Jeanine M Genkinger

Columbia University, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (32)139.88 Total impact

  • Jeanine M Genkinger, Mary Beth Terry
    International journal of epidemiology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ≥500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ≥1300 with <500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported PIK3CA gene mutations in high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). However, the contribution of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway (PI3K) dysregulation to pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood and its prognostic value unknown. We investigated the dysregulation of the PI3K signaling pathway in IPMN and its clinical implication. Thirty-six IPMN specimens were examined by novel mutant-enriched methods for hot-spot mutations in the PIK3CA and AKT1 genes. PIK3CA and AKT1 gene amplifications and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the PTEN locus were also evaluated. Additionally, the expression levels of PDPK1/PDK1, PTEN and Ki67 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Three cases carrying the E17K mutation in the AKT1 gene and one case harboring the H1047R mutation in the PIK3CA gene were detected among the 36 cases. PDK1 was significantly overexpressed in the high-grade IPMN vs. low-grade IPMN (p = 0.034) and in pancreatic and intestinal-type of IPMN vs. gastric-type of IPMN (p = 0.020). Loss of PTEN expression was strongly associated with presence of invasive carcinoma and poor survival in these IPMN patients (p = 0.014). This is the first report of AKT1 mutations in IPMN. Our data indicate that oncogenic activation of the PI3K pathway can contribute to the progression of IPMN, in particular loss of PTEN expression. This finding suggests the potential employment of PI3K pathway-targeted therapies for IPMN patients. The incorporation of PTEN expression status in making surgical decisions may also benefit IPMN patients and should warrant further investigation.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Dairy and meat consumption may impact breast cancer risk through modification of hormones (e.g., estrogen), through specific nutrients (e.g., vitamin D), or through products formed in processing/cooking (e.g., heterocyclic amines). Results relating meat and dairy intake to breast cancer risk have been conflicting. Thus, we examined the risk of breast cancer in relation to intake of dairy and meat in a large prospective cohort study. METHODS: In the Black Women's Health Study, 1,268 incident breast cancer cases were identified among 52,062 women during 12 years of follow-up. Multivariable (MV) relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Null associations were observed for total milk (MV RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 0.74-1.46 comparing ≥1,000-0 g/week) and total meat (MV RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.85-1.28 comparing ≥1,000 < 400 g/week) intake and risk of breast cancer. Associations with intakes of specific types of dairy, specific types of meat, and dietary calcium and vitamin D were also null. The associations were not modified by reproductive (e.g., parity) or lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking). Associations with estrogen receptor (ER) positive (+), ER negative (-), progesterone receptor (PR) +, PR-, ER+/PR+, and ER-/PR- breast cancer were generally null. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of African-American women provides little support for associations of dairy and meat intake with breast cancer risk.
    Cancer Causes and Control 01/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme and total iron, present in meat, have been hypothesized to promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined the associations between intakes of heme and total iron, types of meat, and endometrial cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between intakes of heme and total iron, types of meat, and risk of endometrial cancer in a large cohort of women. Among 60,895 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort, 720 endometrial cancer cases were confirmed during 21 y of follow-up. RRs and 95% CIs were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. A comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile showed a 20-30% higher risk of endometrial cancer for higher intakes of heme iron (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.53 for ≥1.63 compared with <0.69 mg/d), total iron (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.61 for ≥15.09 compared with <12.27 mg/d), and liver (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.56 for ≥100 compared with <100 g/wk). No statistically significant associations were observed between intakes of red and processed meats and endometrial cancer risk. RRs did not greatly differ when we stratified by BMI, parity, and intakes of alcohol, vitamin C, or zinc or when we excluded patients with diabetes. Our study suggests a modest positive association between heme iron, total iron, and liver intakes and endometrial cancer risk; no statistically significant associations were observed for intakes of other red and processed meats and endometrial cancer risk. The Swedish Mammography Cohort was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2012; 96(4):848-54. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7-20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk.
