F T Christiansen

Royal Perth Hospital, Perth City, Western Australia, Australia

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Publications (187)843.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The MHC class Ib molecule HLA-G has previously been reported to be the ligand for the NK cell receptor killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)2DL4, but this remains controversial. In this study, we investigated IFN-γ production by freshly isolated NK cells in response to both soluble and solid-phase ligands, including anti-KIR2DL4 mAbs and rHLA-G. Although freshly isolated CD56(bright) NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to soluble HLA-G preparations, the response was found to be absolutely dependent on the presence of small numbers of contaminating CD56(-), CD14(-), CD11c(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). HLA-G tetramers bound only to the contaminating mDCs in the NK preparations, and Abs to KIR2DL4 and HLA-G did not block NK cell IFN-γ production. NK cells did not respond to plate-bound HLA-G. Freshly isolated NK cells also produced IFN-γ in response to unpurified soluble anti-KIR2DL4 mAb but not to low endotoxin affinity-purified Ab. The data suggest that previous reports of functional interactions between KIR2DL4 and HLA-G may have resulted from the use of purified NK cells that were contaminated with mDCs and HLA-G preparations that were contaminated with material capable of stimulating mDCs to produce cytokines that stimulate NK cells to produce IFN-γ.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2014; 192(9):4003-4. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eurotransplant acceptable mismatch program has improved transplantation access for highly sensitized recipients. However, the benefits and costs of implementing such a program remain unknown. Using decision analytical modeling, we compared the average waiting time for transplantation, overall survival gains (in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years gained), and costs of integrating an acceptable mismatch allocation model compared with the current deceased-donor kidney allocation model in Australia. Acceptable mismatches were identified in 12 of 28 (43%) highly sensitized recipients using HLAMatchmaker. Inclusion of acceptable mismatches in the current allocation model improved the transplantation access for four (14%) highly sensitized recipients, with an average reduction in waiting time of 34 months (from 86 to 52 months). Compared with the current allocation model, incorporating an acceptable mismatch allocation model achieved an overall lifetime gain of 0.034 quality-adjusted life-years and savings of over $4,000 per highly sensitized patient, with a small consequential loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years and extra costs of $800 for every reallocated patient. Despite modest overall health gains, application of an acceptable mismatch allocation model is an equitable approach to improve transplantation access for highly sensitized transplant candidates without compromising the overall health benefits among the other patients on the deceased-donor waitlist in Australia.
    Transplantation 04/2014; 97(7):769-74. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Historic Red Blood Cell Transfusion (RBCT) may induce anti-HLA antibody which if donor specific (DSA), is associated with increased antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Whether post-operative RBCT influences this risk is unknown. We examined the RBCT history in 258 renal transplant recipients stratified according to prevalent recipient HLA antibody (DSA, Non-DSA or No Antibody). AMR occurred more frequently in patients who received RBCT both pre and post transplant compared with all other groups (Pre+Post-RBCT 21%, Pre-RBCT 4%, Post-RBCT 6%, No-RBCT 6%, HR 4.1 p=0.004). In the 63 patients who received Pre+Post-RBCT, 65% (13/20) with DSA developed AMR compared with 0/6 in the non-DSA group and 2/37 (5%) in the No-Antibody group (HR 13.9 p<0.001). In patients who received No-RBCT, Pre-RBCT or Post-RBCT there was no difference in AMR between patients with DSA, Non-DSA or No-Antibody. Graft loss was independently associated with Pre+Post-RBCT (HR 6.5, p=0.001) AMR (HR 23.9 p<0.001) and Non-AMR (6.0 p=0.003) after adjusting for DSA and delayed graft function. Re-exposure to RBCT at the time of transplant is associated with increased AMR only in patients with preformed DSA, suggesting RBCT provides additional allostimulation . Patients receiving pre+post-RBCT also had an increased risk of graft loss independently of AMR or DSA. Both pre and post procedural RBCT in renal transplantation is associated with modification of immunological risk and warrants additional study.
    Transplant Immunology 09/2013; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes have concomitant, although modest, effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility; however findings have varied in different populations. Here we present the results of an association study of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 non-HLA genes (IL7R, IL2RA, CLEC-16A, TYK2, CD58, IRF5, STAT3, CTLA-4, APOE, ICAM-1) in a Western Australian cohort of 350 MS patients and 498 population control subjects. Our results indicate that in this population, SNPs in IL7R, TYK2, IRF5 and APOE have modifying effects on MS susceptibility. We also found evidence of interactive protective effects between polymorphisms in the IL7R/CD58, CLEC-16A/CTLA-4, and TYK2/IRF5 genes, which in some instances are restricted within HLA- or gender-defined groups.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 05/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The long term effect of donor specific antibodies (DSA) detected by Luminex Single Antigen Bead (SAB) assay in the absence of a positive complement-dependant cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch is unclear. DSA at the time of transplant were determined retrospectively in 258 renal transplant recipients from 2003 to 2007 and their relationship with rejection and graft function prospectively evaluated. After a median of 5.6 years follow-up 9% of patients had antibody mediated rejection (AMR) (DSA 11/37 (30%), DSA-Neg 13/221 (6%), HR 6.6, p<0.001). Patients with anti-HLA class II (HR 6.1) or both class I +II (HR 10.1) DSA had the greatest risk for AMR. The Mean Fluorescent Intensity (MFI) of the DSA was significantly higher in patients with AMR than those with no rejection (p=0.006). Moreover, the strength of the antibody was shown to be important, with the risk of AMR significantly greater in those with DSA >8000 MFI than those with DSA <8000 MFI (HR 23, p<0.001). eGFR progressively declined in patients with DSA but was stable in those without DSA (35.7 ± 20.4 mls/min vs 48.5±22.7) and composite patient and graft survival was significantly worse in those with class II (HR 2.9) or both class I+II (HR 3.7) but not class I DSA . Class II DSA alone, or in combination with class I DSA had the strongest association with graft loss and patient death. Patients with DSA not only have increased rates of acute AMR, but also chronic graft dysfunction, graft loss and death. Antibody burden quantified by SAB assay may identify patients at highest immunological risk and therefore influence patient management and improve long-term patient outcome.
    Transplant Immunology 05/2013; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An independent pool of 16 incompatible live donor-recipient pairs registered at the Vienna transplant unit was applied to test whether virtual crossmatch allocation used in the Australian kidney paired donation (KPD) program reliably predicts negative crossmatches. High resolution HLA data were entered into the computer-matching algorithm and allocation was performed excluding any DSA >2000MFI. CDC and flow crossmatch data of recipients against any of the donors were available for 112 crossmatch combinations. The computer program identified 19 possible pairings in 2-way or 3-way chains in multiple combinations. The top ranked combination included one 3-way and two 2-way ABO-compatible chains. Where crossmatches were available all recipients were CDC crossmatch negative with the computer-matched donor. Excluding allocation of KPD donors in the presence of DSA >2000MFI had a negative predictive of 99.9% for CDC and 96.4% for flow crossmatch. In the 12 pairings with ⩾1 DSA against crossmatched donors there was a negative CDC and flow crossmatch. These results show excellent correlation between matching using virtual crossmatch and actual crossmatch results. Using the 2000MFI cut-off the number of potentially unacceptable CDC and flow crossmatch positive pairings identified by virtual crossmatching is low, but some potential crossmatch negative pairings are missed.
    Human immunology 02/2013; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify susceptibility loci for visceral leishmaniasis, we undertook genome-wide association studies in two populations: 989 cases and 1,089 controls from India and 357 cases in 308 Brazilian families (1,970 individuals). The HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 locus was the only region to show strong evidence of association in both populations. Replication at this region was undertaken in a second Indian population comprising 941 cases and 990 controls, and combined analysis across the three cohorts for rs9271858 at this locus showed P(combined) = 2.76 × 10(-17) and odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-1.52. A conditional analysis provided evidence for multiple associations within the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 region, and a model in which risk differed between three groups of haplotypes better explained the signal and was significant in the Indian discovery and replication cohorts. In conclusion, the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 HLA class II region contributes to visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility in India and Brazil, suggesting shared genetic risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis that cross the epidemiological divides of geography and parasite species.
