[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate chromosome segregation relies upon a mitotic checkpoint that monitors kinetochore attachment toward opposite spindle poles before enabling chromosome disjunction . The MPS1/TTK protein kinase is a core component of the mitotic checkpoint that lies upstream of MAD2 and BubR1 both at the kinetochore and in the cytoplasm [2, 3]. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of MPS1 kinase, we undertook the identification of Xenopus MPS1 phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry. We mapped several phosphorylation sites onto MPS1 and we show that phosphorylation of S283 in the noncatalytic region of MPS1 is required for full kinase activity. This phosphorylation potentiates MPS1 catalytic efficiency without impairing its affinity for the substrates. By using Xenopus egg extracts depleted of endogenous MPS1 and reconstituted with single point mutants, we show that phosphorylation of S283 is essential to activate the mitotic checkpoint. This phosphorylation does not regulate the localization of MPS1 to the kinetochore but is required for the recruitment of MAD1/MAD2, demonstrating its role at the kinetochore. Constitutive phosphorylation of S283 lowers the number of kinetochores required to hold the checkpoint, which suggests that CDK-dependent phosphorylation of MPS1 is essential to sustain the mitotic checkpoint when few kinetochores remain unattached.
Current biology: CB 02/2012; 22(4):289-95. · 10.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent screen for compounds that selectively targeted pancreatic cancer cells isolated UA62784. We found that UA62784 inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro. UA62784 interacts with tubulin dimers ten times more potently than colchicine, vinblastine, or nocodazole. Competition experiments revealed that UA62784 interacts with tubulin at or near the colchicine-binding site. Nanomolar doses of UA62784 promote the accumulation of mammalian cells in mitosis, due to aberrant mitotic spindles, as shown by immunofluorescence and live cell imaging. Treatment of cancerous cell lines with UA62784 is lethal, following activation of apoptosis signaling. By monitoring mitotic spindle perturbations and apoptosis, we found that the effects of UA62784 and of some known microtubule-depolymerizing drugs are additive. Finally, high content screening of H2B-GFP HeLa cells revealed that low doses of UA62784 and vinblastine potentiate each other to inhibit proliferation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During mitosis, chromosome alignment depends on the regulated dynamics of microtubules and on motor protein activities. At the kinetochore, the interplay between microtubule-binding proteins, motors, and kinases is poorly understood. Cenp-E is a kinetochore-associated kinesin involved in chromosome congression, but the mechanism by which this is achieved is unclear. Here, we present a study of the regulation of Cenp-E motility by using purified full-length (FL) Xenopus Cenp-E protein, which demonstrates that FL Cenp-E is a genuine plus-end-directed motor. Furthermore, we find that the Cenp-E tail completely blocks the motility of Cenp-E in vitro. This is achieved through direct interaction between its motor and tail domains. Finally, we show that Cenp-E autoinhibition is reversed by MPS1- or CDK1-cyclin B-mediated phosphorylation of the Cenp-E tail. This suggests a model of dynamic control of Cenp-E motility, and hence chromosome congression, dependent upon phosphorylation at the kinetochore.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas early cytokinesis events have been relatively well studied, little is known about its final stage, abscission. The Cdc14 phosphatase is involved in the regulation of multiple cell cycle events, and in all systems studied Cdc14 misexpression leads to cytokinesis defects. In this work, we have cloned two CDC14 cDNA from Xenopus, including a previously unreported CDC14B homologue. We use Xenopus and human cell lines and demonstrate that localization of Cdc14 proteins is independent of both cell-type and species specificity. Ectopically expressed XCdc14A is centrosomal in interphase and localizes to the midbody in cytokinesis. By using XCdc14A misregulation, we confirm its control over different cell cycle events and unravel new functions during abscission. XCdc14A regulates the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We show that Cdc25 is an in vitro substrate for XCdc14A and might be its target at the G2/M transition. Upregulated wild-type or phosphatase-dead XCdc14A arrest cells in a late stage of cytokinesis, connected by thin cytoplasmic bridges. It does not interfere with central spindle formation, nor with the relocalization of passenger protein and centralspindlin complexes to the midbody. We demonstrate that XCdc14A upregulation prevents targeting of exocyst and SNARE complexes to the midbody, both essential for abscission to occur.
Experimental Cell Research 05/2007; 313(6):1225-39. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a unique human microtubule-associated protein (MAP) named ASAP for ASter-Associated Protein. ASAP localizes to microtubules in interphase, associates with the mitotic spindle during mitosis, localizes to the central body during cytokinesis and directly binds to purified microtubules by its COOH-terminal domain. Overexpression of ASAP induces profound bundling of cytoplasmic microtubules in interphase cells and aberrant monopolar spindles in mitosis. Depletion of ASAP by RNA interference results in severe mitotic defects: it provokes aberrant mitotic spindle, delays mitotic progression, and leads to defective cytokinesis or cell death. These results suggest a crucial role for ASAP in the organization of the bipolar mitotic spindle, mitosis progression, and cytokinesis and define ASAP as a key factor for proper spindle assembly.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2005; 102(32):11302-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitotic checkpoint prevents advance to anaphase prior to successful attachment of every centromere/kinetochore to mitotic spindle microtubules. Using purified components and Xenopus egg extracts, the kinetochore-associated microtubule motor CENP-E is now shown to be the activator of the essential checkpoint kinase BubR1. Since kinase activity and the checkpoint are silenced following CENP-E-dependent microtubule attachment in extracts or binding of CENP-E antibodies that do not disrupt CENP-E association with BubR1, CENP-E mediates silencing of BubR1 signaling. Checkpoint signaling requires the normal level of BubR1 containing a functional Mad3 domain implicated in Cdc20 binding, but only a small fraction need be kinase competent. This supports bifunctional roles for BubR1 in the checkpoint: an enzymatic one requiring CENP-E-dependent activation of its kinase activity at kinetochores and a stoichiometric one as a direct inhibitor of Cdc20.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down-regulation of MAP kinase (MAPK) is a universal consequence of fertilization in the animal kingdom, although its role is not known. Here we show that MAPK inactivation is essential for embryos, both vertebrate and invertebrate, to enter first mitosis. Suppressing down-regulation of MAPK at fertilization, for example by constitutively activating the upstream MAPK cascade, specifically suppresses cyclin B-cdc2 kinase activation and its consequence, entry into first mitosis. It thus appears that MAPK functions in meiotic maturation by preventing unfertilized eggs from proceeding into parthenogenetic development. The most general effect of artificially maintaining MAPK activity after fertilization is prevention of the G2 to M-phase transition in the first mitotic cell cycle, even though inappropriate reactivation of MAPK after fertilization may lead to metaphase arrest in vertebrates. Advancing the time of MAPK inactivation in fertilized eggs does not, however, speed up their entry into first mitosis. Thus, sustained activity of MAPK during part of the first mitotic cell cycle is not responsible for late entry of fertilized eggs into first mitosis.