[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three closely related human sec14p-like proteins (hTAP1, 2, and 3, or SEC14L2, 3, and 4, respectively) have been described. These proteins may participate in intracellular lipid transport (phospholipids, squalene, tocopherol analogues and derivatives) or influence regulatory lipid-dependent events. Here, we show that the three recombinant hTAP proteins associate with the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, and enhance the in vitro transport of radioactively labeled alpha-tocopherol to mitochondria in the same order of magnitude as the human alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP). hTAP1 and hTAP2 are expressed in several cell lines, whereas the expression level of hTAP3 is low. Expression of hTAP1 is induced in human umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells upon differentiation by interleukin 4. In tissues, the three hTAPs are detectable ubiquitously at low level; pronounced and localized expression is found for hTAP2 and hTAP3 in the perinuclear region in cerebellum, lung, liver and adrenal gland. hTAP3 is well expressed in the epithelial duct cells of several glands, in ovary in endothelial cells of small arteries as well as in granulosa and thecal cells, and in testis in Leydig cells. Thus, the three hTAPs may mediate lipid uptake, secretion, presentation, and sub-cellular localization in a tissue-specific manner, possibly using organelle- and enzyme-specific docking sites.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tocopherols (alpha, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol) and resveratrol are phytochemicals with alleged beneficial effects against atherosclerosis, vascular diseases and different cancers. They both can act as antioxidants, but they also modulate signal transduction and gene expression by non-antioxidant mechanisms. Here we wanted to determine whether the combined treatment of mast cells with the two compounds inhibits cell proliferation more efficiently when compared to individual treatments. Both compounds inhibit HMC-1 mastocytoma cell proliferation and reduce the activity of Protein Kinase B (PKB/Akt) by inhibiting its Ser473-phosphorylation. The combination of 50 microM delta-tocopherol and 50 microM resveratrol inhibits proliferation of HMC-1 cells more efficiently when compared to single treatments. In line with this, PKB Ser473-phosphorylation is inhibited best by delta-tocopherol and resveratrol combinatory treatment. Resveratrol acts more efficiently as an inhibitor of PKB phosphorylation than alpha-, beta-, gamma-tocopherols, whereas delta-tocopherol shows a stronger inhibition possibly as a result of its apoptotic secondary effects. Our data suggest that delta-tocopherol and resveratrol can act additively in reducing cell proliferation and PKB phosphorylation. The combination of phytochemicals with relatively broad specificity on enzymes involved in signal transduction and gene expression may increase their activity in disease prevention by modulating several different molecular targets.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural vitamin E consists of four different tocopherol and four different tocotrienol homologues (alpha,beta, gamma, delta) that all have antioxidant activity. However, recent data indicate that the different vitamin E homologues also have biological activity unrelated to their antioxidant activity. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory properties of the two major forms of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (alphaT) and gamma-tocopherol (gammaT), and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms involved in these effects. While both tocopherols exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo, supplementation with mixed (gammaT-enriched) tocopherols seems to be more potent than supplementation with alphaT alone. This may explain the mostly negative outcomes of the recent large-scale interventional chronic disease prevention trials with alphaT only and thus warrants further investigation.
Molecular Aspects of Medicine 01/2007; 28(5-6):668-91. · 10.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of four natural tocopherols on the proliferation and signaling pathways were examined in the human mastocytoma cell line (HMC-1). The four tocopherols inhibited HMC-1 cell proliferation with different potency (delta > alpha = gamma > beta). Growth inhibition correlated with the reduction of PKB (protein kinase B) phosphorylation by the different tocopherols. The reduction of PKB phosphorylation led to a decrease of its activity, as judged from a parallel reduction of GSKalpha/beta phosphorylation. The translocation of PKB to the membrane, as a response to receptor stimulation by NGFbeta, is also prevented by treatment with tocopherols. In the presence of PKC or PP2A inhibitors, the reduction of PKB phosphorylation by tocopherols was still observed, thus excluding the direct involvement of these enzymes. Other pathways, such as the Ras-stimulated ERK1/2 (extracellular signal responsive kinase) pathway, were not affected by tocopherol treatment. The tocopherols did not significantly change oxidative stress in HMC-1 cells, suggesting that the observed effects are not the result of a general reduction of oxidative stress. Thus, the tocopherols interfere with PKB phosphorylation and reduce proliferation of HMC-1 cells, possibly by modulating either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, a kinase phosphorylating PKB (PDK1/2), or a phosphatase that dephosphorylates it. Inhibition of proliferation and PKB signaling in HMC-1 cells by vitamin E suggests a role in preventing diseases with mast cell involvement, such as allergies, atherosclerosis, and tumorigenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(49):50700-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor