ABSTRACT: Multicenter analysis of 2 groups of patients surgically treated for Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
Compare patients with Lenke 5C scoliosis surgically treated with anterior spinal fusion with dual rod instrumentation and anterior column support with patients surgically treated with posterior release and pedicle screw instrumentation.
Treatment of single, structural, lumbar, and thoracolumbar curves in patients with AIS has been the subject of some debate. Advocates of the anterior approach assert that their technique spares posterior musculature and may save distal fusion levels, and that with dual rods and anterior column support the issues with nonunion and kyphosis have been obviated. Advocates of the posterior approach assert that with the change to posterior pedicle screw based instrumentation that correction and levels are equivalent, and the posterior approach avoids the issues with nonunion and kyphosis. This report directly compares the results of posterior versus anterior instrumented fusions in the operative treatment of adolescent idiopathic Lenke 5C curves.
We analyzed 62 patients with Lenke 5C based on radiographic and clinical data at 2 institutions: 31 patients treated with posterior, pedicle-screw instrumented fusions at 1 institution (group PSF); and 31 patients with anterior, dual-rod instrumented fusions at another institution (group ASF). Multiple clinical and radiographic parameters were evaluated and compared.
The mean age, preoperative major curve magnitude, and preoperative lowest instrumented vertebral (LIV) tilt were similar in both groups (age: PSF = 15.5 years, ASF = 15.6 years; curve size: PSF = 50.3 degrees +/- 7.0 degrees , ASF = 49.0 degrees +/- 6.6 degrees ; LIV tilt: PSF = 27.5 degrees +/- 6.5 degrees , ASF = 27.8 degrees +/- 6.2 degrees ). After surgery, the major curve corrected to an average of 6.3 degrees +/- 3.2 degrees (87.6% +/- 5.8%) in the PSF group, compared with 12.1 degrees +/- 7.4 degrees (75.7% +/- 14.8%) in the ASF group (P < 0.01). At final follow-up, the major curve measured 8.0 degrees +/- 3.0 degrees (84.2% +/- 5.8% correction) in the PSF group, compared with 15.9 degrees +/- 9.0 degrees (66.6% +/- 17.9%) in the ASF group (P = 0.01). This represented a loss of correction of 1.7 degrees +/- 1.9 degrees (3.4% +/- 3.7%) in the PSF group, and 3.8 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees (9.4% +/- 10.7%) in the ASF group (P = 0.028). The LIV tilt decreased to 4.1 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees after surgery in the PSF group, and 4.5 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees in the ASF group. At final follow-up, the LIV tilt was 5.1 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees in the PSF group, and 4.5 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees in the ASF group. EBL was identical in both groups, and length of hospital stay was significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in the PSF group (4.8 vs. 6.1 days). There were no complications in either group which extended hospital stay or required an unplanned second surgery.
At a minimum of 2-year follow-up, adolescents with Lenke 5C curves demonstrated statistically significantly better curve correction, less loss of correction over time, and shorter hospital stays when treated with a posterior release with pedicle screw instrumented fusion compared with an anterior instrumented fusion with dual rods for similar patient populations.
Spine 09/2009; 34(18):1942-51. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: In vitro biomechanical study.
To quantify the effects of uncinatectomy on cervical motion after total disc replacement (TDR).
The effect of uncinatectomy on TDR motion is unknown. Partial uncinatectomy may be required to decompress the foramen; however, the residual uncinates can potentially limit TDR motion and serve as a source of progressive spondylosis. Complete resection of the uncinates may decrease this risk yet endanger destabilizing the segment.
Seven human cervical spines (C3-C7) (age, 63.4 +/- 6.9 years) were tested first intact and then after implantation of a metal-on-polyethylene ball-and-socket semiconstrained prosthesis at C5-C6. Following this, gradually increased uncinatectomy was performed in the following order: 1) right partial-posteromedial (two thirds), 2) right complete, and 3) bilateral complete resection. Specimens were tested in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation (+/-1.5 Nm). Flexion-extension was tested under 150 N follower preload.
