[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We discovered a novel iflavirus from the transcriptome of the Bombyx mori pupa inoculated with the insect-pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris. The assembled iflavirus genome has 10,119 nucleotides, with a 3′-polyadenylated tail, and it encodes a polyprotein composed
of 3,004 amino acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Fairy chemicals", 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), are two novel plant-growth regulating compounds isolated from a fairy ring forming fungus Lepista sordida. In the present study, the effects of AHX and AOH on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in vitro. The results showed that AHX and AOH regulated carotenoid metabolism in the citrus juice sacs. Carotenoid accumulation was induced by AHX in the second week and by AOH in the fourth week, respectively. In the meanwhile, the modification of carotenoid accumulation by the AHX and AOH treatments was highly regulated at the transcriptional level. The results presented herein provide new information on the functions of AHX and AOH in plants, and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms by which AHX and AOH stimulate plant growth.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2015; 63(32). DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02455 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel compounds 1 and 2, along with two known ones (3 and 4) were isolated from the edible mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii. The structures of 1-4 were determined and identified by interpreting their spectroscopic data. All the compounds showed protective activity against endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HML (Hypsizigus marmoreus lectin) was isolated from the mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus using CM cation exchange, bovine submaxillary gland mucin affinity column and TSK-GEL G3000SW gel filtration chromatography. The results of SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and gel filtration analysis of HML indicated that the lectin was a dimer with each subunit of 9.5 kDa. The partial amino acid sequences of HML were determined by N-terminal sequencing of peptides obtained by trypsin or Glu-C endopeptidase digest of the lectin. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, HML did not bind to any mono- or oligo-saccharides tested. Among the glycoproteins examined, asialo-fetuin was the strongest inhibitor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) on rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) growth, we carried out pot and field experiments. AHX was applied at 50 μM for two weeks at four growth stages (transplanting, tillering, panicle formation and ripening stages) in the pot experiment, and 1 mM AHX at three stages [at rising of seedling in nursery boxes (seedling treatment), transplanting and panicle formation stages] in the field experiment. Both pot and field experiments showed a tendency toward increased panicle number (PN), culm length (CL) and plant dry weights with AHX treatments. Brown rice yields were also improved by AHX treatments, especially when applying at stages of tillering and panicle formation and seedling and transplanting during pot and field experiments, respectively. In the latter, yield increased drastically up to 18.7, 15.8, 9.6 and 5.8% of control. However, panicle length and 1000-grain weight were not affected by AHX application. These results suggested that AHX increased the brown rice yield through its effects on PN and/or CL.
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 01/2015; 49(1):45-49. DOI:10.6090/jarq.49.45 · 0.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the key risk factors for coronary heart disease, a major cause of death in developed countries. Suppression of NPC1L1-mediated dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption is predicted to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia. In a screen for natural products that inhibit ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, we found a novel compound, fomiroid A, in extracts of the mushroom Fomitopsis nigra. Fomiroid A is a lanosterone derivative with molecular formula C30H48O3. Fomiroid A inhibited ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, and dose-dependently prevented NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake and formation of esterified cholesterol in NPC1L1-expressing Caco2 cells. Fomiroid A exhibited a pharmacological chaperone activity that corrected trafficking defects of the L1072T/L1168I mutant of NPC1L1. Because ezetimibe does not have such an activity, the binding site and mode of action of fomiroid A are likely to be distinct from those of ezetimibe.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e116162. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116162 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three novel compounds, erinaceolactones A to C (1-3), and a known compound (4) were isolated from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus. The planar structures of 1-3 were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 3 was determined by X-ray crystallography. Although compound 4 had been synthesized, it was isolated from a natural source for the first time. In the bioassay examining plant-growth regulatory activity of these compounds (1-4) and other components of the fungus (5-8), compounds 1, 2, and 4-8 suppressed the growth of lettuce.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new compounds, 10-dehydroxymelleolide D (1) and 13-hydroxymelleolide K (2), along with seven known compounds, 5'-O-methylmelledonal (3), melleolide D (4), 13-hydroxydihydromelleolide (5), melleolide (6), armillarinin (7), armillaridin (8), and armillarikin (9), were isolated from the culture broth of Armillaria sp. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis. All the compounds inhibited plant growth of lettuce. Melleolide (6) and armillarikin (9) inhibited mycelial growth of Coprinopsis cinerea and/or Flammulina velutipes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four novel compounds, makomotines A to D (1-4), along with two known ones (5, 6) were isolated from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta. The structures were determined or identified by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 suppressed the formation of osteoclast without toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The angel's wing oyster mushroom (Pleurocybella porrigens, Sugihiratake) is a well-known delicacy. However, its potential risk in acute encephalopathy was recently revealed by a food poisoning incident. To disclose the genes underlying the accident and provide mechanistic insight, we seek to develop an information infrastructure containing omics data. In our previous work, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome using next-generation sequencing techniques. The next step in achieving our goal is to develop a web database to facilitate the efficient mining of large-scale omics data and identification of genes specifically expressed in the mushroom.
This paper introduces a web database A-WINGS (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/a-wings/) that provides integrated genomic and transcriptomic information for the angel's wing oyster mushroom. The database contains structure and functional annotations of transcripts and gene expressions. Functional annotations contain information on homologous sequences from NCBI nr and UniProt, Gene Ontology, and KEGG Orthology. Digital gene expression profiles were derived from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in the fruiting bodies and mycelia. The omics information stored in the database is freely accessible through interactive and graphical interfaces by search functions that include 'GO TREE VIEW' browsing, keyword searches, and BLAST searches.
