced T cells were tested for the specificity by enzyme linked immunospot, cytotoxicity and tetramer assays. CTL clones were then obtained from the CTL lines by limiting dilution. Of the peptides containing HLA-A24 binding motifs, 16 peptides (nine mers) including wild type peptides (IC50 <1,000 nM) and substituted analog peptides (IC50 <50 nM) were selected for the present study. Our studies show that an analog peptide, HER-2(905AA), derived from HER-2(905) could efficiently induce HER-2-reactive and HLA-A24 restricted CTLs. The reactivity of the HER-2(905AA)-induced CTL (CTL905AA) was confirmed by different CTL assays. The CTL905AA clones also were able to lyse HER-2(+), HLA-A24(+) tumor cells and cytotoxicity could be significantly reduced in cold target inhibition assays using cold targets pulsed with the HER-2(905) wild type peptide as well as the inducing HER-2(905AA) analog peptide. A newly identified HER-2(905) peptide epitope is naturally processed and presented as a CTL epitope on HER-2 overexpressing tumor cells, and an MHC anchor-substituted analog, HER-2(905AA), can efficiently induce HER-2-specific, HLA-A24 restricted CTLs.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2006; 55(11):1358-66. · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recovery from Lassa virus (LASV) infection usually precedes the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, indicating that cellular immunity plays a primary role in viral clearance. To date, the role of LASV-specific CD8(+) T cells has not been evaluated in humans. To facilitate such studies, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A2 supertype epitopes from the LASV nucleoprotein and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) genes. We identified three peptides (GPC(42-50), GLVGLVTFL; GPC(60-68), SLYKGVYEL; and GPC(441-449), YLISIFLHL) that displayed high-affinity binding (< or =98 nM) to HLA-A*0201, induced CD8(+) T-cell responses of high functional avidity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, and were naturally processed from native LASV GPC in human HLA-A*0201-positive target cells. HLA-A*0201 mice immunized with either GPC(42-50) or GPC(60-68) were protected against challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus that expressed LASV GPC. The epitopes identified in this study represent potential diagnostic reagents and candidates for inclusion in epitope-based vaccine constructs. Our approach is applicable to any pathogen with existing sequence data, does not require manipulation of the actual pathogen or access to immune human donors, and should therefore be generally applicable to category A through C agents and other emerging pathogens.
    Journal of Virology 09/2006; 80(17):8351-61. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: T cells recognize a complex between a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule and a particular pathogen-derived epitope. A given epitope will elicit a response only in individuals that express an MHC molecule capable of binding that particular epitope. MHC molecules are extremely polymorphic and over a thousand different human MHC (HLA) alleles are known. A disproportionate amount of MHC polymorphism occurs in positions constituting the peptide-binding region, and as a result, MHC molecules exhibit a widely varying binding specificity. In the design of peptide-based vaccines and diagnostics, the issue of population coverage in relation to MHC polymorphism is further complicated by the fact that different HLA types are expressed at dramatically different frequencies in different ethnicities. Thus, without careful consideration, a vaccine or diagnostic with ethnically biased population coverage could result. To address this issue, an algorithm was developed to calculate, on the basis of HLA genotypic frequencies, the fraction of individuals expected to respond to a given epitope set, diagnostic or vaccine. The population coverage estimates are based on MHC binding and/or T cell restriction data, although the tool can be utilized in a more general fashion. The algorithm was implemented as a web-application available at http://epitope.liai.org:8080/tools/population. We have developed a web-based tool to predict population coverage of T-cell epitope-based diagnostics and vaccines based on MHC binding and/or T cell restriction data. Accordingly, epitope-based vaccines or diagnostics can be designed to maximize population coverage, while minimizing complexity (that is, the number of different epitopes included in the diagnostic or vaccine), and also minimizing the variability of coverage obtained or projected in different ethnic groups.
    BMC Bioinformatics 02/2006; 7:153. · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the mechanisms that influence the immunogenicity and immunodominance of potential cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, we conducted a systematic analysis of the CTL response raised in HLA-A*0201/Kb (A2/Kb) transgenic mice against the viral antigen, hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV pol). From a pool of 26 nonamer peptides containing the HLA-A*0201-binding motif, we selected A2-binding peptides, immunized A2/Kb animals, and tested the CTL raised against the peptide for recognition of HBV pol transfectants. Of nine immunogenic CTL epitopes, only four were recognized on HBV pol transfectants, whereas the other five were cryptic. Characterization of the peptide-specific CTL lines indicated that crypticity may result from either poor processing or low T cell receptor (TCR) avidity. To identify the immunodominant epitopes, we determined the CTL specificities induced in A2/Kb animals in response to priming with HBV pol cDNA. We obtained a response against three epitopes that were contained with the set of four epitopes recognized by peptide-specific CTL on HBV pol transfectants. Comparative analysis of cDNA priming and peptide priming revealed, therefore, the presence of a subdominant epitope. We conclude that for the HBV pol antigen, the repertoire of CTL specificities is shaped by major histocompatibility complex class I peptide binding capacity, antigen processing, and TCR availability.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/2005; 27(3):671 - 678. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In virus models explored in detail in mice, CTL typically focus on a few immunodominant determinants. In this study we use a multipronged approach to understand the diversity of CTL responses to vaccinia virus, a prototypic poxvirus with a genome approximately 20-fold larger than that of the model RNA viruses typically studied in mice. Based on predictive computational algorithms for peptide binding to HLA supertypes, we synthesized a panel of 2889 peptides to begin to create an immunomic map of human CTL responses to poxviruses. Using this panel in conjunction with CTLs from vaccinia virus-infected HLA transgenic mice, we identified 14 HLA-A*0201-, 4 HLA-A*1101-, and 3 HLA-B*0702-restricted CD8(+) T cell determinants distributed over 20 distinct proteins. These peptides were capable of binding one or multiple A2, A3, and B7 supertype molecules with affinities typical of viral determinants. Surprisingly, many of the viral proteins recognized are predicted to be late gene products, in addition to the early intermediate gene products expected. Nearly all of the determinants identified have identical counterparts encoded by modified vaccinia virus Ankara as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. These findings have implications for the design of new smallpox vaccines and the understanding of immune responses to large DNA viruses in general.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2005; 175(8):5504-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
702.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      • Division of Vaccine Discovery
      La Jolla, CA, United States
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1999–2010
    • California College San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine
      La Jolla, CA, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • Naval Medical Research Center
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
    • University of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Dermatology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1995
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Immunhematology and Blood Transfusion
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States