[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the utility of synergistic disinfection employing a gemini-quaternary ammonium salt (a gemini-QUAT, namely 3,3'-(2,7-dioxaoctane)bis(1-decylpyridinium bromide)), as an organic biocide in combination with irradiation by an ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light-emitting diode (LED) with a peak wavelength of 365nm. The combined system represents a novel disinfection method utilizing facilitated in situ oxidation depending on overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by the initial action of the gemini-QUAT on the bacterial membrane. We demonstrate that this combination decreased the viability of pathogenic bacteria in a significant and rapid manner, and depended on doses of the gemini-QUAT and the fluence: the viability of Escherichia coli was reduced by greater than 5.0-logs by the combination procedure, but the decrease in viability was only 2.3-logs for exposure to UV at the same fluence dose in the absence of the gemini-QUAT. Adding catalase as a radical scavenger decreased bacterial inactivation by the combined disinfection procedure. Flow cytometric analysis indicated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide overproduction within cells treated with the combined disinfection procedure. The excessive superoxide, detected only in the combined system, appeared to be generated by the action of the gemini-QUAT at the bacterial membrane, leading to excessive and rapid generation of ROS in the system. Our data strongly suggested that this ROS promoted bacterial membrane peroxidation during initial treatment by the combination method, resulting in increased oxidative modification of DNA. These oxidative reactions may play an important role in the efficacy of this disinfection procedure.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 12/2013; 130C:226-233. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aggregation of therapeutic antibodies during the manufacturing process is problematic because of the potential risks posed by the aggregates, such as an unexpected immune response. One of the hallmark effects of trehalose, a disaccharide consisting of two alpha-glucose units, is as a chemical chaperone with anti-aggregation activity. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a diabody-type bispecific antibody were cultured in medium containing trehalose and the aggregation of the secreted proteins during the culture process was analyzed. An analysis of the various forms of the antibody (monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregates) showed that trehalose decreased the relative content of large aggregates by two thirds. The aggregation kinetics indicated that trehalose directly inhibited the polymerization and aggregation steps in a nucleation-dependent aggregation mechanism. Moreover, both specific and volumetric antibody production were increased in CHO cells cultured in trehalose-containing medium. Thus, the addition of trehalose to recombinant CHO cell cultures would offer a practical strategy for quality improvement in the production of therapeutic antibodies.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 12/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Succinoyl trehalose lipids (STLs) are promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced from n-alkanes that are secreted by Rhodococcus spp. bacteria. These compounds not only exhibit unique interfacial properties but also demonstrate versatile biochemical actions. In this study, three novel types of genes involved in the biosynthesis of STLs, including a putative acyl-CoA transferase (tlsA), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (fda) and alkane monooxygenase (alkB), were identified. The predicted functions of these genes indicate that alkane metabolism, sugar synthesis and the addition of acyl groups are important for the biosynthesis of STLs. Based on these results, we propose a biosynthesis pathway for STLs from alkanes in Rhodococcus sp. SD-74. By overexpressing tlsA, we achieved a 2-fold increase in the production of STLs. This study advances our understanding of bacterial glycolipid production in the Rhodococcus species.
Applied and environmental microbiology 09/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NfxC-type mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the MexEF-OprN efflux pump and down-regulates expression of the quorum-sensing-dependent efflux pump MexAB-OprM and production of virulence factors in the presence of an active transcriptional regulator, MexT. Consequently, these cells are resistant to chloramphenicol and hypersusceptible to β-lactam antibiotics. An upper negative regulator, MexS, has been assumed to inactivate MexT in wild-type strains, hence shutting down production of the MexEF-OprN pump. This observation was, however, reported in only one clinical strain and not confirmed in well-characterized laboratory strains. Moreover, it is not known whether MexS is involved in the quorum-sensing-dependent regulation of virulence factor production. To assess these issues, a plasmid carrying wild-type mexS was introduced into three NfxC-type mutants from laboratory strains, which carry an impaired mexS and unimpaired mexT. Unexpectedly, all the transformants produced an increased amount of MexEF-OprN proteins. Three clinical NfxC strains were similarly transformed and although MexEF-OprN was undetectable in two of these strains, one produced an increased amount of these proteins, similar to the laboratory strains. These results were interpreted to mean that P. aeruginosa takes two separate routes in MexT-mediated regulation of mexEF-oprN expression: the MexS-bypassed pathway and MexS-mediated pathway. On the other hand, the transformants of both the laboratory and clinically derived NfxC-type cells produced increased amounts of MexAB-OprM and virulence factors, suggesting that production of these proteins occurs via the MexS-mediated pathway.
