Pancreatic cancers in which invasion to the root of the mesentery are suspected have been regarded as unresectable in general. We report the surgical techniques in two cases of locally advanced pancreatic cancer for which in situ surgical procedures including partial abdominal evisceration and intestinal autotransplantation were performed.
The patients were a woman 57 years of age and a man 64 years of age. Both cases had a locally advanced cancer that had originated in the pancreatic uncus and was found to have invaded the root of the mesentery, as well as the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). The cancers in both patients were assessed as resectable because the jejunal artery and vein were secured intact at a site peripheral from the root of the mesentery, and the origin of the SMA along with the portal and splenic veins was intact at a proximal site, so pancreatectomy and resection of the transverse and ascending colons were performed. The SMA and the SMV were ablated just below each origin at a site proximal to the root of the mesentery. At a distal site, two jejunal arteries and one jejunal vein were kept intact and all the remaining arteries and veins were ablated. The remaining small intestine had become a free autograft. As for the portal and jejunal veins, end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Reconstruction of the SMA was achieved with an end-to-end anastomosis, using the right internal iliac artery as a graft. Reconstruction of the alimentary tract was achieved using small intestine as an autograft.
Both patients survived the major operative procedures. Warm ischemia time was 84 min for the SMA and 12 min for the SMV-portal system in Case 1 while it was 30 min for the SMA and 25 min for the SMV-portal system in Case 2. No ex-vivo resection technique was used. Leakage occurred in both cases at the anastomotic lesion between the small intestine and the left colon. Abdominal drainage and conservative treatment were applied in both cases. Cure was achieved within 3 months postoperatively in Case 1 and within 2.5 months in Case 2. Subsequently, the patients returned to their preoperative lives. Case 1 died 11 months and Case 2 died 12 months after the operation due to abdominal dissemination and liver metastases.
We were able to perform in situ procedures including partial abdominal evisceration and intestinal autotransplantation for two cases of pancreatic cancer with possible invasion to the root of the mesentery. There are few reports of such procedures. There has been one report of a case which applied an ex vivo technique. It is expected that the development of adequate adjuvant therapy will lead to further improvement in the prognosis of pancreatic cancers.
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery 11/2009; 16(6):771-6. DOI:10.1007/s00534-009-0188-1 · 1.60 Impact Factor
The resectability of locally advanced pancreatic cancer depends upon, before anything else, the relationship between the tumor and the adjacent arterial structure. Pancreatic cancer that has developed at the caudal side of the pancreas can invade the common hepatic artery (CHA). Pancreatic cancers with CHA involvement can become candidates for surgery in selected cases. Pancreatic cancer arising at the caudal side of the pancreas head may sometimes invade the right and left hepatic arteries (RLHA) as well as the CHA. Pancreatic cancer with RLHA involvement may be assessed as unresectable unless complex vascular reconstruction is performed.
We have experienced 3 cases of successfully resected pancreatic cancer with RLHA and portal vein (PV) invasion. Pancreatectomy (including total pancreatectomy in two cases and pancreatoduodenectomy in one case) with RLHA and PV reconstruction was performed. Three different techniques of arterial reconstruction that were suitable for the individual cases were used. They were: (1) end-to-end anastomosis between the CHA and the left hepatic artery (LHA) and end-to-end anastomosis between the middle hepatic artery (MHA) and the right hepatic artery (RHA), (2) end-to-end anastomosis between the left gastric artery (LGA) and the RHA and end-to-end anastomosis between the right gastroepiploic artery and the LHA, and (3) end-to-side anastomosis between the splenic artery (SA) and the LHA and end-to-end anastomosis between the SA and the RHA.
The mean operating time was 735 min (range 686-800 min) and the mean blood loss was 1726 ml (range 1140-2230 ml). Microscopic curative resection (R0) was possible in all cases even if their International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stage was IIb. There was one case of wound infection, although no serious complications, including hepatic artery thrombosis, liver failure, or biliary fistula were observed. By follow-up three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) angiography, the patency of the anastomosed artery was confirmed to be maintained in all three cases.
R0 operation with 3 different arterial reconstruction techniques was able to be performed without presenting any risk.
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery 10/2009; 16(6):777-80. DOI:10.1007/s00534-009-0202-7 · 1.60 Impact Factor
We often encounter unresectable pancreatic cancer due to invasions of the major vessels. Vascular resection for locally advanced pancreatic cancers has an advantage in en block local resection. There are potential cases in which good outcomes can be achieved by arterial resection.
Pancreatectomy (including total pancreatectomy in 15 cases, pancreatoduodenectomy in 7 cases and distal pancreatectomy in one case) was performed in 23 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, in combination with resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in 15 cases, the superior mesenteric artery in 12 cases (there are overlaps) and the portal vein in 20 cases.
The median operating time was 686 min (416-1,190 min) and the median blood loss was 2,830 ml (440-19,800 ml). This shows that the surgery was highly-invasive. The operative mortality rate was 4.3%. On the basis of the UICC classification, there were 2 cases of Stage IIa, 4 cases of Stage IIb, 9 cases of Stage III, 8 cases of Stage IV, while there were 18 cases (78.3%) of R0 resection. On the other hand, the final histological findings showed that there were 8 cases (34.8%) of M1 (liver and non-regional lymph node metastases), so it is thought that decisions on operative indications should be not be made slightly. As for the overall survival rate, the 1-year survival rate was 51.2% and the 3-year survival rate was 23.1% while the median survival time (MST) was 12 months. As for 15 cases of M0, the 1-year survival rate was 61.9% and the 4-year survival rate was 38.7% while the MST was 16 months. On the other hand, the MST was poor (10 months) in 8 cases of M1, showing that a statistically significant difference was observed depending upon the degree of metastasis (log-rank P = 0.0409). In 18 cases of R0, the 1-year survival rate was 67.2%, the 4-year survival rate 30.2% and the MST 13 months, respectively, while in 5 cases of R1 and R2, the MST was 6 months, showing that there was a statistically significant difference between R0 cases and R1, R2 cases (log-rank P = 0.0002).
Further discussion is required concerning surgical indications and significance. However, it is thought that resection is useful only when surgery of R0 has taken place for selected locally advanced pancreatic cancer (M0).
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery 10/2009; 16(6):850-7. DOI:10.1007/s00534-009-0190-7 · 1.60 Impact Factor