H D Chapman

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States

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Publications (39)249.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autoreactive B cells are essential for the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. The genesis and dynamics of autoreactive B cells remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the immune response in the NOD mouse model to the neuronal protein peripherin (PRPH), a target Ag of islet-infiltrating B cells. PRPH autoreactive B cells recognized a single linear epitope of this protein, in contrast to the multiple epitope recognition commonly observed during autoreactive B cell responses. Autoantibodies to this epitope were also detected in the disease-resistant NOR and C57BL/6 strains. To specifically detect the accumulation of these B cells, we developed a novel approach, octameric peptide display, to follow the dynamics and localization of anti-PRPH B cells during disease progression. Before extended insulitis was established, anti-PRPH B cells preferentially accumulated in the peritoneum. Anti-PRPH B cells were likewise detected in C57BL/6 mice, albeit at lower frequencies. As disease unfolded in NOD mice, anti-PRPH B cells invaded the islets and increased in number at the peritoneum of diabetic but not prediabetic mice. Isotype-switched B cells were only detected in the peritoneum. Anti-PRPH B cells represent a heterogeneous population composed of both B1 and B2 subsets. In the spleen, anti-PRPH B cell were predominantly in the follicular subset. Therefore, anti-PRPH B cells represent a heterogeneous population that is generated early in life but proliferates as diabetes is established. These findings on the temporal and spatial progression of autoreactive B cells should be relevant for our understanding of B cell function in diabetes pathogenesis.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two NOR-origin T1D resistance genes within this region. A 6.22-Mb region between rs13477999 and D4Mit32, not previously known to contain a locus affecting T1D susceptibility and now designated Idd25, was found to contain the main NOR gene(s) dampening diabetogenic B cell activity, with Ephb2 and/or Padi2 being strong candidates as the causal variants. Penetrance of this Idd25 effect was influenced by genes in surrounding regions controlling B cell responsiveness and anergy induction. Conversely, the gene(s) controlling pathogenic CD4 T cell activity was mapped to a more proximal 24.26-Mb region between the rs3674285 and D4Mit203 markers.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2012; 189(3):1406-17. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and some brain regions. The presynaptic glycine transporter, GlyT2, is required for sustained glycinergic transmission through presynaptic reuptake and recycling of glycine. Mutations in SLC6A5, encoding GlyT2, cause hereditary hyperekplexia in humans, and similar phenotypes in knock-out mice, and variants are associated with schizophrenia. We identified a spontaneous mutation in mouse Slc6a5, caused by a MusD retrotransposon insertion. The GlyT2 protein is undetectable in homozygous mutants, indicating a null allele. Homozygous mutant mice are normal at birth, but develop handling-induced spasms at five days of age, and only survive for two weeks, but allow the study of early activity-regulated developmental processes. At the neuromuscular junction, synapse elimination and the switch from embryonic to adult acetylcholine receptor subunits are hastened, consistent with a presumed increase in motor neuron activity, and transcription of acetylcholine receptors is elevated. Heterozygous mice, which show no reduction in lifespan but nonetheless have reduced levels of GlyT2, have a normal thermal sensitivity with the hot-plate test, but differences in repetitive grooming and decreased sleep time with home-cage monitoring. Open-field and elevated plus-maze tests did not detect anxiety-like behaviors; however, the latter showed a hyperactivity phenotype. Importantly, grooming and hyperactivity are observed in mouse schizophrenia models. Thus, mutations in Slc6a5 show changes in neuromuscular junction development as homozygotes, and behavioral phenotypes as heterozygotes, indicating their usefulness for studies related to glycinergic dysfunction.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30217. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consistent with studies in NOD mice, early clinical trials addressing whether depletion of B cells by the Rituximab CD20-specific antibody provides an effective means for type 1 diabetes reversal have produced promising results. However, to improve therapeutic efficacy, additional B-cell-depleting agents, as well as attempts seeking diabetes prevention, are being considered. Autoantibodies, including those against insulin (IAAs), are used to identify at-risk subjects for inclusion in diabetes prevention trials. Therefore, we tested the ability of anti-CD20 to prevent diabetes in NOD mice when administered either before or after IAA onset. The murine CD20-specific 18B12 antibody that like Rituximab, depletes the follicular (FO) but not marginal zone subset of B cells, efficiently inhibited diabetes development in NOD mice in a likely regulatory T-cell-dependent manner only when treatment was initiated before IAA detection. One implication of these results is that the FO subset of B cells preferentially contributes to early diabetes initiation events. However, most important, the inefficient ability of anti-CD20 treatment to exert late-stage diabetes prevention was found to be attributable to downregulation of CD20 expression upon B cell entry into pancreatic islets. These findings provide important guidance for designing strategies targeting B cells as a potential means of diabetes intervention.