    Nature Genetics 01/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In kidney paired donation (KPD), flexibility in the allocation of incompatible pairs is required if a critical mass of pairs to efficiently find matches cannot be reached. METHODS: In the Australian KPD program, virtual crossmatch is used for the allocation of suitable donors to registered recipients. Matching is based on acceptable mismatches, and donors are excluded from matching to recipients with donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) greater than 2000 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Match and transplant rates in the first year of the program were reviewed with respect to recipient and donor characteristics, including blood group distribution, level of recipient's sensitization, and postallocation crossmatches. RESULTS: Four quarterly match runs were performed, which included 53 pairs and 2 altruistic donors. Human leukocyte antigen incompatibility accounted for 90% of the listed pairs. In the second run, the DSA threshold was increased to greater than 8000 MFI, because no matches were found with standard allocation. Optional ABO-incompatible matching was introduced from run 3. Matches were identified in 37 (70%) patients, of whom 92% had a negative crossmatch with their matched donor. Crossmatch positive results were found only in recipients with DSAs greater than 2000 MFI in the second run. In 4 cases immunological reasons and in 4 cases other reasons resulted in breakdown of chains and 17 patients not progressing to transplantation. Eventually, 20 (38%) patients received a KPD transplant, and 35% of these had a calculated panel-reactive antibody greater than 90%. CONCLUSIONS: KPD using virtual crossmatch is a valid and effective solution for patients with immunologically incompatible donors even in the context of highly sensitized recipients.
    Transplantation 08/2012; 94(7):744-749. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of a vitamin D-responsive (VDRE) motif within the HLA-DRB1*15:01 promoter region provides an attractive explanation for the combined effects of HLA-DR inheritance and vitamin D exposure on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We therefore sought to incorporate HLA-DRB1 promoter variation, including the VDRE motif, in an assessment of HLA-DRB1-associated MS risk. We utilized 32 homozygous HLA cell lines (covering 17 DRB1 alleles) and 53 heterozygote MS samples (20 DRB1 alleles) for HLA-DRB1 promoter sequencing. The influence of HLA-DRB1 variation on MS risk was then assessed among 466 MS cases and 498 controls. The majority of HLA*DRB1 alleles (including HLA-DRB1*15:01) express the functional VDRE motif, apart from HLA-DRB1*04, *07, and *09 alleles that comprise the HLA-DR53 serologic group. Allele-specific variation within functional X-box and Y-box motifs was also associated with serologically defined HLA-DR haplotypes. Incorporating these results in an analysis of MS risk, we identified a strong protective effect of HLA-DRB1*04, *07, and *09 (DR53) alleles (p = 10(-12)) and elevated risk associated with DRB1*15 and *16 (DR51) and *08 (DR8) alleles (p < 10(-18)). HLA-DRB1 groups corresponding to serologic HLA-DR profiles as well as promoter polymorphism haplotypes effectively stratified MS risk over an 11-fold range, suggesting functional relationships between risk-modifying HLA-DRB1 alleles. An independent contribution of VDRE motif variation to increase MS risk was not discernible, although vitamin D-dependent regulation of HLA-DR expression may still play an important role given that HLA-DRB1*04/*07/*09 (DR53) alleles that express the "nonresponsive" VDRE motif were associated with significantly reduced risk of MS.
    Neurology 07/2012; 79(6):538-46. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed high-resolution (4-digit) HLA-DRB1 genotyping in an Australian cohort of 105s-IBM patients and 189 controls. Our findings showed that whilst the strongest association was with the HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele and the HLA-DRB1*03:01/*01:01 diplotype, HLA-DRB1*01:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:01 are also risk alleles. A number of other alleles, HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:04, *07:01, *09:01, *11:01 and *15:01, as well as the HLA-DRB1*03:01/*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*03:01/*07:01 diplotypes were reduced in s-IBM cases and may be protective. The HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:01 alleles also appear to have an influence on the age at onset of the disease and severity of muscle weakness. Our findings indicate that the influence of HLA-DRB1 in s-IBM is complex and that epistatic interactions at the HLA-DRB1 locus contribute both to disease susceptibility and to the clinical phenotype.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 05/2012; 250(1-2):77-82. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of myositis-associated and myositis-specific autoantibodies (AAb) was compared in 51 s-IBM patients and a population control group. Non-organ specific AAb (ANA, anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, anti-La, anti-RNP) but not anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-tissue transglutaminase or myositis-specific antibodies, were more frequent in s-IBM patients, and 14/51 (27%) had another autoimmune disease (Sjögren's syndrome, thyroiditis, psoriasis, vitiligo). The presence of AAb did not correlate with carriage of HLA-DRB1*0301, but there was a negative correlation between ANA/anti-Ro52 and carriage of HLA-DRB1*1301. The findings in this cohort confirm that patients with sIBM do not show evidence of a muscle-specific humoral immune process but have an increased frequency of non-organ specific AAb and other autoimmune disorders.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 05/2012; 249(1-2):66-70. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and transmembrane alleles of KIR2DL4 were studied in coastal (Mugil community) and inland (Ilaita community) communities in Papua New Guinea. Linkage disequilibria between KIR genes and between alleles of KIR2DL4 and the KIR genes were similar to those found in other populations suggesting conservation of the usual gene order in Papua New Guinean haplotypes. Significant differences in the frequency of KIR genes were found between the two populations despite being separated by only 300 km. Examples of individuals who lacked the KIR2DL4 gene and others whose KIR2DL4 allele appeared to have 11 adenines in the polyadenine tract in exon 6 were identified. A relatively low frequency of the KIR A haplotype was found in both populations and particularly in the inland community. The KIR gene frequencies were consistent with the inland Ilaita community being closely related to Australian Aborigines and southern Indians, whereas the KIR gene frequencies of the coastal Mugil community appeared to have been influenced either by recent or ancient admixture from populations with a higher frequency of the KIR A haplotype.
    Tissue Antigens 04/2012; 79(4):263-71. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Dianne De Santis, Bree Foley, Campbell S Witt, Frank T Christiansen
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity can be exploited in haploidentical (one haplotype mismatched) haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent leukaemia relapse, rejection, and graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) (Blood 94:333-339; Science 295:2097-2100). If NK cell alloreactivity is to be exploited in HSCT, it is important to be able to reliably select donors who have NK alloreactivity towards the patient. The detection of donor NK alloreactivity towards patient target cells has traditionally been evaluated by NK cell cloning and (51)Cr-release cytotoxicity assay. This approach is complex and time consuming with results taking up to 6 weeks. Here, we detail a novel flow cytometric CD107a-based assay capable of detecting NK cell alloreactivity in 14 days.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 882:477-89. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed and tested a new computer program to match maximal sets of incompatible live donor/recipient pairs from a national paired kidney donation (PKD) registry. Data of 32 incompatible pairs included ABO and 4 digit-high-resolution donor and recipient HLA antigens and recipient's HLA antibodies. Three test runs were compared, in which donors were excluded from matching to recipients with either donor-specific antibodies (DSA) >8000MFI (mean fluorescent intensity) at low-resolution (Run 1) or >8000MFI at high-resolution (Run 2) or >2000MFI and high-resolution (Run 3). Run 1 identified 22 703 possible combinations, with 20 pairs in the top ranked, Run 2 identified 24 113 combinations, with 19 pairs in the top ranked and Run 3 identified 8843 combinations, with 17 pairs in the top ranked. Review of DSA in Run 1 revealed that six recipients had DSA 2000-8000MFI causing a possible positive crossmatch resulting in breakdown of two 3-way and three 2-way chains. In Run 2, four recipients had DSA 2000-8000MFI, also potentially causing breakdown of three 2-way chains. The more prudent approach of excluding from matching recipients with DSA with >2000MFI reduces the probability of matched pairs having a positive crossmatch without significantly decreasing the number of possible transplants.
    American Journal of Transplantation 11/2010; 11(2):272-8. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been few magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the spinal cord in large multiple sclerosis (MS) patient cohorts and little is known about correlations between cord lesions and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. To investigate the spectrum of MRI changes in the spinal cord in MS and associations with the HLA-DRB1 genotype. Two hundred and fifty two consecutive MS patients from the Perth Demyelinating Diseases Database had MRI of the spinal cord and brain and high-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping. The numbers, locations, shape and segmental extent of cord lesions were analysed and were correlated with carriage of individual HLA-DRB1 alleles and diplotypes. Focal cord lesions were present in 82.9% of cases, with numbers being maximal in the cervical cord and increasing with disease duration. Focal lesions were usually round or oval in shape but in 35% of cases subpial wedge-shaped lesions were present. Diffuse cord involvement was present in 10% of cases and correlated with carriage of HLA-DRB1*1501 and with higher disability. Carriage of the minor allele HLA-DRB1*0701 was significantly associated with numbers of wedge-shaped lesions and lesions in the cervical cord, while HLA-DRB1*1104 and DRB1*0103 were significantly associated respectively with higher and lower numbers of thoracic cord lesions. HLA-DRB1*1501 and the HLA-DRB1*11 sub-alleles DRB1*1101 and DRB1*1104 were significantly associated with the segmental length of cord lesions. Our study is the first to investigate the frequency of subpial wedge-shaped lesions in the cord in vivo and has provided preliminary evidence that HLA-DRB1 alleles may play a role in determining the severity and extent of spinal cord involvement in MS.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 09/2010; 300(1-2):114-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 genotype of patients with late onset multiple sclerosis (LOMS) in Western Australia. The clinical features, laboratory studies and HLA-DRB1 alleles were analysed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with onset over 50years of age and compared with 100 patients with early onset MS (EOMS). Of a cohort of 829 patients with MS, 73 (8.8%) presented at over 50years of age, including 14 (1.7%) over 60years. Patients with LOMS had a lower female to male ratio, more frequent initial motor dysfunction, less frequent sensory symptoms and optic neuritis, a more frequent primary-progressive course and shorter time to reach Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores of 3.0 and 6.0. More LOMS patients were initially misdiagnosed compared to patients with EOMS. HLA-DRB1 *1501 was strongly associated with both LOMS and EOMS compared to the Control subjects, while HLA-DRB1 *0801 was over-represented in patients with LOMS. We concluded that patients with LOMS have a different clinical profile when compared to those with EOMS. Carriers of HLA-DRB1 *0801 may be more prone to develop MS at a later age.