[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontal pathogen. Histologocally, the gingival tissue in periodontitis shows dense infiltration of plasma cells. However, antigens recognized by antibodies secreted from the immunocytes remain unknown. The enzyme-labeled antigen method was applied to detecting plasma cells producing P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in biopsied gingival tissue of periodontitis. N-terminally biotinylated P. gingivalis antigens, Ag53 and four gingipain domains (Arg-pro, Arg-hgp, Lys-pro and Lys-hgp) were prepared by the cell-free protein synthesis system using the wheat germ extract. With these five labeled proteins as probes, 20 lesions of periodontitis were evaluated. With the AlphaScreen method, the antibodies against any one of the five P. gingivalis antigens were detected in 11 (55%) samples of sera, and 17 (85%) of tissue extracts. With the enzyme-labeled antigen method on paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen sections of gingival tissue, plasma cells were labeled with any one of the five antigens in 17 (94%) of 18 specimens, in which evaluable plasma cells were detected. The positivity rates in periodontitis were significantly higher than those in radicular cyst we have reported (20% in sera and 33% in tissue extracts with the AlphaScreen method, and 25% with the enzyme-labeled antigen method, Tsuge et al., J Histochem Cytochem, 2011). Our findings directly indicate that antibodies reactive to P. gingivalis are locally produced in the gingival lesions, and that inflammatory reactions against P. gingivalis are involved in periodontitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MUC5AC is a well-known gastric differentiation marker, which has been frequently used for the classification of stomach cancer. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of MUC5AC decreases accompanied with increased malignant property of gastric mucosa, which further suggests the importance of MUC5AC gene regulation. Alignment of the 5'-flanking regions of MUC5AC gene of 13 mammal species denoted high homology within 200 bp upstream of the coding region. Luciferase activities of the deletion constructs containing upstream 451 bp or shorter fragments demonstrated that 15 bp region between -111 and -125 bp plays a critical role on MUC5AC promoter activity in gastrointestinal cells. We found a putative Gli-binding site in this 15 bp sequence, and named this region a highly conserved region containing a Gli-binding site (HCR-Gli). Overexpression of Gli homologs (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) clearly enhanced MUC5AC promoter activity. Exogenous modulation of Gli1 and Gli2 also affected the endogenous MUC5AC gene expression in gastrointestinal cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Gli1 directly binds to HCR-Gli: Gli regulates MUC5AC transcription via direct protein-DNA interaction. Conversely, in the 30 human cancer cell lines and various normal tissues, expression patterns of MUC5AC and Gli did not coincide wholly: MUC5AC showed cell line-specific or tissue-specific expression whereas Gli mostly revealed ubiquitous expression. Luciferase promoter assays suggested that the far distal MUC5AC promoter region containing upstream 4010 bp seems to have several enhancer elements for gene transcription. In addition, treatments with DNA demethylation reagent and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor induced MUC5AC expression in several cell lines that were deficient in MUC5AC expression. These results indicated that Gli is necessary but not sufficient for MUC5AC expression: namely, the multiple regulatory mechanisms should work in the distal promoter region of MUC5AC gene.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e106106. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) presents various histological features, though the mechanism underlying its diversity is seldom elucidated. It is mainly classified into well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1), moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por), signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig), mucinous adenocarcinoma (muc), and papillary adenocarcinoma (pap). By screening, we found expresses universally in sig-type, occasionally in por-type, and rarely in tub1/tub2-type GC cell lines. In surgically-resected specimens, CTSE was immunostained in 50/51 sig-type (98.0%), 3/10 tub1-type (30.0%), 7/18 tub2-type (38.9%), 15/26 por-type (57.7%), 4/10 pap-type (40.0%), and 0/3 muc-type (0.0%) GC. In endoscopically-resected specimens, 6/7 sig-type (85.7%), 7/52 tub1-type (13.7%), 5/12 tub2-type (41.7%), 2/7 pap-type (28.6%) GC and 0/6 adenoma (0.0%) expressed CTSE. For non-malignant tissues, CTSE is universally expressed in normal fundic, pyloric, and cardiac glands of stomach, but hardly in other digestive organs. In the precancerous intestinal metaplasia of stomach, CTSE is mostly observed in mixed gastric-and-intestinal type and deficient in solely-intestinal type. CTSE expression is positively correlated with gastric marker MUC5AC (<0.0001) and negatively correlated with intestinal marker MUC2 ( = 0.0019). For sig-type GC, in both tumors and background mucosa, expression of MUC5AC and CTSE is high whereas that of MUC2 is low, indicating that sig-type GC reflects the features of background mucosa. For gastric adenoma and tub1/tub2-type GC, more undifferentiated tumors tend to show higher expression of CTSE with MUC5AC and lower expression of MUC2 in tumors, but they tend to present lower expression of CTSE, MUC5AC and MUC2 in background mucosa. These suggest that more malignant gastric adenocarcinoma with stronger gastric and weaker intestinal properties tend to arise from background mucosa with decreased both gastric and intestinal features. In conclusion, CTSE is a marker of both gastric differentiation and signet-ring cell carcinoma, which should shed light on the mechanism of gastric tumorigenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56766. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. In situ hybridization (ISH) with high sensitivity has been requested to demonstrate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of the liver. Methods. ISH employing a locked-nucleic-acid- (LNA-)modified oligonucleotide probe and biotin-free catalyzed signal amplification system (CSAII) was applied to HCV-RNA detection in the liver tissue. Nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for HCV genotyping using total RNA extracted from FFPE sections. The target tissues included FFPE tissue sections of humanized livers in HCV-infected chimeric mice (HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a and noninfected) and of needle-biopsied livers from HCV-infected patients. Results. HCV-RNA was demonstrated with the ISH technique in HCV-infected liver tissues from both chimeric mice and 9 (82%) of 11 patients with HCV infection. The HCV signals were sensitive to RNase. Nested RT-PCR confirmed the genotype in 8 (73%) of 11 livers (type 1b: 6 lesions and type 2a: 2 lesions). HCV-RNA was not identified in chronic hepatitis B lesions, fatty liver, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion. ISH using the LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and CSAII was applicable to detecting HCV-RNA in routinely prepared FFPE liver specimens.
International journal of hepatology. 01/2013; 2013:249535.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunostaining for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is important in the contemporary therapeutic strategy of colorectal carcinomas. We tried to increase detection sensitivity, and compared the high-sensitivity EGFR immunostaining with a worldwide standard, EGFR PharmDx™ (Dako). In order to pursue high-sensitivity EGFR detection, deparaffinized sections were pressure-cooked in 1 mM EDTA solution, pH 8.0. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies against EGFR, clone EGFR2.5 and DAK-H1-WT, and six kinds of secondary detection reagents, including biotin-free catalyzed signal amplification (CSA II), Simple Stain MAX-PO, PolyVue, Novolink, EnVision™ FLEX+, and MACH3, were evaluated to compare the results with those with EGFR PharmDx™, employing a combination of 2-18-C9 as the primary monoclonal antibody and EnVision™ as the secondary reagent. Furthermore, we replaced EnVision™ in the EGFR PharmDx™ kit with CSAII. EGFR detection sensitivity was higher with DAK-H1-WT than with EGFR2.5, and among the secondary reagents, the strongest signals were observed with Novolink. All 30 colorectal carcinomas showed distinct expression of EGFR with our high-sensitivity EGFR immunostaining, while only 16 (53%) gave focal positivity with EGFR PharmDx™. When EnVision™ in EGFR PharmDx™ was replaced by CSA II, strong signals were seen in all cases, and the expression pattern was comparable with our sequence. Non-neoplastic crypt epithelial cells often showed weakly signal with the standard EGFR PharmDx™, but consistently revealed strong membrane staining in the two high-sensitivity sequences. EGFR PharmDx™ frequently gave false negativity. Importantly, EGFR was consistently and sensitively detected when the secondary polymer in the EGFR PharmDx™ kit was simply replaced by CSA II.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(1):24-30. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) shows dense infiltration of plasmacytes. The purpose of the present study is to identify and localize autoantibodies produced in these immunocytes in RA synovitis. We developed a novel screening system for detecting specific autoantigens. Protein antigens recognized by antibodies in the serum and synovial tissue extract from five RA patients were screened with the AlphaScreen method. For screening, a biotinylated human autoantigen library was constructed by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system. The AlphaScreen analysis of 2183 proteins detected a limited number of antigens reactive with the serum and synovial tissue extract. Eighteen biotinylated proteins, containing top five showing high signals in each synovitis tissue extract, were utilized as probes for the enzyme-labeled antigen method, in order to visualize the site of specific antibody production in synovial lesions. Specific antibodies against two proteins, tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21, also known as SSA/Ro52) and F-box only protein 2 (FBXO2), were visualized in the cytoplasm of plasmacytes in two RA synovitis lesions, respectively. Absorption experiments using unlabeled proteins confirmed the specificity of staining. No positive signals against these two proteins were identified in the additionally evaluated RA and osteoarthritis synovial lesions. The present study indicated 1) the usefulness of screening the human autoantigen library with the AlphaScreen assay for detecting autoantibodies in RA synovitis, and 2) the applicability of biotinylated proteins to the enzyme-labeled antigen method for visualizing the site of autoantibody production within the lesion.
Journal of immunological methods 10/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian transcriptional factors, Cdx1 and Cdx2 (Cdx is caudal-type homeobox) are paralogues and critical for the cellular differentiation of intestinal or colorectal epithelia. It has been reported previously that in Cdx1 transgenic or knockout mice, endogenous Cdx2 levels are inversely correlated with Cdx1 levels. Recently, we found that exogenous Cdx1 expression can suppress Cdx2 in a human colorectal tumour cell line, SW480, although the underlying molecular mechanisms were unclear. In the present study, we show that several microRNAs induced by exogenous Cdx1 expression directly bind to the CDX2 mRNA 3'UTR (untranslated region) to destabilize these transcripts, finally leading to their degradation. Using microarray analysis, we found that several miRNAs that were computationally predicted to target CDX2 mRNAs are up-regulated by exogenous Cdx1 expression in SW480 cells. Among these molecules, we identified miR-9, miR-16 and miR-22 as having the potential to suppress Cdx2 through the binding of the 3'UTR to its transcript. Importantly, simultaneous mutations of both the miR-9- and miR-16-binding sites in the CDX2 3'UTR were shown to be sufficient to block Cdx2 suppression. The results of the present study suggest a unique feature of miRNAs in which they contribute to homoeostasis by limiting the levels of transcription factors belonging to the same gene family.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rebamipide is usually used for mucosal protection, healing of gastric ulcers, treatment of gastritis, etc., but its effects on gastric malignancy have not been elucidated. Using Lewis and Buffalo rat strains treated with peroral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), we evaluated the effect of rebamipide on the induction of tumor-suppressive dendritic cells, which are known to be heterogeneous antigen-presenting cells of bone marrow origin and are critical for the initiation of primary T-cell responses. Using CD68 as a marker for dendritic cells, the stomach pyloric mucosae of Lewis and Buffalo rats were immunohistochemically analyzed in the presence or absence of rebamipide and MNNG. After a 14-day treatment of rebamipide alone, no significant change in number of CD68-expressing cells was detected in either rat strain. However, after concurrent exposure to MNNG for 14 days, treatment with rebamipide slightly increased CD68-positive cells in the Lewis strain, and significantly increased them in the Buffalo strain. Analysis of two chemotactic factors of dendritic cells, IL-1β and TNF-α, in the gastric cancer cells showed that expression of IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was induced by rebamipide in a dose-dependent manner. A luciferase promoter assay using gastric SH-10-TC cells demonstrated that an element mediating rebamipide action exists in the IL-1β gene promoter region. In conclusion, rebamipide has potential tumor-suppressive effects on gastric tumorigenesis via the recruitment of dendritic cells, based on the upregulation of the IL-1β gene in gastric epithelial cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2012; 424(1):124-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak that occurred between 1940 and 1999 in a closed leprosy sanatorium located on a small island in Japan was analyzed. The analysis of 318 nucleotides in the NS5B region of HCV allowed us to establish the existence of at least three different HCV strains in this sanatorium.
