[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ganglionic eminence is the main transitory proliferative structure of the ventral telencephalon in human fetal brain and it contributes for at least 35% to the population of cortical interneurons; however data on the human GE anomalies are scarce. We report 5 fetal MR imaging observations with bilateral symmetric cavitations in their GE regions resembling an inverted open C shape and separating the GE itself form the deeper parenchyma. Imaging, neuropathology, and follow-up features suggested a malformative origin. All cases had in common characteristics of lissencephaly with agenesis or severe hypoplasia of corpus callosum of probable different genetic basis. From our preliminary observation, it seems that GE cavitations are part of conditions which are also accompanied by severe cerebral structure derangement.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 04/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different and specific MR imaging patterns of lesions involving WM are widely defined in neonatal encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to describe a novel MR imaging pattern of damage characterized by the abnormal prominence of DMVs in premature and full-term neonates.
Twenty-one (11 premature and 10 full-term) neonates with MR imaging evidence of linear radially oriented fan-shaped lesions in the periventricular WM and without dural venous thrombosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. A total of 37 MR imaging examinations were performed at ages ranging from day 0 to 24 months.
According to the appearance of linear anomalies on T2-weighted images, we identified 2 main patterns: T2 hypointense lesions without WM cavitations and T2 hypointense lesions associated with linear cysts. The first pattern was found in 17 examinations performed between 0 and 44 days of life; the second pattern was found in another 14 examinations performed between 6 days and 4 months of life. Five examinations performed between 9 and 24 months of life showed a reduction in volume and hyperintense signal intensity of the periventricular WM on T2-weighted and FLAIR images.
Subtle linear WM lesions with the same anatomic distribution of DMVs may be evident in premature and full-term neonates without signs of major venous thrombosis, both in the acute and subacute phases. Their appearance and evolution suggest that transient DMV engorgement/thrombosis may be responsible for WM damage that can lead to a PVL-like pattern.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 09/2011; 32(11):2030-6. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Looking for anomalies distributed in DMV territory, we reviewed 78 fetal MR imaging examinations performed at our institution reporting unequivocal cerebral clastic lesions. We selected 3 cases, all of which had severe cardiocirculatory failure and parenchymal frontoparietal WM hemorrhagic lesions with characteristic fan-shaped distribution. Brain edema and other signs of venous hypertension were also evident. Our data suggest that in utero transient venous hypertension may be responsible for the onset of atypical frontal-located PVL.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 09/2011; 32(8):E146-9. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to outline the real indications for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) based on the current clinical and scientific evidence and to determine where it fits into prenatal diagnostic protocols. We also consider the most commonly used FMRI diagnostic protocols and take stock of the safety aspects of this examination. This paper is the result of the work of the Fetal Magnetic Resonance (FMR) Study Group of the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) in cooperation with the Study Group of the Italian Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (SIEOG). It has been reviewed and approved by the Italian Association of Neuroradiology (AINR). As FMRI is undergoing continuous development, and its indications and role are also likely to change over time, the Fetal Magnetic Resonance Study Group is in agreement with the other scientific bodies involved in the drafting of this document to propose subsequent modifications to it when new clinical and scientific evidence suggest the need.
La radiologia medica 02/2011; 116(3):337-50. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are nasal blockage, nasal discharge, postnasal drip, facial pain, headache, and reduction or loss of smell, but they are often subtle and make it difficult to obtain a firm diagnosis based only on clinical data, and especially to distinguish CRS from persistent rhinitis. A diagnosis of certainty of CRS relies upon either direct observation by nasal fibroendoscopy of nasal turbinates, middle meatus, and rhinopharynx, detecting mucopurulent discharge from the middle meatus, and/or oedema or mucosal obstruction, or by imaging of the rhinosinusal cavities. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance (MR) are currently recommended in consensus documents, while plain radiography is considered of poor diagnostic value. However, recent studies indicated that radiography by the Waters'projection had a sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 76.6%, which suggests to use it routinely in suspected CRS, limiting the number of more expensive imaging investigations. This seems important in the current economic landscape that requires a cost-effectiveness evaluation in each diagnostic procedure.
European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2010; 42(6):199-204.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal imaging data of the normal pituitary gland and in vivo information on the development of the pituitary region are lacking; however, we noticed that the pituitary stalk (PS) is visible occasionally in utero on MR images. Our main purpose was to establish the detection rate of the PS in healthy fetuses at various gestational ages (GAs) by using single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted images.
We selected 73 fetal cases with normal findings on prenatal MR imaging and clinical postnatal follow-up. The GA ranged between 19 and 37 weeks. The 3 planes of MR imaging sections were 4 mm thick with 1.25 x 1.25 mm in-plane resolution. Two pediatric neuroradiologists evaluated in consensus whether the PS was present as a linear isointense structure connecting the hypothalamic region with the floor of sella turcica. In those cases in which the PS was visible on the sagittal section, the angle formed by the intersection of the PS and the sellar plane (SP) was measured (PS-SP angle).