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 08/2010; 17(8):1009-13. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies on the influence of HLA-DRB1 alleles on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and clinical course have mostly employed the 2-point genotyping method. To assess the influence of HLA-DRB1 alleles and allele interactions on disease risk and clinical course in a large West Australian MS patient cohort using high-resolution genotyping. Four digit HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed on a group of 466 clinically definite or probable MS patients from the Perth Demyelinating Diseases Database and 189 healthy Caucasian controls from the Busselton Community Health Study. In addition to the known risk allele HLA-DRB1*1501, evidence of increased susceptibility to MS was found for three additional alleles, DRB1*0405, DRB1*1104 and DRB1*1303, though the power was insufficient to sustain significance for these when crudely Bonferroni corrected over all alleles considered. DRB1*0701 was found to be protective even after correction for multiple comparisons. In addition we found evidence that the DRB1*04 sub-allele HLA-DRB1*0407 and HLA-DRB1*0901 may be protective. Among the diplotypes, the highest estimated risk was in HLA-DRB1*1501/*0801 heterozygotes and DRB1*1501 homozygotes and the lowest in HLA-DRB1*0701/*0101 heterozygotes. There was no significant gender association with HLA-DRB1*1501 overall, but the HLA-DRB1*1501/*1104 risk genotype was significantly associated with female gender. HLA-DRB1*1501 was the strongest risk allele in both primary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. Our results demonstrate the advantages of high-resolution HLA genotyping in recognizing risk-modifying alleles and allele combinations in this patient cohort and in recognizing the differential effects of HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1*11 sub-alleles.
    Multiple Sclerosis 03/2010; 16(5):526-32. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous autoantibody (AAb) studies in multiple sclerosis MS have produced conflicting results. The objective of this study was to determine AAb frequency and association with the HLA-DRB1 genotype. Antinuclear antibody, antithyroid peroxidase and anti-aquaporin-4 assays and HLA-DRB1 genotyping were performed in 198 MS patients and 188 controls. There were no significant differences in AAb frequency or titres between MS and control subjects. AQP4-IgG was not found in any MS patients. There was no correlation between AAbs and HLA-DRB1 alleles. In conclusion, this study failed to confirm previous reports of increased AAbs in MS or to show an association between HLA-DRB1 genotype and the presence of AAbs.
    Multiple Sclerosis 02/2010; 16(3):351-4. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Frank T. Christiansen, Andrea Velardi
    ChemInform 01/2010; 41(32).
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently associated with the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DRB11501 genotype, however effects on disease severity and clinical outcome have varied in different populations. We present the results of a high-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping and genotype-phenotype correlation study in a large West Australian MS cohort. Our findings indicate that in this population, which is of largely Anglo-Celtic and Northern European origin, HLA-DRB11501 is not only a strong determinant of disease risk but may also be associated with disease severity as measured by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS), with the MSSS increasing by an estimated 0.51 per DRB11501 allele. We also found evidence that the HLA-DRB11201 allele is associated with less severe disease.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 12/2009; 219(1-2):109-13. · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
843.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1977–2013
    • Royal Perth Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2010
    • Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Neurology
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2009–2010
    • Fremantle Hospital and Health Service
      Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
  • 1993–2010
    • University of Western Australia
      • • Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute (ANRI)
      • • School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • School of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    • Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
    • Università degli Studi di Genova
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
  • 1981–2008
    • The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2007
    • Belfast Healthy Cities
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2004
    • Murdoch University
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
    • Australian National University
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia