Eric S Sherrer

Viacyte, Inc., San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (10)108.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have received considerable attention due to their therapeutic potential and their usefulness in understanding early development and cell fate commitment. In order to appreciate the unique properties of these pluripotent, self-renewing cells, we have performed an in-depth multidimensional fractionation followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the hESCs harvested from defined media to elucidate expressed, phosphorylated, O-GlcNAc modified, and secreted proteins. From the triplicate analysis, we were able to assign more than 3000 proteins with less than 1% false-discovery rate. This analysis also allowed us to identify nearly 500 phosphorylation sites and 68 sites of O-GlcNAc modification with the same high confidence. Investigation of the phosphorylation sites allowed us to deduce the set of kinases that are likely active in these cells. We also identified more than 100 secreted proteins of hESCs that likely play a role in extracellular matrix formation and remodeling, as well as autocrine signaling for self-renewal and maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Finally, by performing in-depth analysis in triplicate, spectral counts were obtained for these proteins and post-translationally modified peptides, which will allow us to perform relative quantitative analysis between these cells and any derived cell type in the future.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Proteomics 11/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapy for type 1 diabetes will require the translation of proof-of-principle concepts into a scalable, controlled, and regulated cell manufacturing process. We have previously demonstrated that hESC can be directed to differentiate into pancreatic progenitors that mature into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells in vivo. In this study we describe hESC expansion and banking methods and a suspension-based differentiation system, which together underpin an integrated scalable manufacturing process for producing pancreatic progenitors. This system has been optimized for the CyT49 cell line. Accordingly, qualified large-scale single-cell master and working cGMP cell banks of CyT49 have been generated to provide a virtually unlimited starting resource for manufacturing. Upon thaw from these banks, we expanded CyT49 for two weeks in an adherent culture format that achieves 50-100 fold expansion per week. Undifferentiated CyT49 were then aggregated into clusters in dynamic rotational suspension culture, followed by differentiation en masse for two weeks with a four-stage protocol. Numerous scaled differentiation runs generated reproducible and defined population compositions highly enriched for pancreatic cell lineages, as shown by examining mRNA expression at each stage of differentiation and flow cytometry of the final population. Islet-like tissue containing glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells was generated upon implantation into mice. By four- to five-months post-engraftment, mature neo-pancreatic tissue was sufficient to protect against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia. In summary, we have developed a tractable manufacturing process for the generation of functional pancreatic progenitors from hESC on a scale amenable to clinical entry.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37004. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Stem Cell Initiative analyzed 125 human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and 11 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines, from 38 laboratories worldwide, for genetic changes occurring during culture. Most lines were analyzed at an early and late passage. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed that they included representatives of most major ethnic groups. Most lines remained karyotypically normal, but there was a progressive tendency to acquire changes on prolonged culture, commonly affecting chromosomes 1, 12, 17 and 20. DNA methylation patterns changed haphazardly with no link to time in culture. Structural variants, determined from the SNP arrays, also appeared sporadically. No common variants related to culture were observed on chromosomes 1, 12 and 17, but a minimal amplicon in chromosome 20q11.21, including three genes expressed in human ES cells, ID1, BCL2L1 and HM13, occurred in >20% of the lines. Of these genes, BCL2L1 is a strong candidate for driving culture adaptation of ES cells.
    Nature Biotechnology 11/2011; 29(12):1132-44. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three new briarane diterpenoids, briareolate esters L-N (1-3), have been isolated from a gorgonian Briareum asbestinum. Briareolate esters L (1) and M (2) are the first natural products possessing a 10-membered macrocyclic ring with a (E,Z)-dieneone and exhibit growth inhibition activity against both human embryonic stem cells (BG02) and a pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). Briareolate ester L (1) was found to contain a "spring-loaded" (E,Z)-dieneone Michael acceptor group that can form a reversible covalent bond to model sulfur-based nucleophiles.
    Organic Letters 08/2011; 13(15):3920-3. · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite progress in developing defined conditions for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures, little is known about the cell-surface receptors that are activated under conditions supportive of hESC self-renewal. A simultaneous interrogation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in hESCs following stimulation with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium (CM) revealed rapid and prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R); less prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including ERBB2 and ERBB3; and trace phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptors. Intense IGF1R and IR phosphorylation occurred in the absence of MEF conditioning (NCM) and was attributable to high concentrations of insulin in the proprietary KnockOut Serum Replacer (KSR). Inhibition of IGF1R using a blocking antibody or lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced hESC self-renewal and promoted differentiation, while disruption of ERBB2 signaling with the selective inhibitor AG825 severely inhibited hESC proliferation and promoted apoptosis. A simple defined medium containing an IGF1 analog, heregulin-1beta (a ligand for ERBB2/ERBB3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and activin A supported long-term growth of multiple hESC lines. These studies identify previously unappreciated RTKs that support hESC proliferation and self-renewal, and provide a rationally designed medium for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent hESCs.