TDR without uncinatectomy increased C5-C6 flexion-extension range of motion from 8.4 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees to 11.6 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees, but statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). Lateral bending decreased from 6.2 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees to 3.1 degrees +/- 1.4 degrees, with a trend for statistical significance (P = 0.07). Axial rotation decreased from 5.5 degrees +/- 2.4 degrees to 4.3 degrees +/- 1.4 degrees after the implantation (P > 0.05). Both right partial and right complete uncinatectomy resulted in nearly symmetrical restoration of lateral bending to intact values and significantly increased flexion-extension compared with intact (P < or = 0.05); however, axial rotation still did not differ from intact (P > 0.05). Complete bilateral resection also restored lateral bending to intact values (7.3 degrees +/- 2.7 degrees, P > 0.05); however, it resulted in significant increase in range of motion in flexion-extension (14.1 degrees +/- 3.0 degrees, P < or = 0.05) and axial rotation (8.7 degrees +/- 2.4 degrees, P < or = 0.05).
Unilateral complete or even partial uncinatectomy can normalize lateral bending after TDR. Bilateral complete uncinatectomy is not necessary to restore lateral bending and may result in significantly increased range of motion in flexion-extension and axial rotation compared with intact values.
Spine 12/2007; 32(26):2965-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To analyze patient outcomes and risk factors associated with proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in adults undergoing long posterior spinal fusion.
To determine the incidence of PJK and its effect on patient outcomes and to identify any risk factors associated with developing PJK.
The incidence of PJK and its affect on outcomes in adult deformity patients is unknown. No study has concentrated on outcomes of patients with PJK. Risk factors for developing PJK are unknown.
Radiographic data on 81 consecutive adult deformity patients with minimum 2-year follow-up (average 5.3 years, range 2-16 years) treated with long instrumented segmental posterior spinal fusion was collected. Preoperative diagnosis was adult scoliosis, sagittal imbalance or both. Radiographic measurements analyzed included the sagittal Cobb angle at the proximal junction on preoperative, early postoperative, and final follow-up standing long cassette radiographs. Additional measurements used for analysis included the C7-Sacrum sagittal plumb and the T5-T12 sagittal Cobb. Postoperative SRS-24 scores were available on 73 patients.
Incidence of PJK as defined was 26%. Patients with PJK did not have lower outcomes scores. PJK did not produce a more positive sagittal C7 plumb. PJK was more common at T3 in the upper thoracic spine.
Incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis was high, but SRS-24 scores were not significantly affected in patients with PJK. The sagittal C7 plumb was not significantly more positive in PJK patients. No patient, radiographic, or instrumentation variables were identified as risk factors for developing PJK.
Spine 08/2005; 30(14):1643-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis of patients that underwent perioperative halo-gravity traction as an adjunct to modern instrumentation methods in the treatment of severe scoliosis and kyphosis.
To review the clinical and radiographic results of perioperative halo-gravity traction in several time periods.
Few reports to our knowledge review the use of perioperative and intraoperative halo-gravity traction in this patient population.
A total of 33 patients with severe operative scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis, or kyphosis were studied based on hospital records, standing pretreatment, traction (before anterior/posterior fusion), postoperative (each stage), and final radiographs. Patients were analyzed by age at date of examination (range, 2-20 years; mean, 13.8 years), gender (18 male, 15 female), major coronal curve magnitude (range, 22 degrees-158 degrees; average, 84 degrees), major compensatory coronal curve magnitude (range, 8 degrees-123 degrees; average, 51 degrees), major sagittal curve magnitude (range, 13 degrees-143 degrees; average, 78 degrees), traction protocol, and procedure type. Halo-traction-related, short- and long-term complications were noted in each case.
The major coronal curve reduced 38 degrees or 46% after posterior spinal fusion compared to pretreatment radiographs. At an average of 44 months radiographic follow-up (range, 24-107 months), the loss of correction averaged 7 degrees for major coronal curves and 4 degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Clinical complications were noted in the perioperative and long-term time periods.
The treatment of severe scoliosis can be very challenging despite the benefits of modern instrumentation methods, especially if there is a significant kyphosis or a history of intraspinal pathology. Halo-gravity traction is a safe, well-tolerated method of applying gradual, sustained traction to maximize postoperative correction in this difficult population. There were no permanent neurologic deficits in this series.
Spine 03/2005; 30(4):475-82. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Study Design. A retrospective analysis of patients that underwent perioperative halo-gravity traction as an adjunct to modern instrumentation methods in the treatment of severe scoliosis and kyphosis.
Objective. To review the clinical and radiographic results of perioperative halo-gravity traction in several time periods.
Summary of Background Data. Few reports to our knowledge review the use of perioperative and intraoperative halo-gravity traction in this patient population.
Methods. A total of 33 patients with severe operative scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis, or kyphosis were studied based on hospital records, standing pretreatment, traction (before anterior/posterior fusion), postoperative (each stage), and final radiographs. Patients were analyzed by age at date of examination (range, 2–20 years; mean, 13.8 years), gender (18 male, 15 female), major coronal curve magnitude (range, 22°–158°; average, 84°), major compensatory coronal curve magnitude (range, 8°–123°; average, 51°), major sagittal curve magnitude (range, 13°–143°; average, 78°), traction protocol, and procedure type. Halo-traction-related, short- and long-term complications were noted in each case.
Results. The major coronal curve reduced 38° or 46% after posterior spinal fusion compared to pretreatment radiographs. At an average of 44 months radiographic follow-up (range, 24–107 months), the loss of correction averaged 7° for major coronal curves and 4° of thoracic kyphosis. Clinical complications were noted in the perioperative and long-term time periods.
Conclusions. The treatment of severe scoliosis can be very challenging despite the benefits of modern instrumentation methods, especially if there is a significant kyphosis or a history of intraspinal pathology. Halo-gravity traction is a safe, well-tolerated method of applying gradual, sustained traction to maximize postoperative correction in this difficult population. There were no permanent neurologic deficits in this series.
Spine 02/2005; 30(4):475-482. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Retrospective clinical and radiographic review with functional outcome assessment.
To evaluate outcome of selective thoracic fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the presence of widely deviated compensatory lumbar curves.
Previous reports on the results of selective thoracic scoliosis fusion have not specifically focused on deformities with widely deviated lumbar curves. Whether these challenging deformities are best treated with selective thoracic fusion or fusion of both curves remains unclear.
Forty-four consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with main thoracic, compensatory minor lumbar "C" modifier curves underwent selective thoracic fusion at a single institution (1987-2000). Radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week, 2 years, and latest follow-up (2-16 years; mean 5.0 years).
A mean 36% thoracic correction was closely matched by a 34% lumbar correction at latest follow-up. A majority of spontaneous lumbar correction occurred at its cephalad segments (P = 0.001). Spontaneous correction of lumbar apical translation occurred in a majority of patients (prognostic factors identified). Global coronal imbalance (2-5 cm) was common before surgery and was a significant risk factor (P = 0.04) for global imbalance at latest follow-up. Postoperative bracing was not utilized, and there were no reoperations. Patients with coronal imbalance (2-5 cm) at latest follow-up had slightly inferior SRS-24 results.
Satisfactory results are achieved with selective thoracic fusion of properly selected C modifier lumbar curves. Correction of the lumbar curve results principally from a decrease in the tilt of its upper vertebrae, but not necessarily improved apical translation. Mild coronal imbalance was well tolerated and has not necessitated distal extension of the fusion.
Spine 04/2004; 29(5):536-46. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Fixed sagittal imbalance (a syndrome in which the patient is only able to stand with the weight-bearing line in front of the sacrum) has many etiologies. The most commonly reported technique for correction is the Smith-Petersen osteotomy. Few reports on pedicle subtraction procedures (resection of the posterior elements, pedicles, and vertebral body through a posterior approach) are available in the peer-reviewed literature. We are aware of no report involving a substantial number of patients with coexistent scoliosis who underwent pedicle/vertebral body subtraction for the treatment of fixed sagittal imbalance.
Twenty-seven consecutive patients in whom sagittal imbalance was treated with lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy at one institution were analyzed. Radiographic analysis included assessment of thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, lordosis through the pedicle subtraction osteotomy site, and the C7 sagittal plumb line. Outcomes analysis was performed with use of a before-and-after pain scale, items from the Oswestry questionnaire, and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) questionnaire after a minimum duration of follow-up of two years. Complications and radiographic findings were also analyzed for the entire group.
Overall, the average increase in lordosis was 34.1 degrees and the average improvement in the sagittal plumb line was 13.5 cm. One patient had development of a lumbar pseudarthrosis through the area of pedicle subtraction osteotomy, and six patients had development of a thoracic pseudarthrosis. Two patients had development of increased kyphosis at L5/S1, caudad to the fusion, resulting in some loss of sagittal correction. There were significant improvements in the overall Oswestry score (p < 0.0001) and the pain-scale score (p = 0.0002). Most patients reported improvement in terms of pain and self-image as well as overall satisfaction with the procedure.