Journal of clinical microbiology 07/2011; 49(9):3358-60. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enzyme-labeled antigen method was applied to visualize plasma cells producing antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis, flora of the human oral cavity. Antibodies to P. gingivalis have reportedly been detected in sera of patients with periodontitis. Biotinylated bacterial antigens, Ag53, and four gingipain domains (Arg-pro, Arg-hgp, Lys-pro, and Lys-hgp) were prepared by the cell-free protein synthesis system using the wheat germ extract. In paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen sections of rat lymph nodes experimentally immunized with Ag53-positive and Ag53-negative P. gingivalis, plasma cells were labeled with biotinylated Arg-hgp and Lys-hgp. Antibodies to Ag53 were detected only in the nodes immunized with Ag53-positive bacteria. In two of eight lesions of gingival radicular cyst with inflammatory infiltration, CD138-positive plasma cells in frozen sections were signalized for Arg-hgp and Lys-hgp. An absorption study using unlabeled antigens confirmed the specificity of staining. The AlphaScreen method identified the same-type antibodies in tissue extracts but not in sera. Antibodies to Ag53, Arg-pro, and Lys-pro were undetectable. In two cases, serum antibodies to Arg-hgp and Lys-hgp were AlphaScreen positive, whereas plasma cells were scarcely observed within the lesions. These findings indicate the validity of the enzyme-labeled antigen method. This is the very first application of this novel histochemical technique to human clinical samples.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/2011; 59(7):673-89. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese spotted fever (JSF) is caused by Rickettsia japonica, and lethal cases are reported yearly in southwest Japan. We thus established the method of diagnosing JSF by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens. Two monoclonal antibodies were used for IHC, and the 17k genus common antigen gene served as the target of RT-PCR. We collected skin biopsy (n = 61) and autopsy (n = 1) specimens from 50 patients clinically suspected of JSF. Immunohistochemically, the rickettsial antigens were localized as coarse dots in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells and macrophages. Thirty-one seropositive cases plus one autopsy case (group A) and nine seronegative cases but with positive IHC and/or RT-PCR (group B) were judged as JSF. Nine cases were regarded as non-JSF disorders based on negative serology, IHC and RT-PCR (group C). Of 50 biopsies (eschar 34, eruptions 10, and scabs 6) from groups A and B, IHC and RT-PCR positivities were 94% (32/34) and 62% (21/34) for eschar, 80% (8/10) and 30% (3/10) for eruptions, and 33% (2/6) and 50% (3/6) for scabs. For IHC, eschar was most suitable, and scabs were insufficient. Unexpectedly, 18 biopsies happened to be fixed in 100% formalin, and this lowered the detection rate by RT-PCR, but IHC was tolerant. Sequence analysis using five skin biopsy specimens confirmed a 114 bp DNA stretch homologous to that reported for the target gene of R. japonica. In 26 (84%) of the 31 seropositive patients, the diagnosis was made by IHC and/or RT-PCR earlier than serology.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 05/2011; 18(3):260-7. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF is an important epigenetic regulator that includes one Brm or BRG1 molecule as catalytic subunit. Brm and BRG1 do not function identically, so this complex can regulate gene expression either positively or negatively, depending on the promoter to which it is recruited. Notably, Brm attenuation due to posttranscription suppression occurs often in human tumor cells, in which this event contributes to their oncogenic potential. Here, we report that the 3'-untranslated region of Brm mRNA has two sites that are efficiently targeted by the microRNAs miR-199a-5p and -3p, revealing a novel mechanism for modulation of Brm-type SWI/SNF activity. Computational mapping of the putative promoter region of miR-199a-2 (miPPR-199a-2) has defined it as the major contributing genetic locus for miR-199a-5p and-3p production in these tumor cell lines. We validated this predicted region by direct promoter analysis to confirm that Egr1 is a strong positive regulator of the miR-199a-2 gene. Importantly, we also showed that Egr1, miR-199a-5p, and miR-199a-3p are expressed at high levels in Brm-deficient tumor cell lines but only marginally in Brm-expressing tumor cells. Finally, we also obtained evidence that Brm negatively regulates Egr1. Together, our results reveal that miR-199a and Brm form a double-negative feedback loop through Egr1, leading to the generation of these two distinct cell types during carcinogenesis. This mechanism may offer a partial explanation for why miR-199a-5p and -3p have been reported to be either upregulated or downregulated in a variety of tumors.
Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(5):1680-9. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a serious disease caused by decreased bone mass. There is constant matrix remodeling in bones, by which bone formation is performed by osteoblastic cells, whereas bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclast cells. We investigated the effect of a Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIBE. et ZUCC.) extract on the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, cell proliferation assay, alizarin red staining and expression analysis of osteoblastic genes were carried out to assess the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation. The water-soluble fraction of Prunus mume (PWF) increased the ALP activity, cell proliferation and mineralization. The gene expression of osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein-2, which are markers in the early period of osteoblastic differentiation, were significantly enhanced by the PWF treatment. PWF therefore stimulated the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of cells and may have potential to prevent osteoporosis.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 75(10):1907-11. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the correlation between Japanese apricot (JA) intake and Helicobacter pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).
A questionnaire was administered and serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies measured in 1358 asymptomatic adults. The subjects were divided into high-intake and low-intake groups. Histological and serological evaluation of H. pylori-related CAG was performed in 68 non-elderly volunteers.
The H. pylori-negative rate did not differ significantly between the high-intake and low-intake groups. Mean antibody titers were lower in the high-intake group, but the difference was not significant. There was no significant difference in the rate of H. pylori infection on the basis of JA intake when subjects were stratified by age. Among H. pylori-positive non-elderly subjects, antibody titers were significantly lower in the high-intake group (P=0.041). Endoscopic tissue biopsy from the 68 volunteers showed less H. pylori bacterial load and mononuclear infiltration irrespective of gastric site in the high-intake group. In the high-intake group, antral neutrophil infiltration was significantly less pronounced and corporal atrophy was less extensive. Serological evaluation using serum PG levels also confirmed these histopathological data.
Our findings strongly indicate a preventive effect of JA intake on CAG by inhibiting H. pylori infection and reducing active mucosal inflammation.
European journal of clinical nutrition 07/2010; 64(7):714-9. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oku-Komyo-En is one of the national leprosy sanatoria, located on a small island in Setouchi city, Okayama prefecture of Japan since 1938. Since autopsies were carried out routinely on almost all patients who had died in the sanatorium up to 1980, approximately 1,000 formalin-fixed autopsy tissue samples were available for analysis. When these samples were reviewed, the pathological data indicated a sharp rise in the death rate caused by cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since 1960 and 1970, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of HCC in Japan. The presence of HCV RNA was demonstrated in paraffin sections prepared from the autopsied liver tissue fixed in formalin for a prolonged period of time, by employing nested RT-PCR using type-specific primers. The data showed that HCV RNA was detectable in samples of the liver archived as early as 1940, representing the liver tissues kept in formalin for up to 67 years. HCV genotypes 1b and 2a were found by RT-PCR at 85.7% and 14.3%, respectively, in patients with leprosy.
