[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diversity of marine-derived Penicillium from Korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, β-tubulin gene, and RNA polymerase subunit II gene. In addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. We tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusarium oxysporum). A total of 184 strains of 36 Penicillium species were isolated, with 27 species being identified. The most common species were Penicillium polonicum (19.6 %), P. rubens (11.4 %), P. chrysogenum (11.4 %), and P. crustosum (10.9 %). The diversity of Penicillium strains isolated from soil (foreshore soil and sand) and marine macroorganisms was higher than the diversity of strains isolated from seawater. While many of the isolated strains showed alginase and β-glucosidase activity, no endoglucanase activity was found. More than half the strains (50.5 %) showed antifungal activity against at least one of the plant pathogens tested. Compared with other strains in this study, P. citrinum (strain SFC20140101-M662) showed high antifungal activity against both plant pathogens. The results reported here expand our knowledge of marine-derived Penicillium diversity. The relatively high proportion of strains that showed antifungal and enzyme activity demonstrates that marine-derived Penicillium have great potential to be used in the production of natural bioactive products for pharmaceutical and/or industrial use.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 08/2014; 106:331-345. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a survey of marine fungi from the waters surrounding Jeju Island, Korea, several Penicillium strains were isolated from seawater and marine sponges. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and RNA polymerase subunit II, four strains were identified as Penicillium antarcticum, a fungus that, to the best of our knowledge, had not been previously reported in Korea. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics and extracellular enzyme activities of the four strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties.
Preventive nutrition and food science. 06/2014; 19(2):98-107.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a new preservation method, the antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) against Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and food-borne pathogens was assessed, and a general analysis and sensory evaluation of fresh Makgeolli with added GSE was made. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of GSE against 10 strains of Makgeolli-brewing microorganism were 0.0122 to 1.5625 μL/mL. The MIC values against 6 strains of food-borne pathogens were 0.0061 to 0.7813 μL/mL. On addition of 0.1% (v/v) and 0.2% GSE in bottled fresh Makgeolli, no significant difference in the pH, or the contents of total acids, ethanol, or methanol in the Makgeolli, were observed compared with control Makgeolli (with no GSE), during the preservation period (8 weeks) at 10 °C. In the Makgeolli with 0.1% and 0.2% GSE, the total bacterial counts decreased significantly by 4.9% (P < 0.01) and 11.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, versus the control. The decreases in yeast count were significantly lessened by 15.33% and 15.24% (both P < 0.001), respectively, after 8 weeks of storage, compared with the control. In the sensory evaluation of Makgeolli with 0.1% and 0.2% GSE, the refreshment and overall acceptability received significantly better scores than the control (P < 0.01), with no change in sweetness, bitterness, sourness, turbidity, color, or odor. These results suggest that GSE controls the growth of Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and extends the shelf life (ca. 2 wk), without decreasing overall acceptance.Practical ApplicationA new preservation method for fresh Makgeolli by adding grapefruit seed extract (GSE) was developed. As fresh Makgeolli contains live microorganisms, the preservation period is ∼1 wk, which is relatively short. GSE controls the growth of Makgeolli-brewing and Makgeolli-spoiling microorganisms. 0.1% to 0.2% GSE is optimum for prolonging the shelf life (2 wk) of bottled fresh Makgeolli, and has no adverse effect on overall acceptability. We demonstrated that GSE is an effective natural additive that prolongs the shelf life of fresh Makgeolli with no significant loss in quality.
Journal of Food Science 04/2014; · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One new diketopiperazine alkaloid, deoxydihydroisoaustamide (I), and a new metabolite (II) are isolated together with the already known and structurally related deoxyisoaustamide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects.
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 01/2014; 2014:878503.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of present research was to determine the acute oral toxicity of fermented rice extracts (FREs), in female and male ICR mice. To investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, FREs were orally administered once to male and female ICR mice at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW). Effects on mortality, BW, and clinical signs were monitored over 14 days, including changes in the weights and histopathological characteristics of 14 organs, as described in the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guidelines (2009-116, 2009). No treatment-related mortality was observed during the 14-day observation period in either gender. In addition, no FRE-related change was observed in BW or organ weight (OW), clinical indicators, or histopathological findings in this study. Our results suggest that the FRE is non-toxic in mice and is therefore likely to be safe for clinical use. The approximate LD and LD50 in mice after single oral dose of FRE are greater than 2000 mg/kg in female and male ICR mice. Additionally, no specific target organ or negative clinical indicator was detected in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibacterial activity of various saturated fatty acids (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) against different oral pathogens which are implicated in the cause of dental caries, stomatitis, gingivitis, and periodontitis was examined. The saturated fatty acids Pa, StA and ArA, and the unsaturated omega-7 fatty acids PLA and omega-9 fatty acids OA showed either none to low antimicrobial activity against all of the 12 oral pathogenic strains used in this study. In contrast, the omega-3 PUFAs, ALA, SDA, EPA and DHA, and the omega-6 PUFAs, LA, GLA, and AA showed considerable antimicrobial activity against 8, 7, 6 and 5 strains, and 6, 10 and 5 strains, respectively. In particular, the omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs showed strong antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis KCTC 381, the cause of periodontitis, and against Aggregatibacter segnis KCTC 5968, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. Polymorphum KCTC 5172 and Prevotella intermedia KCTC 25611, all organisms implicated in the cause of gingivitis. To date, no bacterial resistance to free fatty acids has been encountered and no resistance phenotype has emerged. Therefore, these results suggest that PUFAs may be useful in the development of therapeutic agents for oral diseases, and in particular, in the development of agents that have minimal side effects and against which there is no bacterial resistance.