    American journal of epidemiology 08/2012; 176(5):373-86. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81-1.48 comparing ≥900 to <0 g/d; 237g ≈ 8oz), tea (MVRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.16 comparing ≥400 to 0 g/d; 237g ≈ 8oz), or SSB (MVRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98-1.46 comparing ≥250 to 0 g/d; 355g ≈ 12oz; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status, and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). Conclusion and Impact: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 12/2011; 21(2):305-18. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery offers the only chance for cure in patients with pancreatic cancer, and a growing number of elderly patients are being offered resection. We examined outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients 80 years and older. We retrospectively collected data on pancreaticoduodenectomy patients from 1992 to 2009 to compare outcomes between patients older and younger than 80 years. Variables were compared using t-, Wilcoxon rank-sum, or Fisher's exact tests. Survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. Patients 80 years and older who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy were similar with respect to sex, race, blood loss, operative times, reoperation, length of stay, and readmission compared to younger patients. There were no differences in overall complications (47% vs. 51%, p = 0.54), major complications (19% vs. 25%, p = 0.25), and mortality (5% vs. 4%, p = 0.53) when comparing older to younger patients. In a subset who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma, older patients (n = 45) had a median survival time of 11.6 months compared to 18.1 months in younger patients (n = 346; p < 0.01). Pancreaticoduodenectomy can be performed safely in select patients 80 years and older. Age alone should not dissuade surgeons from offering patients resection, though elderly patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma appear to have shorter survival than younger patients with the same disease.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2010; 14(11):1838-46. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or nonsignificant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21-22.9 kg/m(2) , pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95%CI:23-75%) among obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.09-1.56 comparing BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) to a BMI between 21 and 22.9 kg/m(2) ). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI < 25 kg/m(2) ) and not obese at baseline (BMI < 30 kg/m(2) ), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI = 24-93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI ≥ 10 kg/m(2) between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR = 1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI = 1.03-1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer.
    International Journal of Cancer 11/2010; 129(7):1708-17. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, surgeons apply minimally invasive and parenchyma-sparing techniques to the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these approaches on patient outcomes. We retrospectively collected data on patients with PNET and compared perioperative and pathologic variables. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors influencing survival were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. One hundred thirty patients underwent resection for PNET. Traditional resections included 43 pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD), 38 open distal pancreatectomies (DP), and four total pancreatectomies. Minimally invasive and parenchyma-sparing resections included 25 laparoscopic DP, 11 central pancreatectomies, five enucleations, three partial pancreatectomies, and one laparoscopic-assisted PD. Compared to traditional resections, the minimally invasive and parenchyma-sparing resections had shorter hospital stays. By univariate analysis of neuroendocrine carcinoma, liver metastases and positive resection margins correlated with poor survival. There was an increase in minimally invasive or parenchyma-sparing resections over the study period with no differences in morbidity, mortality, or survival. In this series, there has been a significant increase in minimally invasive and parenchyma-sparing techniques for PNET. This shift did not increase morbidity or compromise survival. In addition, minimally invasive and parenchyma-sparing operations yielded shorter hospital stays.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 10/2010; 14(10):1536-46. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-carbohydrate diets have been linked to pancreatic cancer risk in case-control studies, but prospective studies have shown mostly null results. The authors investigated the associations of glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake with pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dietary intake was assessed by using a self-administered questionnaire. Between 1998 and 2006 (median follow-up = 6.5 years), 266 incident, confirmed pancreatic cancers were identified among 109,175 participants. Hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for sex, smoking, body mass index, and total energy. Overall, elevated risks for pancreatic cancer were observed in the 90th versus 10th percentile of glycemic load (hazards ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.00), available carbohydrate (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.06), and sucrose (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.89) intake. The positive association for available carbohydrate intake was observed during the first 4 years of follow-up (HR(<2 years) = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.06; HR(2-<4 years) = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.55) but not subsequently (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.44); the opposite pattern was observed for total fat and saturated fat intake. Rather than being causal, the short-term increase in pancreatic cancer risk associated with high available carbohydrate and low fat intake may be capturing dietary changes associated with subclinical disease.