Journal of Medical Virology 02/2010; 82(4):556-61. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand microRNA miR-21 function in carcinogenesis, we analyzed miR-21 expression patterns in different stages of colorectal cancer development using in situ hybridization (ISH).
Locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA probes and a biotin-free tyramide signal amplification system were used in ISH analyses of miRNA expression. Conditions for specific detection of miR-21 were determined using human cell lines and miR-21-expressing lentiviral vectors. Expression was determined in 39 surgically excised colorectal tumors and 34 endoscopically resected colorectal polyps.
In the surgical samples, miR-21 expression was much higher in colorectal cancers than in normal mucosa. Strong miR-21 expression was also observed in cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts, suggesting miR-21 induction by cancer-secreted cytokines. Protein expression of PDCD4, a miR-21 target, was inversely correlated with miR-21 expression, confirming that miR-21 is indeed a negative regulator of PDCD4 in vivo. In the endoscopic samples, miR-21 expression was very high in malignant adenocarcinomas but was not elevated in nontumorigenic polyps. Precancerous adenomas also frequently showed miR-21 up-regulation.
Using the LNA-ISH system for miRNA detection, miR-21 was detectable in precancerous adenomas. The frequency and extent of miR-21 expression increased during the transition from precancerous colorectal adenoma to advanced carcinoma. Expression patterns of miR-21 RNA and its target, tumor suppressor protein PDCD4, were mutually exclusive. This pattern may have clinical application as a biomarker for colorectal cancer development and might be emphasized by self-reinforcing regulatory systems integrated with the miR-21 gene, which has been previously shown in cell culture.
Clinical Cancer Research 07/2009; 15(12):4009-16. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our recent study showing a correlation between Brm-deficiency and undifferentiated status of gastric cancer, we found that the Brm-type SWI/SNF complex is required for villin expression. To elucidate intestinal villin regulation more precisely, we here analyzed structure and function of the promoter of human villin. About 1.1 kb upstream of the determined major transcription start site, we identified a highly conserved region (HCR-Cdx) among mammals, which contains two binding sites for Cdx. Expression analyses of 30 human gastrointestinal cell lines suggested that villin is regulated by Cdx2. Introduction of Cdx family genes into colorectal SW480 cells revealed that villin is strongly induced strongly by Cdx2, moderately by Cdx1, and marginally by Cdx4. Knockdown of Cdx2 in SW480 cells caused a clear downregulation of villin, and reporter assays showed that HCR-Cdx is crucial for Cdx2-dependent and Brm-dependent villin expression. Immunohistochemical analyses of gastric intestinal metaplasia and cancer revealed that villin and Cdx2 expression are tightly coupled. GST pull-down assays demonstrated a direct interaction between Cdx2 and several SWI/SNF subunits. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed the recruitment of Cdx2 and Brm around HCR-Cdx. From these results, we concluded that Cdx2 regulates intestinal villin expression through recruiting Brm-type SWI/SNF complex to the villin promoter.
Experimental Cell Research 02/2009; 315(10):1779-89. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The composition of the volatile components from unripe (I) and ripe (II) Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) have been investigated. Seventy-six volatile components were identified, 25 for the first time as volatile constituents of Japanese apricot. The main components were benzaldehyde (I, 59.16%; II, 1.81%), isolongifololyl acetate (II, 19.21%), palmitic acid (I, trace; 10.22%), linalool (I, 9.93%; II, 7.34%), and butyl acetate (II, 8.30%). Unripe Japanese apricot have a green colour due to the main components being aldehydes. On the contrary, ripe Japanese apricot had a fruity note due to the increase of the ratio of esters during ripening.
Natural product research 01/2009; 23(17):1567-71. · 1.01 Impact Factor