    Diabetes 09/2011; 60(11):2914-21. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder that results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. To date, autoimmune T-cell response and antibody reactivity to more than 20 autoantigens have been linked to this disease. Some studies have described the intermediate filament protein peripherin (PRPH) as an autoantigen associated with T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We evaluated immune reactivity of mouse and rabbit sera and human plasma to a 58 kDa protein expressed in RIN-m5F rat insulinoma cells. The protein was isolated using 2-DE and identified by mass spectrometry as PRPH. Antibodies from healthy humans and T1D patients, CD-1 mice, C57BL/6 mice, NOR (non-obese diabetes resistant) mice, and NOD mice reacted with PRPH on Western blots. However, antibody response to PRPH was stronger in NOD than non-autoimmune prone C57BL/6 mice. We conclude that immune reactivity to PRPH is not exclusively associated with NOD mice or human patients with T1D. Furthermore, the frequent occurrence of PRPH-reactive antibodies in mouse and human blood suggests that binding may be non-specific or could reflect the presence of natural autoantibodies against PRPH. These findings point to the need for a re-evaluation of PRPH as a T1D autoantigen in NOD mice and raise the question of the physiological relevance of such widespread immune reactivity against this peripheral nervous system protein.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2010; 9(3):1203-8. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the H2(g7) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provides the primary pathogenic component, the development of T-cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes in NOD mice also requires contributions from other susceptibility (Idd) genes. Despite sharing the H2(g7) MHC, the closely NOD-related NOR strain remains type 1 diabetes resistant because of contributions of protective Idd5.2, Idd9/11, and Idd13 region alleles. To aid their eventual identification, we evaluated cell types in which non-MHC Idd resistance genes in NOR mice exert disease-protective effects. Adoptive transfer and bone marrow chimerism approaches tested the diabetogenic activity of CD4 and CD8 T-cells from NOR mice and NOD stocks congenic for NOR-derived Idd resistance loci. Tetramer staining and mimotope stimulation tested the frequency and proliferative capacity of CD4 BDC2.5-like cells. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) were identified by Foxp3 staining and functionally assessed by in vitro suppression assays. NOR CD4 T-cells were less diabetogenic than those from NOD mice. The failure of NOR CD4 T-cells to induce type 1 diabetes was not due to decreased proliferative capacity of BDC2.5 clonotypic-like cells. The frequency and function of Tregs in NOD and NOR mice were also equivalent. However, bone marrow chimerism experiments demonstrated that intrinsic factors inhibited the pathogenic activity of NOR CD4 T-cells. The NOR Idd9/11 resistance region on chromosome 4 was found to diminish the diabetogenic activity of CD4 but not CD8 T-cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a gene(s) within the Idd9/11 region regulates the diabetogenic activity of CD4 T-cells.
    Diabetes 10/2008; 57(12):3273-80. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When expressed in NOD, but not C57BL/6 (B6) genetic background mice, the common class I variants encoded by the H2g7 MHC haplotype aberrantly lose the ability to mediate the thymic deletion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells contributing to type 1 diabetes (T1D). This indicated some subset of the T1D susceptibility (Idd) genes located outside the MHC of NOD mice interactively impair the negative selection of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells. In this study, using both linkage and congenic strain analyses, we demonstrate contributions from a polymorphic gene(s) in the previously described Idd7 locus on the proximal portion of Chromosome 7 predominantly, but not exclusively, determines the extent to which H2g7 class I molecules can mediate the thymic deletion of diabetogenic CD8+ T cells as illustrated using the AI4 TCR transgenic system. The polymorphic Idd7 region gene(s) appears to control events that respectively result in high vs low expression of the AI4 clonotypic TCR alpha-chain on developing thymocytes in B6.H2g7 and NOD background mice. This expression difference likely lowers levels of the clonotypic AI4 TCR in NOD, but not B6.H2g7 thymocytes, below the threshold presumably necessary to induce a signaling response sufficient to trigger negative selection upon Ag engagement. These findings provide further insight to how susceptibility genes, both within and outside the MHC, may interact to elicit autoreactive T cell responses mediating T1D development in both NOD mice and human patients.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2008; 180(5):3250-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The H2(g7) (K(d), A(g7), E(null), and D(b)) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the primary genetic contributor to type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. NOD stocks congenically expressing other MHC haplotypes such as H2(nb1) (K(b), A(nb1), E(k), and D(b)) in a heterozygous state are type 1 diabetes resistant. Hematopoietically derived antigen-presenting cells (APCs) expressing H2(nb1) MHC molecules delete or inactivate autoreactive diabetogenic T-cells. Thus, provided a relatively benign preconditioning protocol is ultimately developed, hematopoietic chimerization by APCs expressing dominantly protective MHC molecules could conceivably provide a means for type 1 diabetes prevention in humans. Before hematopoietic chimerization can be considered for type 1 diabetes prevention, it must be determined what subtype(s) of APCs (B-cells, macrophages, and/or dendritic cells) expressing protective MHC molecules most efficiently inhibit disease, as well as the engraftment level they must achieve to accomplish this. These issues were addressed through analyses of NOD background bone marrow chimeras in which H2(nb1) molecules were selectively expressed on variable proportions of different APC subtypes. While a modest B-cell effect was observed, the strongest type 1 diabetes protection resulted from at least 50% of dendritic cells and macrophages expressing H2(nb1) molecules. At this engraftment level, H2(nb1)-expressing dendritic cells and macrophages mediated virtually complete deletion of a highly pathogenic CD8 T-cell population.
    Diabetes 03/2007; 56(2):424-30. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoreactive T cells clearly mediate the pancreatic beta cell destruction causing type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, studies in NOD mice indicate that B cells also contribute to pathogenesis because their ablation by introduction of an Igmunull mutation elicits T1D resistance. T1D susceptibility is restored in NOD.Igmunull mice that are irradiated and reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow plus NOD B cells, but not syngeneic bone marrow alone. Thus, we hypothesized some non-MHC T1D susceptibility (Idd) genes contribute to disease by allowing development of pathogenic B cells. Supporting this hypothesis was the finding that unlike those from NOD donors, engraftment with B cells from H2g7 MHC-matched, but T1D-resistant, nonobese-resistant (NOR) mice failed to restore full disease susceptibility in NOD.Igmunull recipients. T1D resistance in NOR mice is mainly encoded within the Idd13, Idd5.2, and Idd9/11 loci. B cells from NOD congenic stocks containing Idd9/11 or Idd5.1/5.2-resistance loci, respectively, derived from the NOR or C57BL/10 strains were characterized by suppressed diabetogenic activity. Immature autoreactive B cells in NOD mice have an impaired ability to be rendered anergic upon Ag engagement. Interestingly, both Idd5.1/5.2 and Idd9/11-resistance loci were found to normalize this B cell tolerogenic process, which may represent a mechanism contributing to the inhibition of T1D.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2006; 177(10):7033-41. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In both humans and NOD mice, particular combinations of MHC genes provide the primary risk factor for development of the autoreactive T cell responses causing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Conversely, other MHC variants can confer dominant T1D resistance, and previous studies in NOD mice have shown their expression on hemopoietically derived APC is sufficient to induce disease protection. Although allogeneic hemopoietic chimerization can clearly provide a means for blocking T1D development, its clinical use for this purpose has been obviated by a requirement to precondition the host with what would be a lethal irradiation dose if bone marrow engraftment is not successful. There have been reports in which T1D-protective allogeneic hemopoietic chimerization was established in NOD mice that were preconditioned by protocols not including a lethal dose of irradiation. In most of these studies, virtually all the hemopoietic cells in the NOD recipients eventually converted to donor type. We now report that a concern about such full allogeneic chimeras is that they are severely immunocompromised potentially because their T cells are positively selected in the thymus by MHC molecules differing from those expressed by the APC available in the periphery to activate T cell effector functions. However, this undesirable side effect of generalized immunosuppression is obviated by a new protocol that establishes without a lethal preconditioning component, a stable state of mixed allogeneic hemopoietic chimerism sufficient to inhibit T1D development and also induce donor-specific tolerance in NOD recipients.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2006; 177(10):6675-84. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell-mediated autoimmune type-1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice partly results from this strain's numerical and functional defects in invariant NK T (iNKT) cells. T1D is inhibited in NOD mice treated with the iNKT cell superagonist alpha-galactosylceramide through a process involving enhanced accumulation of immunotolerogenic dendritic cells in pancreatic lymph nodes. Conversely, T1D is accelerated in NOD mice lacking CD38 molecules that play a role in dendritic cell migration to inflamed tissues. Unlike in standard NOD mice, alpha-galactosylceramide pretreatment did not protect the CD38-deficient stock from T1D induced by an adoptively transferred pancreatic beta cell-autoreactive CD8 T cell clone (AI4). We found that in the absence of CD38, ADP-ribosyltransferase 2 preferentially activates apoptotic deletion of peripheral iNKT cells, especially the CD4+ subset. Therefore, this study documents a previously unrecognized role for CD38 in maintaining survival of an iNKT cell subset that preferentially contributes to the maintenance of immunological tolerance.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 177(5):2939-47. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NKT cell activation by alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) inhibits autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, in part by inducing recruitment to pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) of mature dendritic cells (DCs) with disease-protective effects. However, how activated NKT cells promote DC maturation, and what downstream effect this has on diabetogenic T cells was unknown. Activated NKT cells were found to produce a soluble factor(s) inducing DC maturation. Initially, there was a preferential accumulation of mature DCs in the PLNs of alpha-GalCer-treated NOD mice, followed by a substantial increase in T cells. Adoptive transfer of a diabetogenic CD8 T cell population (AI4) induced a high rate of disease (75%) in PBS-treated NOD recipients, but not in those pretreated with alpha-GalCer (8%). Significantly, more AI4 T cells accumulated in PLNs of alpha-GalCer than PBS-treated recipients, while no differences were found in mesenteric lymph nodes from each group. Compared with those in mesenteric lymph nodes, AI4 T cells entering PLNs underwent greater levels of apoptosis, and the survivors became functionally anergic. NKT cell activation enhanced this process. Hence, activated NKT cells elicit diabetes protection in NOD mice by producing a soluble factor(s) that induces DC maturation and accumulation in PLNs, where they subsequently recruit and tolerize pathogenic T cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2005; 174(3):1196-204. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For unknown reasons, the common MHC class I variants encoded by the H2g7 haplotype (Kd, Db) aberrantly elicit autoreactive CD8 T cell responses essential to type 1 diabetes development when expressed in NOD mice, but not other strains. In this study, we show that interactive non-MHC genes allow a NOD-derived diabetogenic CD8 T cell clonotype (AI4) to be negatively selected at far greater efficiency in C57BL/6 mice congenically expressing H2g7 (B6.H2g7). However, the few AI4 T cells escaping negative selection in B6.H2g7 mice are exported from the thymus more efficiently, and are more functionally aggressive than those of NOD origin. This provides mechanistic insight to previous findings that resistant mouse strains carry some genes conferring greater diabetes susceptibility than the corresponding NOD allele. In the B6.H2g7 stock, non-MHC gene-controlled elevations in TCR expression are associated with both enhanced negative selection of diabetogenic CD8 T cells and increased aggressiveness of those escaping this process. An implication of this finding is that the same phenotype, in this case relatively high TCR expression levels, could have double-edged sword effects, contributing to type 1 diabetes resistance at one level of T cell development, but at another actually promoting pathogenesis.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2004; 173(6):3791-800. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One mechanism whereby B cells contribute to type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is as a subset of APCs that preferentially presents MHC class II-bound pancreatic beta cell Ags to autoreactive CD4 T cells. This results from their ability to use cell surface Ig to specifically capture beta cell Ags. Hence, we postulated a diabetogenic role for defects in the tolerance mechanisms normally blocking the maturation and/or activation of B cells expressing autoreactive Ig receptors. We compared B cell tolerance mechanisms in NOD mice with nonautoimmune strains by using the IgHEL and Ig3-83 transgenic systems, in which the majority of B cells recognize one defined Ag. NOD- and nonautoimmune-prone mice did not differ in ability to delete or receptor edit B cells recognizing membrane-bound self Ags. However, in contrast to the nonautoimmune-prone background, B cells recognizing soluble self Ags in NOD mice did not undergo partial deletion and were also not efficiently anergized. The defective induction of B cell tolerance to soluble autoantigens is most likely responsible for the generation of diabetogenic APC in NOD mice.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2004; 172(8):5086-94. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genes in the early region 3 (E3) of the adenovirus genome allow the virus to evade host immune responses by interfering with major histocompatibility (MHC) class I-mediated antigen presentation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- or Fas-induced apoptosis of infected cells. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) is inhibited in NOD mice transgenically expressing all E3 genes under control of a rat insulin promoter (RIPE3/NOD). For dissecting the protective mechanisms afforded by various E3 genes, they were subdivided into RIP-driven transgene constructs. Strong T1D protection mediated at the beta-cell level characterized DL704/NOD mice lacking the E3 gp19K gene suppressing MHC class I expression but retaining the 10.4K, 14.5K, and 14.7K genes inhibiting Fas- or TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kB activation. Much weaker protection characterized DL309/NOD mice expressing the gp19K but not the 10.4K, 14.5K, and 14.7K genes. While RIPE3/NOD splenocytes had an unexpected decrease in ability to adoptively transfer T1D, splenocytes from both the DL704 and DL309 stocks efficiently did so. These findings indicate that all E3 genes must be expressed to inhibit the diabetogenic potential of NOD immune cells. They also demonstrate that the antiapoptotic E3 genes most effectively protect pancreatic beta-cells from diabetogenic immune responses.
    Diabetes 06/2003; 52(5):1119-27. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and some human type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients manifest low to high levels of other autoimmune pathologies. Skewing their cytokine production from a Th1 (primarily IFN-gamma) to a Th2 (primarily IL-4 and IL-10) pattern is a widely proposed approach to dampen the pathogenicity of autoreactive diabetogenic T cells. However, it is important that altered cytokine balances not enhance any other autoimmune proclivities to dangerous levels. Murine CD4 T cells are characterized by a reciprocal relationship between the production of IFN-gamma and expression of the beta-chain component of its receptor (IFN-gamma RB). Thus, NOD mice constitutively expressing a CD2 promoter-driven IFN-gamma RB transgene in all T cells are Th1-deficient. Unexpectedly, NOD.IFN-gamma RB Tg mice were found to develop a lethal early paralytic syndrome induced by a CD8 T cell-dependent autoimmune-mediated myositis. Furthermore, pancreatic insulitis levels were not diminished in 9-wk-old NOD.IFN-gamma RB Tg females, and overt T1D developed in the few that survived to an older age. Autoimmune-mediated myositis is only occasionally detected in standard NOD mice. Hence, some manipulations diminishing Th1 responses can bring to the forefront what are normally secondary autoimmune pathologies in NOD mice, while also failing to dependably abrogate pancreatic beta cell destruction. This should raise a cautionary note when considering the use of protocols that induce alterations in cytokine balances as a means of blocking progression to overt T1D in at-risk humans.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2003; 170(5):2742-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes, major histocompatibilitycomplex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells are essential for disease development. However, the extent of diversity of their antigenic specificities during early pathogenesis remains unclear. An insulin-derived peptide was recently identified as the epitope for the NOD-derived diabetogenic T-cell clone G9C8. To explore the possibility that the early pathogenic CD8(+) T-cell population comprises additional antigenic specificities, we employed the T-cell clones AI4 and NY8.3, both of which are pathogenic and represent specificities present in early insulitic lesions. The clones responded to distinct fractions of chromatographically separated class I MHC-bound peptides purified from NOD-derived NIT-1 beta cells, and neither clone recognized the insulin-derived peptide. NIT-1 cells represent an unlimited peptide source that will allow for the future isolation and sequencing of the novel multiple epitopes targeted early in the autoimmune response by pathogenic CD8(+) T cells.