    American journal of epidemiology 06/2010; 171(11):1174-82. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans. In spite of its therapeutic efficacy for giardiasis, low patient compliance, especially in children, side effects, and the emergence of metronidazole-resistant strains may restrict its use. Albendazole has been used to treat Giardia duodenalis infections in recent years. However, efficacy studies in vivo and in vitro have produced diverse results as to its effectiveness. A moderately benign side effect profile, combined with established efficacy against many helminths, renders it promising for treatment of giardiasis in humans. We performed a search in the PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, the ISI Web of Science, LILIACS, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for trials published before February 2010 as well as in references of relevant research and review articles. Eight randomized clinical trials (including 900 patients) comparing the effectiveness of albendazole with that of metronidazole were included in meta-analysis. After extracting and validating the data, the pooled risk ratio (RR) was calculated using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Albendazole was found to be equally as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in humans (RR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93, 1.01). In addition, safety analysis suggested that patients treated with albendazole had a lower risk of adverse effects compared with those who received metronidazole (RR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10, 1.34), but limitations of the sample size precluded a definite conclusion. The effectiveness of albendazole, when given as a single dose of 400 mg/day for 5 days, was comparable to that of metronidazole. Patients treated with albendazole tended to have fewer side effects compared with those who took metronidazole. Given the safety, effectiveness, and low costs of albendazole, this drug could be potentially used as an alternative and/or a replacement for the existing metronidazole therapy protocols in the treatment of giardiasis in humans.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 01/2010; 4(5):e682. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphates are pesticides ubiquitous in the environment and have been hypothesized as one of the risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we evaluated the associations of pesticide exposure in a residential environment with the risk for pediatric ALL. This is a case-control study of children newly diagnosed with ALL, and their mothers (n = 41 child-mother pairs) recruited from Georgetown University Medical Center and Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC, between January 2005 and January 2008. Cases and controls were matched for age, sex, and county of residence. Environmental exposures were determined by questionnaire and by urinalysis of pesticide metabolites using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. We found that more case mothers (33%) than controls (14%) reported using insecticides in the home (P < 0.02). Other environmental exposures to toxic substances were not significantly associated with the risk of ALL. Pesticide levels were higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between children with ALL and controls for the organophosphate metabolites diethylthiophosphate (P < 0.03) and diethyldithiophosphate (P < 0.05). The association of ALL risk with pesticide exposure merits further studies to confirm the association.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring 07/2009; 31(4):495-501. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few risk factors have been implicated in pancreatic cancer etiology. Alcohol has been theorized to promote carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results relating alcohol intake to pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies. The study sample consisted of 862,664 individuals among whom 2,187 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. A slight positive association with pancreatic cancer risk was observed for alcohol intake (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.45 comparing >or=30 to 0 grams/day of alcohol; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity=0.80). For this comparison, the positive association was only statistically significant among women although the difference in the results by gender was not statistically significant (P value, test for interaction=0.19). Slightly stronger results for alcohol intake were observed when we limited the analysis to cases with adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. No statistically significant associations were observed for alcohol from wine, beer, and spirits comparing intakes of >or=5 to 0 grams/day. A stronger positive association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed among normal weight individuals compared with overweight and obese individuals (P value, test for interaction=0.01). Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2009; 18(3):765-76. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation prospectively examined active cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure and the risk of developing rectal cancer. Cigarette smoking data were collected on all household members during two private censuses in Washington County, Maryland. These two cohorts were followed up, one cohort from 1963-1978 and the other from 1975-1994 for first-time diagnoses of rectal cancer. We identified 148 and 169 rectal cancer cases in the 1963 and 1975 cohorts, respectively. Relative risks were estimated by means of Poisson regression models. In men, the adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between current smoking and rectal cancer were 3.1 (1.2-7.8) in the 1963 cohort and 1.8 (0.9-3.7) in the 1975 cohort; the corresponding aRRs in women were 0.9 (0.5-1.8) and 1.6 (0.9-3.8) in the 1963 and 1975 cohorts, respectively. In nonsmokers, household passive smoke exposure was strongly associated with rectal cancer among men in the 1963 cohort (aRR = 5.8; 1.8-18.4) but not the 1975 cohort (aRR = 1.1; 0.2-5.0). In women, household passive exposure was not strongly associated with rectal cancer in either cohort. The results of our study suggest that active cigarette smoking may contribute to rectal cancer risk, but inconsistencies in the findings preclude drawing strong, clear-cut inferences.
    Annals of Epidemiology 02/2008; 18(1):28-35. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    Jeanine M Genkinger, Anita Koushik
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    ABSTRACT: The authors review the key studies on the association between meat intake and cancer risk, including a new prospective cohort study by Amanda Cross and colleagues published inPLoS Medicine.