Journal of Environmental Biology 07/2013; 34(4):673-6. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective inhibition of PTP1B has been widely recognized as a potential drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In the course of screening for PTP1B inhibitory fungal metabolites, the organic extracts of several fungal species isolated from marine environments were found to exhibit significant inhibitory effect, and the bioassay-guided investigation of these extracts resulted in the isolation of fructigenine A (1), cyclopenol (2), echinulin (3), flavoglaucin (4), and viridicatol (5). The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR and MS data. These compounds inhibited PTP1B activity with the 50% inhibitory concentration values of 10.7 µM, 30.0 µM, 29.4 µM, 13.4 µM, and 64.0 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic analysis of PTP1B inhibition by compounds 1 and 5 suggested that the compound 1 inhibited PTP1B activity in a non-competitive manner, while compound 5 inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the course of a bioassay-guided study of metabolites from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989, two diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids, neoechinulins A and B, were isolated. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulins A (1) and B (2) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Neoechinulin A (1) markedly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner ranging from 12.5 µM to 100 µM without affecting the cell viability. On the other hand, neoechinulin B (2) affected the cell viability at 25 µM although the compound displayed similar inhibitory effect of NO production to neoechinulin A (1) at lower doses. Furthermore, neoechinulin A (1) decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). We also confirmed that neoechinulin A (1) blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α. Moreover, neoechinulin A (1) decreased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Therefore, these data showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulin A (1) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inhibition of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways, suggesting that neoechinulin A (1) might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the course of studies on bioactive metabolites from marine fungi, a new 10-membered lactone, named penicillinolide A (1) was isolated from the organic extract of Penicillium sp. SF-5292 as a potential anti-inflammatory compound. The structure of penicillinolide A (1) was mainly determined by analysis of NMR and MS data and Mosher's method. Penicillinolide A (1) inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 due to inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penicillinolide A (1) also reduced TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO activity, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of compound 1 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were partially associated with HO-1 expression through Nrf2 nuclear translocation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1), and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2) and citromycetin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1-3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1) also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1) on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1) suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Property changes and bacterial characterizations by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were investigated during the fermentation of Makgeollies by 5 isolated yeast strains. Changes of pH were large between day 0 (pH 6) and day 2 (pH 3) and showed less variation after then. ANOVA analyses revealed that pHs were statistically different with fermentation times (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Violaceol-I and -II were isolated from a fractionated library of marine-derived fungal metabolites. These compounds increased the calcium ion concentration inside the cell and caused F-actin aggregation in rat fibroblast 3Y1 cells within 3 h resulting in cell shape elongation. Calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) inhibited violaceol-I and -II induced F-actin aggregation in 3Y1 cells, and hence violaceol-I and -II act in a calcium dependent manner. Violaceol-I and -II inhibited G-actin polymerization in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and strongly associated with G-actin, at dissociation equilibrium constants of 1.44 × 10(-8) M and 2.52 × 10(-9) M respectively. Here we report the identification of a novel function of violaceol-I and -II as actin inhibitors. Violaceol-I and -II induced cell shape elongation through F-actin aggregation in 3Y1 fibroblasts. These compounds may give researchers new insights into the role of actin in tumorigenesis and lead to the development of additional anti-tumor drugs.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/2012; 76(8):1431-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A marine bacterial strain that degraded fucoidan from Ecklonia cava was isolated from seawater. The crude fucoidanase of this strain efficiently degraded fucoidan at pH 8 and . The crude enzyme hydrolyzed 7.1% (w/w) fucoidan within 24 hrs from an 1% (w/v) fucoidan solution and produced oligosaccharides by endo-type hydrolysis as the reaction products. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and biochemical tests permitted a tentative identification of strain SB 1493 as a Pseudoalteromonas species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternaramide (1), a cyclic pentadepsipeptide, has been isolated from an EtOAc extract of the marine-derived fungus Alternaria sp. SF-5016 by various chromatographic methods. The structure of 1 was mainly determined by analysis of the NMR spectroscopic data, along with chemical methods such as Marfey's and Mosher's methods. Alternaramide (1) showed weak antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.
Journal of Natural Products 11/2009; 72(11):2065-8. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the course of bioassay-guided study on the EtOAc extract of a culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Cosmospora sp. SF-5060, aquastatin A (1) was isolated as a protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory component produced by the fungus. The compound was isolated by various chromatographic methods, and the structure was determined mainly by analysis of NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against PTP1B with IC(50) value of 0.19muM, and the kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition by compound 1 suggested that the compound is inhibiting PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. Aquastatin A (1) also showed modest but selective inhibitory activity toward PTP1B over other protein tyrosine phosphatases, such as TCPTP, SHP-2, LAR, and CD45. In addition, the result of hydrolyzing aquastatin A (1) suggested that the dihydroxypentadecyl benzoic acid moiety in the molecule is responsible for the inhibitory activity.