The PS was detectable on at least 1 coronal or sagittal section from 19 to 25 weeks' GA in 30/42 fetuses (71.4% sensitivity); from 26 to 37 weeks' GA, the PS was detected in all 31 fetuses (100% sensitivity). The PS-SP angle decreased significantly with GA, being <90 degrees in all fetuses after gestational week 25.
At the current spatial resolution of clinical prenatal MR imaging, PS can be reliably detected after 25 weeks' GA, so in case of a missing visualization, a strong suspicion of pituitary region anomaly could be raised.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2009; 30(5):1014-6. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data.
From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists.
A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures.
The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sinusitis in children is a common problem. The diagnosis of both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis in the pediatric population, should be made first of all clinically, and not on the basis of imaging findings alone. Plain radiography may be used as a screening method for various pathological conditions of sinuses, but computed tomography (CT) remains the study of choice for the imaging evaluation of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. In acute sinusitis, CT is indicated in patients with symptoms persisting after 10 days of appropriate therapy and in patients with suspected complications (especially in the brain and in the orbit). In addition to CT scanning, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sinuses, orbits, and brain should be performed whenever extensive or multiple complications of sinusitis are suspected. In chronic sinusitis, CT scanning is the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis and the management, because it also provides an anatomic road map, when surgery is required. Nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound are rarely indicated in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by the death of one twin are associated with substantial morbidity in the survivor, with a high risk of developing hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this report, we demonstrate how prenatal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detected focal ischemic lesions in the survivor of a monochorionic twin pregnancy within 1-2 days of cotwin death. A very early diagnosis of cerebral ischemic lesions might influence the management of the pregnancy. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2007; 29(4):453-6. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare genetic disorder, which is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of one chromosome 4. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings are lacking. We report on brain findings in 10 children with WHS. We evaluated the MR imaging films of 10 subjects affected by WHS, which had been confirmed by genetic study. The age range at MR imaging was between 1 month and 9 years. In 9/10 cases enlargement of the third lateral ventricles was present. In 9/10 cases a global reduction of cerebral hemispheres white matter was present. In 10/10 cases diffuse thinning of the corpus callosum was visible; it was severe in 7/10 cases. In 5/10 cases small foci of T (2) hyper intense signal were visible within the subcortical white matter. In three of the six cases studied within the first year of life frontal periventricular cysts were present. In three of the four cases studied after the first year of life a squared shape of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was visible. The MR imaging findings reported in WHS cannot be considered pathognomonic of the syndrome, however, they may suggest WHS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord ischaemia is a rare entity and very few cases of simultaneous spinal cord and vertebral body infarction have been reported: all of them in adult age. We observed a 15-year-old girl with abrupt onset of myelopathy and pain at the vertebral column studied by means of serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in whom bone infarction was a confirmatory sign of the vascular origin of the spinal lesion. This is to the best of our knowledge the first paediatric case described in the literature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in the fetus is very rare and the role of thrombophilia in its pathogenesis is unclear. We report on the prenatal diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging of GMH-IVH in a 24-week fetus. The newborn presented posthemorrhagic ventriculomegaly and was found to be heterozygous for two thrombophilic patterns, factor V Leiden and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation. The combination of this hypercoagulable state and prenatal GMH-IVH is discussed together with the opportunity of testing these infants for thrombophilia.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2005; 26(5):574-6. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging features of multiple sclerosis in children can differ from the usual adult pattern. Frequently, lesions can be more larger and pseudo-tumoral with a variable evolution. The most critical differential diagnosis in childhood is with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis that is a relatively frequent acquired inflammatory disease of the white matter with a polymorphous appearance. Some differences between multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children such as distribution of white matter lesions and frequency of gray matter involvement should be pointed out. Neveretheless only follow-up examination can make the definitive diagnosis in the majority of the cases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause malformations of cortical development (MCD). It is difficult to establish CMV as a cause of MCD several months postpartum. This can now be done by detection of CMV DNA in dried blood spots (DBS test) on Guthrie cards. The authors used DBS tests to assess 10 patients with MCD of unknown cause. Four of the 10 patients were positive for CMV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, MR imaging has become the technique of choice in evaluating neonatal central nervous system diseases. It is the only imaging technique that can discriminate myelinated from neonatal unmyelinated white matter; it offers the highest sensitivity in detecting acute anoxic injury of the neonatal brain; and with proper coils and sequences, it can exquisitely depict neonatal brain anatomy and locate pathology, offering a robust and reliable tool in the prognostic assessment of neonatal central nervous system disease.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America 03/2001; 9(1):57-82, viii. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 17-year-old boy with polymorphic simple and complex partial seizures is described. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a unilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia near the occipital ventricular right horn. Interictal and ictal electroencephalographic recordings showed bilateral specific epileptiform anomalies in the occipital region and asynchronous slow waves in frontal areas. Single photon emission computed tomography documented a reduction in regional cerebral blood flow in an area of the left occipital cortex and a symmetric increase in tracer uptake in the frontal lobes. The neuropsychologic assessment revealed a dysfunction of the frontal associative areas. Data collected led the authors to suspect a more diffuse cortical dysfunction than the nodular heterotopia revealed on magnetic resonance imaging.
Journal of Child Neurology 10/2000; 15(9):622-6. · 1.39 Impact Factor