The A-WINGS database will accelerate omics studies on specific aspects of the angel's wing oyster mushroom and the family Tricholomataceae.
BMC Research Notes 12/2014; 7(1):866. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-866
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on IgA and mucin secretion in the rat cecum after different ingestion periods. Rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing FOS for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk. FOS ingestion greatly increased IgA and mucin concentrations at 1 and 2 wk, but the effects were disappeared or attenuated at 4 and 8 wk. After 1 wk, FOS induced higher lactobacilli and lactate concentrations and lower cecal pH in the cecum, but the alterations were moderated with the prolonged ingestion accompanying with increasing short-chain fatty acid concentrations. At 1 and 2 wk, FOS increased IgA plasma cells and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor expression in the cecal mucosa and strongly depressed fecal mucinase activities related to the lower cecal pH. These findings may explain the FOS-induced early elevation of IgA and mucin. Clearly, FOS effects on IgA and mucin secretion considerably differ depending on the ingestion period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungi are members of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that include yeasts and molds, as well as the most familiar member, mushrooms. Fungal lectins with unique specificity and structures have been discovered. In general, fungal lectins are classified into specific families based on their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the approximately 80 types of mushroom and fungal lectins that have been isolated and studied to date. In particular, we have focused on ten fungal lectins (Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe cylindracea, Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Clitocybe nebularis, Marasmius oreades, Psathyrella velutina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Pholiota squarrosa, Polyporus squamosus), many of which are commercially available and their properties, sugar-binding specificities, structural grouping into families, and applications for biological research being described. The sialic acid-specific lectins (Agrocybe cylindracea and Polyporus squamosus) and fucose-specific lectins (Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Pholiota squarrosa) each showed potential for use in identifying sialic acid glycoconjugates and fucose glycoconjugates. Although not much is currently known about fungal lectins compared to animal and plant lectins, the knowledge accumulated thus far shows great promise for several applications in the fields of taxonomy, biomedicine, and molecular and cellular biology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glyoxal oxidase (GLOX) is a source of the extracellular H2O2 required for the oxidation reactions catalyzed by the ligninolytic peroxidases. In the present study, the GLOX-encoding gene (glx) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was cloned, and bee2 promoter of P. sordida YK-624 was used to drive the expression of glx. The expression plasmid was transformed into a P. sordida YK-624 uracil auxotrophic mutant (strain UV-64), and 16 clones were obtained as GLOX-introducing transformants. These transformants showed higher GLOX activities than wild-type P. sordida YK-624 and control transformants harboring marker plasmid. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased GLOX activity was associated with elevated recombinant glx expression. Moreover, these transformants showed higher ligninolytic activity than control transformants. These results suggest that the ligninolytic properties of white-rot fungi can be improved by recombinant expression of glx.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel compounds, 1 and 7, along with six known compounds (2-6 and 8), were isolated from the edible mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii (bunaharitake in Japanese). The structures of the new compounds were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 6-8 showed protective activity against endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two-year field examinations to see effects of the principle components of a fungus causing “fairy rings” phenomena on lawns, 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and imidazole-4-carboxamide (ICA), on wheat were performed. The treatment of AHX or ICA was performed, in the early (seedling treatment, seed soaking treatment) and late (field treatment) developmental stages, and the resulting number of ears and grain weight per plant increased. AHX treatment increased the number of ears before tillering and ICA treatment increased the number after tillering. The high temperature during tillering stage in 2011 was a stress condition for wheat production in fields. The results indicated that AHX and ICA increased number of tillers and then number of ears, resulting in the increase of the grain yield even though under high-temperature stress.
Field Crops Research 06/2014; 162:6–11. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2014.03.008 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel compound (1) and a known one (2) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Tricholoma flavovirens. Their structures were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. Both compounds showed inhibition effects on the growth of hypocotyl of lettuce with significant differences. In addition, compound 1 showed a promotion effect on the growth of root with significant differences and 2 had the similar tendency to promote the growth.
Acess at: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/fJ9YhsZ6bWchhwPDiSgi/full
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 05/2014; DOI:10.1080/09168451.2014.905174 · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a practical, large-scale synthesis of the "fairy-ring" plant-growth regulator 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX), and its biologically active hydroxyl metabolite (AOH) and riboside derivative (AHXr). AHXr, a biosynthetic intermediate, was synthesized from inosine via a biomimetic route. Biotinylated derivatives of AHX and AHXr were also synthesized as probes for mechanistic studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pleurocybella porrigens is a mushroom-forming fungus, which had been consumed as a traditional food in Japan. However, in 2004, 55 people got poisoned by eating the mushroom and 17 people among them died of acute encephalopathy. We have already reported the purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a lectin from the mushroom (PPL) which might have caused the poisoning. Here, we report the heterologous expression of recombinant PPL by basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter was used to drive the expression of the PPL gene (ppl) in P. sordida YK-624. Furthermore, the signal peptide of lignin peroxidase which is an extracellular protein was used to secrete rPPL into extracellular region. Seven regenerated clones were cultured on kirk HNHC broth, and the presence of lectin activity in the culture broth was checked by agglutination assays. The results indicated that the culture broth of rPPL-6 clone showed the strongest hemagglutination activity, and it was therefore used for subsequent analysis. The heterologous expression of rPPL by P. sordida YK-624 was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, lectin activity by the hemagglutination assay, and mass of rPPL by MALDI-TOF respectively, indicating that the extracellular secretion of rPPL as active form was successful.