    Clinical Immunology 01/2003; 105(3):332-41. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B lymphocytes partially contribute to autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) as a subset of APC with a preferential ability to trigger pathogenic CD4 T cells. We hypothesized that this resulted from the unique ability of B lymphocytes to take up pancreatic beta cell proteins through Ig mediated capture. T1D was significantly delayed, but not prevented, in a NOD stock in which the B lymphocyte Ig repertoire was strongly restricted because of the allelic exclusion induced by transgenic Ig molecules specific for the disease irrelevant hen egg lysozyme (HEL) protein (NOD.IgHEL mice). However, introducing the Ig(mu)null mutation to eliminate the small residual numbers of non-transgenic B lymphocytes in the NOD.IgHEL stock strongly suppressed T1D to the same low levels that characterize B lymphocyte deficient NOD.Ig(mu)null mice. In contrast to standard NOD mice, both the NOD.IgHEL.Ig(mu)null and NOD.Ig(mu)null stocks were unable to generate T cell responses against the candidate diabetes autoantigen, glutamic acid decarboxylase. These results indicate that Ig-mediated capture of beta cell autoantigens accounts for why B lymphocytes have a greater capacity than other APC subtypes to trigger diabetogenic T cells. Hence, defects in B lymphocyte, as well as T lymphocyte, tolerance induction mechanisms may contribute to T1D in NOD mice.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/2003; 32(12):3657-66. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Particular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles clearly contribute to T cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in both humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. However, studies in NOD mice indicate MHC class I-restricted T cell responses are also essential to T1D development. In humans, epidemiological studies have suggested that some common class I alleles, including HLA-A2.1 (A*02011), may confer increased susceptibility to T1D when expressed in conjunction with certain class II alleles. We show here that when HLA-A2.1 molecules are transgenically expressed in NOD mice, A2-restricted T cell responses arise against pancreatic beta cells, leading to an earlier onset of T1D. The accelerated onset of T1D in the NOD.HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice is not due to nonspecific effects of expressing a third class I molecule, because a stock of NOD mice transgenically expressing HLA-B27 class I molecules showed no such acceleration of T1D, but rather were significantly protected from disease. These findings provide the first functional evidence that certain human MHC class I molecules can contribute to the development of T1D.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2002; 99(21):13753-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A broad repertoire of pancreatic beta-cell autoreactive T-cells normally contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. However, it has been unknown if a large reduction in the precursor pool from which autoreactive T-cells are drawn would inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes. To address this issue, we reduced the precursor frequency of autoreactive T-cells in NOD mice through allelic exclusion induced by transgenic expression of an H2-Db class I-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for a pathologically irrelevant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) peptide. TCR allelic exclusion greatly reduced the pool of T-cells from which diabetogenic effectors could be derived in these NODxLCMV TCR Tg mice. Surprisingly, this did not impair their type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Furthermore, a diabetogenic CD8 T-cell population that is prevalent in standard NOD mice was present at essentially equivalent levels in pancreatic islets of NODxLCMV TCR Tg mice. Other data indicated that the antigenic specificity of these CD8 T-cells is primarily the function of a shared TCR-alpha chain. Although the percentage of TCR transgenic T-cells decreased in NOD versus B6,D2 control mice, much higher total numbers of both the TCR transgenic and the nontransgenic T-cells accumulated in the NOD strain. This transgenic T-cell accumulation in the absence of the cognate peptide indicated that the NOD genetic background preferentially promotes a highly efficient antigen-independent T-cell expansion. This might allow diabetogenic T-cells in NOD mice to undergo an efficient expansion before encountering antigen, which would represent an important and previously unconsidered aspect of pathogenesis.
    Diabetes 10/2001; 50(9):1992-2000. · 7.90 Impact Factor