    PLoS Medicine 01/2008; 4(12):e345. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use, particularly aspirin, may lower the risk of several cancers, including bladder. NSAIDs may reduce development of bladder tumors by decreasing inflammation, inhibiting cycloxygenase-2, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. However, acetaminophen, a major metabolite of phenacetin, may be positively associated with bladder cancer risk. Results from case-control studies on NSAIDs and acetaminophen use and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. We investigated the association between NSAID and acetaminophen use and bladder cancer risk in a large cohort of US males. Among 49,448 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, 607 bladder cancer cases were confirmed during 18 years of follow-up. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. Multivariate RR were adjusted for age, current smoking status, pack years, geographic region and fluid intake. No significant associations were observed for regular aspirin (> or =2 tablets per week), (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18), ibuprofen (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.81-1.54), acetaminophen (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.67-1.39) or total NSAID use (not including acetaminophen; RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.20) and bladder cancer risk compared with nonuse. Consistent use (over 6 years) of aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen and total NSAIDs, compared to nonuse, was not associated with bladder cancer risk. No association was observed between aspirin frequency and dose and bladder cancer risk. We observed no effect-modification by smoking, age or fluid intake. Our results suggest that regular NSAID or acetaminophen use has no substantial impact on bladder cancer risk among men.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2007; 120(10):2221-5. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association of cigarette smoking with subsequent fatal prostate cancer. Two private censuses were conducted in Washington County, Maryland, in which 26,810 adult men in 1963 and 28,292 in 1975 provided smoking information. Prostate cancer deaths through 2000 (1963 cohort, 240 deaths; and 1975 cohort, 184 deaths) were ascertained by review of the death certificates. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate ratio of prostate cancer death adjusted for age. Overall, cigarette smokers in the 1963 census cohort were not more likely to die of prostate cancer than those who had never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars when considering the total follow-up period. However, current smokers of 20 or more cigarettes per day (rate ratio 2.38; 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 5.99) and former smokers (rate ratio 2.75; 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 6.74) had a greater risk of death from prostate cancer during the first 10 years of follow-up. Weaker positive associations of prostate cancer death with current and former cigarette smoking were seen during the first 10 years of follow-up in the 1975 census cohort. Current cigarette smoking at baseline was not associated with the prostate cancer incidence. The lack of an association between cigarette smoking and prostate cancer incidence, but the tendency of greater prostate cancer mortality in former and current cigarette smokers earlier in the follow-up period is consistent with other studies in which smoking was assessed once at baseline.
    Urology 05/2007; 69(4):721-5. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke may also contribute to bladder carcinogenesis. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the influence of both active smoking and household exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on subsequent bladder cancer risk. The study population included persons from two cohorts established from private censuses conducted in Washington County, Maryland, in 1963 (n = 45,749; 93 cases) and 1975 (n = 48,172; 172 cases). Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the relative risk of bladder cancer associated with active and passive smoke exposure in the two cohorts (referent category: never smokers who did not live with any smokers). Current smokers had an elevated risk of bladder cancer in both the 1963 cohort (relative risk (RR) = 2.7, 95% confidence limits (CL): 1.6, 4.7) and the 1975 cohort (RR = 2.6, 95% CL: 1.7, 3.9) after adjustment for age, education, and marital status. Among nonsmoking women, current household SHS exposure was associated with bladder cancer risk in the 1963 cohort (RR = 2.3, 95% CL: 1.0, 5.4) but not in the 1975 cohort (RR = 0.9, 95% CL: 0.4, 2.3). This study further solidifies the evidence that active smoking is causally associated with bladder cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine whether passive smoking is a risk factor for bladder cancer.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 04/2007; 165(6):660-6. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme that catalyzes superoxide radical quenching, is hypothesized to protect against premature aging. A C47T transition in the MnSOD gene may affect the enzyme's distribution to the mitochondrion, a site of high oxidative stress. We examined the association between this polymorphism and survival. Individuals who donated a blood sample to the CLUE I and II campaigns in 1974 and 1989, respectively, and completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1989 (N=6151) were included in the analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. Mortality follow-up extended from 1989 to 2002. MnSOD genotype distributions were 27% CC (wildtype homozygotes), 50% CT (heterozygotes) and 23% TT (variant homozygotes). TT and CT genotypes compared to the CC genotype were not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular disease mortality. A slight, but non-statistically significant higher risk of cancer mortality was observed for the CT (HR=1.13, 95% CI: 0.86-1.49) and TT (HR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.90-1.70) genotypes compared to CC genotype (p-trend=0.19). We did not observe an association between the C47T polymorphism in the MnSOD gene and survival. These null associations were not modified by fruit and vegetable intake, cigarette smoking status, or body mass index.
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 05/2006; 127(4):371-7. · 3.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

620 Citations
139.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2012
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2010
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Georgetown University
      • Department of Oncology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Division of Nutrition
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics
      Baltimore, MD, United States