    Blood 01/2008; 110(12):4111-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and SSEA4, the keratan sulfate antigens TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2 and GCT343, and the protein antigens CD9, Thy1 (also known as CD90), tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and class 1 HLA, as well as the strongly developmentally regulated genes NANOG, POU5F1 (formerly known as OCT4), TDGF1, DNMT3B, GABRB3 and GDF3. Nevertheless, the lines were not identical: differences in expression of several lineage markers were evident, and several imprinted genes showed generally similar allele-specific expression patterns, but some gene-dependent variation was observed. Also, some female lines expressed readily detectable levels of XIST whereas others did not. No significant contamination of the lines with mycoplasma, bacteria or cytopathic viruses was detected.
    Nature Biotechnology 08/2007; 25(7):803-16. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much of our current knowledge of the molecular expression profile of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is based on transcriptional approaches. These analyses are only partly predictive of protein expression however, and do not shed light on post-translational regulation, leaving a large gap in our knowledge of the biology of pluripotent stem cells. Here we describe the use of two large-scale western blot assays to identify over 600 proteins expressed in undifferentiated hESCs, and highlight over 40 examples of multiple gel mobility variants, which are suspected protein isoforms and/or post-translational modifications. Twenty-two phosphorylation events in cell signaling molecules, as well as potential new markers of undifferentiated hESCs were also identified. We confirmed the expression of a subset of the identified proteins by immunofluorescence and correlated the expression of transcript and protein for key molecules in active signaling pathways in hESCs. These analyses also indicated that hESCs exhibit several features of polarized epithelia, including expression of tight junction proteins. Our approach complements proteomic and transcriptional analysis to provide unique information on human pluripotent stem cells, and is a framework for the continued analyses of self-renewal.
    BMC Genomics 02/2007; 8:478. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pluripotent cells can be isolated from the human blastocyst and maintained in culture as self-renewing, undifferentiated, human ESCs (hESCs). These cells are a valuable model of human development in vitro and are the focus of substantial research aimed at generating differentiated populations for cellular therapies. The extracellular markers that have been used to characterize hESCs are primarily carbohydrate epitopes on proteoglycans or sphingolipids, such as stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3 and -4. The expression of SSEA-3 and -4 is tightly regulated during preimplantation development and on hESCs. Although this might imply a molecular function in undifferentiated cells, it has not yet been tested experimentally. We used inhibitors of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis to block the generation of SSEA-3 and -4 in hESCs. Depletion of these antigens and their precursors was confirmed using immunostaining, flow cytometry, and tandem mass spectroscopy. Transcriptional analysis, immunostaining, and differentiation in vitro and in teratomas indicated that other properties of pluripotency were not noticeably affected by GSL depletion. These experiments demonstrated that the GSLs recognized as SSEA-3 and -4 do not play critical functional roles in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs, but instead suggested roles for this class of molecules during cellular differentiation.
    Stem Cells 02/2007; 25(1):54-62. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a renewable source of a wide range of cell types for use in research and cell-based therapies. Characterizing these cells provides important information about their current state and affords relevant details for subsequent manipulations. For example, identifying genes expressed during culture, as well as their temporal expression order after passaging and conditions influencing the formation of all three germ layers may be helpful for the production of functional beta islet cells used in treating type I diabetes. Although several hESC lines have demonstrated karyotypic instability during extended time in culture, select variant lines exhibit characteristics similar to their normal parental lines. Such variant lines may be excellent tools and abundant sources of cells for pilot studies and in vitro differentiation research in which chromosome number is not a concern, similar to the role currently played by embryonal carcinoma cell lines. It is crucial that the cells be surveyed at a genetic and proteomic level during extensive propagation, expansion, and manipulation in vitro. Here we describe a comprehensive characterization of the variant hESC line BG01V, which was derived from the karyotypically normal, parental hESC line BG01. Our characterization process employs cytogenetic analysis, short tandem repeat and HLA typing, mitochondrial DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray, assessment of telomerase activity, methylation analysis, and immunophenotyping and teratoma formation, in addition to screening for bacterial, fungal, mycoplasma, and human pathogen contamination.
    Stem Cells 02/2006; 24(3):531 - 546. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Stem Cell Initiative analyzed 125 human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and 11 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines, from 38 laboratories worldwide, for genetic changes occurring during culture. Most lines were analyzed at an early and late passage. Single- nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed that they included representatives of most major ethnic groups. Most lines remained karyotypically normal, but there was a progressive tendency to acquire changes on prolonged culture, commonly affecting chromosomes 1, 12, 17 and 20. DNA methylation patterns changed haphazardly with no link to time in culture. Structural variants, determined from the SNP arrays, also appeared sporadically. No common variants related to culture were observed on chromosomes 1, 12 and 17, but a minimal amplicon in chromosome 20q11.21, including three genes expressed in human ES cells, ID1, BCL2L1 and HM13, occurred in >20% of the lines. Of these genes, BCL2L1 is a strong candidate for driving culture adaptation of ES cells.
    Nat Biotechnol. 29(12):1132-1144.