Pedicle subtraction osteotomy is a useful procedure for patients with fixed sagittal imbalance. A worse clinical result is associated with increasing patient comorbidities, pseudarthrosis in the thoracic spine, and subsequent breakdown caudad to the fusion.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 03/2004; 86-A Suppl 1:44-50. · 3.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A prospective, cross-sectional analysis of patients with operative idiopathic scoliosis comparing Scoliosis Research Society's Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24) scores from both parents and patients obtained separately on the same day along with pertinent radiographic data.
To determine the correlation of parents' and patients' perspectives of the patients' preoperative and postoperative experience using the SRS-24 questionnaire emphasizing parent-patient disparities.
No report to our knowledge has addressed the association between parent assessments of their child's presurgical and postsurgical outcome as verified by SRS-24 questionnaire data.
A total of 101 patients with operative idiopathic scoliosis were analyzed based on paired parent-patient SRS-24 data and radiographs performed on the same day. Patients were analyzed by age at date of examination (9-23 years, mean 17 +/- 5 years), gender (16 male, 85 female), major curve magnitude (41-126 degrees ), procedure type [preoperative (22 pairs), anterior spinal fusion (49 pairs), anterior spinal fusion/posterior spinal fusion (19 pairs), posterior spinal fusion (46 pairs)], and time from surgery (preoperative, postoperative 1-93 months, mean 24 months). All questionnaire scores were classified based on domains of pain, self-image, function, overall satisfaction, and total score.
In overall time periods, parents consistently scored higher than their children in the self-image (P = 0.0001), satisfaction (P = 0.0001), and total score (P = 0.04), but not pain or function. Before surgery, parents overestimated patients' scores in self-image (P = 0.002) by 7.5% but not other domains. Satisfaction differences (P = 0.04) improved with increasing age of the patient, but not other domains. There were no significant differences with gender or preoperative/postoperative major curve magnitudes.
Based on SRS-24 data, parents typically scored higher than their children in the operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in total score, self-image, and overall satisfaction. Some parent-patient scores correlated better with increasing age of the patient, and later in the postoperative period.
Spine 03/2004; 29(3):303-10. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: STUDY DESIGN A retrospective analysis of primary cases of adult idiopathic scoliosis treated with long instrumented fusions from the thoracic spine proximally to segments that range from T11 to L4 distally.
To analyze whether patients requiring revision surgery had lower postoperative SRS-24 scores; age >or=40 years correlated with higher rates of revision surgery; disc degeneration below the fusion occurred more commonly with a more distal lowest instrumented vertebra or older patient age (>or=40 years); and whether smokers had higher rates of major complications or revision surgery.
Few reports describe complications related to primary long fusions using modern 2+ rods, hook/pedicle screw instrumentation methods in the treatment of adult idiopathic scoliosis.
Sixty-seven patients were analyzed with an average age of 38.8 years (range 21-61 years). The average clinical follow-up was 7.8 years (range 2-16 years): 42 patients had >5 years follow-up, including 23 patients with >10 years follow-up. Patients were categorized by age (< or >or=40 years) and level of the lowest instrumented vertebra (T11-L2 vs. L3-L4). Upright radiographs and postoperative SRS-24 questionnaires from the latest follow-up date were analyzed.
Patients requiring revision surgery had lower total score (average 72.0) than those that did not (total score = 94.2; P = 0.01). More specifically, patients with pseudarthrosis had lower total scores (average 74.7) than those without (average total score = 93.5; P = 0.02). When analyzing age, there were similar rates of pseudarthrosis, but higher rates of transition syndrome (2) and sagittal/coronal imbalance (1 each) in patients >or=40 years. Subsequent distal disc degeneration did not correlate significantly with more distal lowest instrumented vertebra or older patient age. Smokers did not have higher rates of major complications or revision surgery than nonsmokers.
Patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis and long fusions had similar pseudarthrosis rates, but higher rates of transition syndrome when lowest instrumented vertebra was L3-L4 relative to levels T11-L2. When categorized by age, complication rates were similar in each group. Patients with pseudarthroses or other diagnoses requiring revision surgery had lower SRS-24 total scores than those without (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively).
Spine 02/2004; 29(3):318-25. · 2.08 Impact Factor