Microbiology and Immunology 04/2013; 57(4):263-72. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NfxC-type mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the MexEF-OprN efflux pump and down-regulates the expression of the quorum-sensing-dependent efflux pump MexAB-OprM and production of virulence factors in the presence of an active transcriptional regulator, MexT. Consequently, the cells are resistant to chloramphenicol and hypersusceptible to ß-lactam antibiotics. An upper negative regulator, MexS, was assumed to inactivate MexT in wild-type strains, hence shutting down production of the MexEF-OprN pump. This observation was, however, reported in only one clinical strain and not established in well-characterized laboratory strains. Moreover, it is not known whether MexS is involved in the quorum-sensing-dependent regulation of virulence factor production. To assess these issues, we introduced a plasmid carrying the wild-type mexS into three NfxC-type mutants from laboratory strains, which carry an impaired mexS and unimpaired mexT. Unexpectedly, all the transformants produced an elevated level of the MexEF-OprN proteins. Three clinical NfxC strains were similarly transformed and although two strains showed an undetectable level of MexEF-OprN, one strain produced an elevated level of the proteins similar to the laboratory strains. These results were interpreted to mean that P. aeruginosa takes two separate routes in the MexT-mediated regulation of mexEF-oprN expression; the MexS-bypassed pathway and the MexS-mediated pathway. On the other hand, the transformants of both the laboratory and clinically derived NfxC-type cells produced elevated levels of MexAB-OprM and the virulence factors suggesting that production of these proteins takes the MexS-mediated pathway.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5a-h, a series of (5-substituted-2-methyl-1,3-thiazole-4-yl) acetic acids as heterocyclic acetic acid derivatives, was designed and synthesized from ethyl acetoacetate. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal strains, and their characteristics were investigated by assays under various temperature and pH conditions. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with the use of sheep erythrocytes and human neonate dermal fibroblasts. Similarly, agents such as lauric acid 6 and parabens 7a-b, which are used as preservative agents for commercial cosmetics and detergents, were assayed for comparison. Although the structure of 5a is simple, comprising a thiazole attached with an octyl group and acetic acid moiety, the compound showed stronger and broader antibacterial and antifungal activities among the 5 series against the tested microbes other than gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, 5a overcame the weak antifungal activity of parabens 7a-b. Also, the cytotoxicity of 5a was less than that of parabens 7a-b, especially to human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that thiazolyl-acetic acid 5a is a potentially effective biocide, and that it could be used as a preservative agent in commercially sold cosmetics and detergents, facilitated by the hydrophilic and charge properties of its carboxylic acid moiety.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five ethyl (5-alkyl-2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl) acetates (designated compounds 4a-e) incorporating octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, and hexadecyl alkyl chains, respectively, were prepared by reacting 4-alkyl-4-bromo-3-oxobutyric acid ethyl esters (3a-e) with thiourea in dried acetonitrile. Compounds 3a-e were synthesized by reacting alkylated ethyl acetoacetates with bromine. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and elemental analysis. Compounds 4a-c demonstrated good in vitro antiamoebic activity against Acanthamoeba polyphaga exposed to 10 mg L(-1) for 6 h at 28 °C. Compound 4b showed the highest antiamoebic activity among the tested compounds, comparable to that of chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CHX), decreasing the number of viable cells to below the detection limit of 1 cell mL(-1). The activity of compounds 4a and 4c was similar to that of the commercial antifungal agent fluconazole (Flu). The cytotoxic and hemolytic activity of the compounds was assayed against human neonate dermal fibroblasts and sheep erythrocytes, respectively. Compounds 4a-c were less cytotoxic than Flu and CHX. Our results suggest that compound 4b, which is composed of a 2-amino-thiazole attached to a decyl group and an ethyl ester moiety, is a particularly safe and effective alternative amoebicidal agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mlr gene cluster consisting of mlrA, mlrB, mlrC, and mlrD is involved in the degradation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin. However, it is unclear which degradation intermediates are metabolized by MlrB and MlrC. To address these questions, we constructed recombinant Escherichia coli to overproduce MlrB and MlrC from Sphingopyxis sp. C-1, and determined which intermediates were degraded in cell-free extracts. The cell-free extract containing MlrB degraded linearized microcystin-LR, giving rise to a tetrapeptide. The cell-free extract of MlrC degraded linearized microcystin-LR and also degraded the tetrapeptide to the amino acid Adda. These results indicate that linearized microcystin-LR is degraded by both MlrB and MlrC, and tetrapeptide is degraded by specifically by MlrC in Sphingopyxis sp. C-1.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 08/2012; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously found that the gemini quaternary salt (gemini-QUAT) containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 3,3'- (2,7-dioxaoctane) bis (1-decylpyridinium bromide) (3DOBP-4,10) , exerted fungicidal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and caused respiration inhibition and the cytoplasmic leakage of ATP, magnesium, and potassium ions. Here, we investigated how the gemini-QUAT, 3DOBP-4,10, exerts more powerful antimicrobial activity than the mono-QUAT N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and examined the association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antimicrobial mechanism. Antifungal assays showed that the activity of 3DOBP-4,10 against two yeasts, S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans, was significantly elevated under aerobic conditions, and largely reduced under anaerobic conditions (nitrogen atmosphere) . Adding radical scavengers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and potassium iodide (KI) also decreased the fungicidal activity of 3DOBP-4,10 but negligibly affected that of CPC. We measured survival under static conditions and found that the rapid fungicidal profile of 3DOBP-4,10 was lost, whereas that of CPC was slightly affected in the presence of KI. Our results suggest that 3DOBP-4,10 exerts powerful antimicrobial activity by penetrating the cell wall and membrane, which then allows oxygen to enter the cells, where it participates in the generation of intracellular ROS. The activity could thus be attributable to a synergic antimicrobial combination of the disruption of organelle membranes by the QUAT and oxidative stress imposed by ROS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential of winter biofilm for microcystin-LR (MCLR) biodegradation was comparatively evaluated under various nutrient conditions. Results indicated that MCLR was completely biodegraded by Day 7 without nutrient addition. MCLR-biodegradation was inhibited in the presence of phosphate or glucose addition, with complete MCLR removal observed by Day 10. MCLR was totally biodegraded by Day 7 with dual nutrients comprising glucose and nitrate, suggesting that additional nitrate alleviated the inhibitory effect of glucose alone on the biodegradation. Simultaneously, MCLR-degrading gene (mlrA) abundance were detected to increase with increasing amount of MCLR being degraded under the respective conditions, implying that MCLR-biodegradation depended on the population of indigenous MCLR-degrading bacteria (MCLRDB), which was related to the population of non-degrading bacteria in the biofilm. MCLRDB was found to primarily use MCLR for proliferation rather than other nutrients. This is the first report verifying MCLR as a primary substrate for bacteria under various nutrient conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serratia marcescens gained resistance to both biocides and antibiotics on expressing the SdeAB efflux pump, following exposure to increasingly higher concentrations of a biocide (H. Maseda et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:5230-5235, 2009). To reveal the regulatory mechanism of sdeAB expression, wild-type cells were subjected to transposon-mediated random mutagenesis, and a mutant with antibiotic resistance, which mimicked the phenotype of the previous biocide-resistant cells, was obtained. The transposon element was found in the chromosomal DNA downstream of the sdeAB operon. Sequencing revealed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein with 159 amino acid residues that is highly similar to the BadM-type transcriptional repressor, designated sdeS. The level of sdeB::xylE reporter gene expression, undetectable in the wild-type cells, appeared to be fully comparable to that in the biocide-resistant cells. Nucleotide sequencing of the mutant revealed sdeS to have a single G-to-A base substitution at position 269 that converted Trp90 to a stop codon. Introduction of a plasmid-borne intact sdeS into the mutant cells and the biocide-resistant cells resulted in a reduction in sdeB::xylE reporter activity to an undetectable level. These results suggested that SdeS functions as a repressor of the sdeAB operon. It was concluded that the original biocide-resistant cells had an impaired sdeS and, therefore, a derepressed level of the SdeAB efflux pump.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2011; 55(6):2922-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump in Pseudomonas aeruginosa seems to be upregulated by MexT. The region upstream of the mexEF-oprN operon contains mexT arranged in tandem with mexEF-oprN and separated by 230 bp of mexT-mexE intergenic DNA. Therefore, it is likely that this intergenic DNA contains the promoter-operator element of mexEF-oprN. To characterize how the expression of the mexEF-oprN operon was controlled, we analyzed the mexT-mexE intergenic DNA by constructing a series of intergenic DNA deletions connected with the mexE∷lacZ reporter and made two important discoveries. The first was that the central region of the DNA contained two nod boxes. The mexT-proximal nod box was identified as the MexT-binding site by gel-shift assays using purified MexT. The mexT-distal nod box was required for the transcription of the mexEF-oprN operon, but not for the binding of MexT, suggesting that this region accommodates the binding of the RNA polymerase. The second observation is that there is a 13 bp inverted repeat sequence separated by 10 bp immediately upstream of the mexE gene. Deletion of this region caused a sudden rise in MexEF-OprN production, suggesting that this region accommodates the binding of a putative repressor protein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serratia marcescens is an important opportunistic pathogen in hospitals, where quaternary ammonium compounds are often used for disinfection. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of a biocide on the emergence of biocide- and antibiotic-resistant mutants and to characterize the molecular mechanism of biocide resistance in Serratia marcescens. A quaternary ammonium compound-resistant strain, CRes01, was selected by exposing a wild-type strain of S. marcescens to cetylpyridinium chloride. The CRes01 cells exhibited 2- to 16-fold more resistance than the wild-type cells to biocides and antibiotics, including cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate, fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, and showed increased susceptibilities to beta-lactam antibiotics and N-dodecylpyridinium iodide. Mutant cells accumulated lower levels of norfloxacin than the parent cells in an energized state but not in a de-energized state, suggesting that the strain produced a multidrug efflux pump(s). To verify this assumption, we knocked out a putative efflux pump gene, sdeAB, in CRes01 and found that the knockout restored susceptibility to most quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotics, to which the CRes01 strain showed resistance. On the basis of these and other results, we concluded that S. marcescens gains resistance to both biocides and antibiotics by expressing the SdeAB efflux pump upon exposure to cetylpyridinium chloride.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2009; 53(12):5230-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gemini quaternary salt (gemini-QUAT) containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 3,3'-(2,7-dioxaoctane) bis (1-decylpyridinium bromide) (3DOBP-4,10), exerted fungicidal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae accompanied by respiration inhibition and the cytoplasmic material leakage of ATP, magnesium, and potassium ions. We previously found that gemini-QUAT exerted bacterioclastic action against Escherichia coli by causing the rapid and abundant leakage of turbid materials from the cells. In addition, the first stage of the bacterioclastic action was the leakage of magnesium ions, outer membrane protein E, ATP, and lipopolysaccharides. Here, we investigated how the gemini-QUAT 3DOBP-4,10 exerts fungicidal action against S. cerevislae. The results showed that that > or = 0.4 microM 3DOBP-4,10 stopped respiration and that > or = 3.0, 1.0 and 1.0 microM caused the leakage of cytoplasmic components ATP, magnesium and potassium ions, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed a preserved cell wall structure, whereas intracellular organelles were destroyed in cells incubated with 3DOBP-4,10. We postulated that 3DOBP-4,10 exerts its fungicidal action against S. cerevisiae not through cell wall destruction and protein leakage, but rather by penetrating the cell wall and disrupting the membranes of organelles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pH of the water associated with toxic blooms of cyanobacteria is typically in the alkaline range; however, previously only microcystin-degrading bacteria growing in neutral pH conditions have been isolated. Therefore, we sought to isolate and characterize an alkali-tolerant microcystin-degrading bacterium from a water bloom using microcystin-LR. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolated bacterium belonged to the genus Sphingopyxis, and the strain was named C-1. Sphingopyxis sp. C-1 can grow; at pH 11.0; however, the optimum pH for growth was pH 7.0. The microcystin degradation activity of the bacterium was the greatest between pH 6.52 and pH 8.45 but was also detected at pH 10.0. The mlrA homolog encoding the microcystin-degrading enzyme in the C-1 strain was conserved. We concluded that alkali-tolerant microcystin-degrading bacterium played a key role in triggering the rapid degradation of microcystin, leading to the disappearance of toxic water blooms in aquatic environments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) is an acyl-homoserine-lactone signal utilized in the quorum-sensing (QS) systems of Burkholderia cenocepacia and other bacterial species. Although also produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its role in this species has not been elucidated. Here, we report that C8-HSL modulated antibiotic resistance and pyocyanin production in a P. aeruginosa efflux pump-deficient mutant. The rhl/las quorum-sensing system and qscR gene were both shown to be nonessential in the C8-HSL-induced changes in ofloxacin resistance, suggesting that P. aeruginosa possesses a distinct pathway to respond to C8-HSL.
Microbes and Environments 01/2009; 24(4):338-42. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrolide antibiotics modulate the quorum-sensing system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We tested the effect of macrolide antibiotics on the cell density-dependent expression of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump and found that 1.0 mug/ml (MIC/6.25) of azithromycin suppressed the expression of MexAB-OprM by about 70%, with the result that the cells became two- to fourfold more susceptible to antibiotics such as aztreonam, tetracycline, carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, and novobiocin.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2008; 52(11):4141-4. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaerobic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was affected by quorum sensing. Deletion of genes that produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone signals resulted in an increase in denitrification activity, which was repressed by exogenous signal molecules. The effect of the las quorum-sensing system was dependent on the rhl quorum-sensing system in regulating denitrification.
Journal of Bacteriology 08/2007; 189(13):4969-72. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early in vivo experiments revealed that the MexA-MexB dipartite pump unit of Pseudomonas aeruginosa conferred drug resistance to the cells, which expressed OprM, but not to the OprN-bearing cells. While the MexE-MexF unit interplayed with either the outer membrane subunits. Taking advantage of this subunit selectivity, we selected the MexA mutant that gained the ability to interplay with OprN. Four mutants have been isolated and all showed an amino acid substitution (Q116R) in the coiled-coil domain of MexA. The hybrid protein bearing the coiled-coil domain of MexA and the remainder domains from MexE retained the ability to interplay with OprM, but lost the functional interplay with OprN. These results established that the coiled-coil domain of the membrane fusion protein is responsible for selecting the compatible outer membrane subunit.