[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different metastatic spread patterns on outcome in advanced digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
This was a retrospective analysis of patients with stage IV NETs, classified as group 1 (unilobar liver metastases), group 2 (bilobar liver metastases), group 3 (extra-abdominal metastases). End points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Risk factor analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard model.
Of the 229 patients, 135 (58.9%) had pancreatic, and 94 (41.1%) small bowel NETs: 32 (13.9%) were included in group 1, 179 (78.2%) in group 2, and 18 (7.9%) in group 3. Median Ki67 was 4.5%. Overall, 5-year OS was 55%. Different OS was observed among the 3 groups: median survival not reached, 81 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Median PFS was 18 months. Both OS and PFS were significantly affected by Ki67 and metastatic spread pattern.
The stratification of stage IV NET patients based on metastatic patterns, alongside Ki67, predicts the clinical outcome. The extent of metastatic disease is a previously unrecognized variable, which should be considered when evaluating the results of treatments in NET patients with advanced disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging both in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and precancerous lesions and in the assessment of their evolution.
A retrospective study was undertaken on 56 patients with chronic liver disease and suspected liver lesions. We evaluated the number, size and signal intensity of the nodules on dynamic and hepatobiliary MR images. Follow-up studies were carried out every 3 months. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test.
A total of 120 nodules were identified in 41 patients. Of these, 92/120 nodules (76.6 %; mean diameter 18.4 mm) showed the typical HCC vascular pattern: 90/92 nodules appeared hypointense and 2/92 were hyperintense on hepatobiliary phase images. An additional 28/120 hypointense, nonhypervascular nodules (23.3 %; mean diameter 11 mm) were detected on hepatobiliary phase images, 15 of which showed hypointensity also on the equilibrium phase images. During the 3- to 12-month follow-up, 14/28 nodules (mean diameter 13.3 mm) developed the typical vascular pattern of HCC.
Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging is useful for detecting HCC as well as hypovascular nodules with potential progression to HCC. Lesions measuring more than 10 mm in diameter are at higher risk of developing into HCC (p = 0.0128).
La radiologia medica 12/2013; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a medical position statement developed by the Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency collaborative group which is a part of the Italian Association for the Study of the Pancreas (AISP). We covered the main diseases associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) which are of common interest to internists/gastroenterologists, oncologists and surgeons, fully aware that EPI may also occur together with many other diseases, but less frequently. A preliminary manuscript based on an extended literature search (Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar) of published reports was prepared, and key recommendations were proposed. The evidence was discussed at a dedicated meeting in Bologna during the National Meeting of the Association in October 2012. Each of the proposed recommendations and algorithms was discussed and an initial consensus was reached. The final draft of the manuscript was then sent to the AISP Council for approval and/or modification. All concerned parties approved the final version of the manuscript in June 2013.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 19(44):7930-7946. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even thou the exact amount of the increased risk is not known, patients with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) are more likely to develop colonic malignancy compared with the general population. 5-aminosalicilic acid (5-ASA) compounds are the mainstay therapy for mild-moderate UC, and their use for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer have been proposed, but the evidence are not univocal. Aim of the present work is to critically revise the available data on 5-ASA utilization for cancer chemoprevention, as well as the possible impact in the management of UC patients. In clinical practice, in fact, the best mean to measure the dimension of a therapeutic effect is the number needed to treat (NNT). In our study, we show how different basal risk of colorectal cancer reported in studies coming from Europe and USA can affect the NNT, making the strategy "cost-effective" or not. Since prospective randomized controlled trials to address the chemopreventive effect of 5-ASA are not feasible, evidence relays upon observational studies that may imply several biases. Therefore, the heterogeneity of the data is mainly consequent to the different methodological approach of the published studies, in terms of study design, data collection, definitions of regular use of medication and measures of therapeutic efficacy. In addition, two meta-analysis are available with apparently conflicting results. Nonetheless, 5-ASA represents an ideal chemopreventive agent for its anti-inflammatory property, safety, acceptability and inexpensiveness, and even ECCO guidelines recommend 5-ASA long term use, as these compounds may decrease the incidence of CRC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms have substantially increased over the last decades. Because of the indolent clinical course of the disease even in advance stages and the rise in the incidental diagnosis of small asymptomatic lesions, the prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms is higher than that of pancreatic, gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinomas, making them the second most prevalent cancer type of the gastrointestinal tract. This increase in the overall prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms has been paralleled by a growth in the importance of the endoscopist in the care of these patients, who usually require a multidisciplinary approach. In this manuscript the diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms will be reviewed.
Digestive and Liver Disease 05/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are to estimate prevalence and incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies (EPMs) among intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas, and to identify risk factors for their occurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted multicentric cohort study in Italy from January 2010 to January 2011 including 390 IPMN cases. EPMs were grouped as previous, synchronous (both prevalent) and metachronous (incident). We calculated the observed/expected (O/E) ratio of prevalent EPMs, and compared the distribution of demographic, medical history and lifestyle habits. RESULTS: Ninety-seven EPMs were diagnosed in 92 patients (23.6%), among them 78 (80.4%) were previous, 14 (14.4%) were synchronous and 5 (5.2%) were metachronous. O/E ratios for prevalent EPMs were significantly increased for colorectal carcinoma (2.26; CI 95% 1.17-3.96), renal cell carcinoma (6.00; CI 95% 2.74-11.39) and thyroid carcinoma (5.56; CI 95% 1.80-12.96). Increased age, heavy cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and first-degree family history of gastric cancer are significant risk factors for EPMs, while first-degree family history of colorectal carcinoma was borderline. CONCLUSION: We report an increased prevalence of EPMs in Italian patients with IPMN, especially for colorectal carcinoma, renal cell and thyroid cancers. A systematic surveillance of IPMN cases for such cancer types would be advised.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the standard care for invasive ampullary adenocarcinomas. However, endoscopic snare papillectomy (ESP) might play a curative role in very selected patients. We studied a series of 15 patients with T1 ampullary adenocarcinoma who were treated by ESP alone and followed up for a mean of 29.6 ± 21.9 months (range 8 - 81 months). ESP was curative for eight patients (57.1 %). No tumor-related death was observed in patients with a cancer infiltration depth of ≤ 4 mm. According to this preliminary experience, we suggest that this measurable variable threshold should be considered as a possible basis for future large-scale studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. METHODS: Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with (90)Y or (177)Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2013; · 4.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Information on malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) is mostly from retrospective studies in highly selected patients. The aim of this prospective, multicentre study was to assess treatment and outcomes of malignant pNENs in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, histologically-proven pNENs were included and followed-up for 2 years. Tumours were defined as malignant when nodal or distant metastases were present or invasion of extrapancreatic structures/organs was evident. RESULTS: A total of 140 patients with malignant pNENs were included. Ninety-eight patients (70.0%) underwent a surgical resection (76 radical and 22 palliative). Other non-surgical treatments were used in 101 patients (72.1%): somatostatin analogues (n = 63), chemotherapy (n = 30), ablative treatments (n = 15) and peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (n = 14). No relationship was observed between the 2010 WHO classification and type of treatment. A surgical resection was more often performed in incidentally detected tumours located in the pancreas body tail. Two-year progression-free survival was 63.8%: 82% after a radical resection, 44% after a palliative resection and 41% without a resection. A radical resection and Ki67 proliferative index >5% and >10% were the only significant prognostic determinants in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A radical resection is the cornerstone treatment of malignant pNENs and represents, together with Ki67 assessment, the most powerful prognostic factor for 2-year outcomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To investigate environmental, personal, and hereditary risk factors associated with the occurrence of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs).METHODS:Multicentre case-control study. Risk factors were identified from a questionnaire collecting data on family and medical history, and environmental factors. Cases were prevalent IPMNs seen at the participating units within an 18-month timeframe. Matched controls were enrolled alongside patients seen at outpatient clinics.RESULTS:Three-hundred and ninety patients with IPMN and 390 matched controls (166 males, mean age 65 in each group) were enrolled. Of the IPMNs, 310 had branch-duct involvement and 80 main-duct involvement. The only cancer with a 1st degree family history significantly higher in IPMN was pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) (5.4% vs. 1.5%). Previous history of diabetes (13.6% vs. 7.5%), chronic pancreatitis (CP) (3.1% vs. 0.3%), peptic ulcer (7.2% vs. 4.3%), and insulin use (4.9% vs. 1.1%) were all more frequent with IPMNs. Logistic regression multivariate analysis revealed that history of diabetes (odds ratio (OR): 1.79, confidence interval (CI) 95%: 1.08-2.98), CP (OR: 10.10, CI 95%: 1.30-78.32), and family histories of PDAC (OR: 2.94, CI 95%: 1.17-7.39) were all independent risk factors. However, when analysis was restricted to diabetics who had taken insulin, risk of IPMN became stronger (OR: 6.03, CI 95%: 1.74-20.84). The association with all these risk factors seemed stronger for the subgroup with main duct involvement.CONCLUSIONS:A previous history of diabetes, especially with insulin use, CP, and family history of PDAC are all relevant risk factors for the development of IPMN. These results suggest an overlap between certain risk factors for PDAC and IPMN.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 5 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.42.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; · 7.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment landscape and biological understanding of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has shifted dramatically in recent years. Recent studies have shown that somatostatin analogs have the potential to not only control symptoms of hormone hypersecretion, but also have the ability to slow tumor growth in patients with advanced carcinoid. The results of clinical trials have further shown that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitor sunitinib and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus have efficacy in patients with advanced pancreatic NETs. The efficacy of these targeted therapies in NET suggests that the molecular characterization of NETs may provide an avenue to both predict which patients may most benefit from treatment and to overcome potential drug resistance. Recent genomic studies of NETs have further suggested that pathways regulating chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modification may play a key role in regulating NET growth. These observations offer the potential for new therapeutic and diagnostic advances for patients with NET.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There are few data on the outcome of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas meeting criteria for resection (Sendai-positive), and not operated. AIM: To evaluate outcome of patients with a resectable, Sendai-positive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and not operated. METHODS: Multicentre, retrospective analysis of prospectively enrolled patients, with resectable Sendai-positive, not-operated intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Overall-survival and disease-specific survival were the primary end-point, and progression-free survival secondary. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (60% male, median age 77) enrolled: 40% main-duct, 60% branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. In 19 patients surgery was ruled out due to comorbidities, in 7 because aged>80, 9 refused surgery. Twelve (34.3%) patients died after a mean of 32.5 months, 8 due to disease progression, 4 due to comorbidities. The median overall, disease-specific and progression-free survival were 52, 55, and 44 months respectively. Main duct involvement and age at diagnosis were associated with worse overall and progression-free survival, only main duct involvement with worse disease-specific survival (52 months main duct vs. 64 branch duct; P=0.04). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in elderly and comorbid patients with Sendai-positive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, especially of the branch duct, a conservative approach could be reasonable, as associated with a relatively good outcome, and should be carefully discussed with the patients.
Digestive and Liver Disease 02/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), conducted respectively in a Japanese and in a Chinese population, identified eight novel loci affecting PDAC risk. METHODS: We attempted to replicate the novel loci in a series of PDAC and healthy controls of European ancestry in the context of the newly formed PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs12413624, rs1547374, rs372883, rs5768709, rs6464375, rs708224, rs9502893 (one SNP identified in the Chinese GWAS is not polymorphic in Caucasians) in 1299 PDAC cases and 2884 controls. We also attempted stratified analysis considering the different stages of the disease and addressed the possible involvement of the selected SNPs on the survival of patients. RESULTS: None of the SNPs were significantly associated with PDAC risk if considering the overall population of the consortium. When stratifying for country of origin we found that in the Polish subgroup the G allele of rs372883 was statistically significantly associated with increased risk (OR=6.40; CI 95% 2.28-17.91). However the sample size of the subgroups was rather small, therefore this result can be due to chance. None of the SNPs was associated with disease progression or survival. Conclusions and Impact: None of the SNPs associated with PDAC risk in two Asian populations were convincingly associated with PDAC risk in individuals of European descent. This study illustrates the importance of evaluation of PDAC risk markers across ethnic groups.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 12/2012; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the site, age and gender of cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyps in a single referral center in Rome, Italy, during two periods.
CRC data were collected from surgery/pathology registers, and polyp data from colonoscopy reports. Patients who met the criteria for familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded from the study. Overlap of patients between the two groups (cancers and polyps) was carefully avoided. The χ(2) statistical test and a regression analysis were performed.
Data from a total of 768 patients (352 and 416 patients, respectively, in periods A and B) who underwent surgery for cancer were collected. During the same time periods, a total of 1693 polyps were analyzed from 978 patients with complete colonoscopies (428 polyps from 273 patients during period A and 1265 polyps from 705 patients during period B). A proximal shift in cancer occurred during the latter years for both sexes, but particularly in males. Proximal cancer increased > 3-fold in period B compared to period A in males [odds ratio (OR) 3.31, 95%CI: 2.00-5.47; P < 0.0001). A similar proximal shift was observed for polyps, particularly in males (OR 1.87, 95%CI: 1.23-2.87; P < 0.0038), but also in females (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 0.96-2.73; P < 0.07).
The prevalence of proximal proliferative colonic lesions seems to have increased over the last decade, particularly in males.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 18(45):6614-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors[NETs] usually pursuit a benign course, but some show aggressive behavior. The treatment of patients with advanced NETs is marginally effective and new approaches are needed. In other tumors, transactivation of the EGF receptor(EGFR) by growth factors, gastrointestinal(GI) hormones and lipids can stimulate growth, which has led to new treatments. Recent studies show a direct correlation between NET malignancy and EGFR expression, EGFR inhibition decreases basal NET growth and an autocrine growth effect exerted by GI hormones, for some NETs. To determine if GI hormones can stimulate NET growth by inducing transactivation of EGFR, we examined the ability of EGF, TGFα and various GI hormones to stimulate growth of the human foregut carcinoid,BON, the somatostatinoma QGP-1 and the rat islet tumor,Rin-14B-cell lines. The EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, AG1478 strongly inhibited EGF and the GI hormones stimulated cell growth, both in BON and QGP-1 cells. In all the three neuroendocrine cell lines studied, we found EGF, TGFα and the other growth-stimulating GI hormones increased Tyr(1068) EGFR phosphorylation. In BON cells, both the GI hormones neurotensin and a bombesin analogue caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in EGFR phosphorylation, which was strongly inhibited by AG1478. Moreover, we found this stimulated phosphorylation was dependent on Src kinases, PKCs, matrix metalloproteinase activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These results raise the possibility that disruption of this signaling cascade by either EGFR inhibition alone or combined with receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of foregut NETs/PETs.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are increasing in frequency and have a varied spectrum with regard to histology, clinicopathologic background, stage, and prognosis. They are usually discovered incidentally, are for the most part benign and are associated with hypergastrinaemia (secondary either to chronic atrophic gastritis or rarely Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; types 1 and 2, respectively) or more rarely sporadic type 3. Applications of recent staging and grading systems - namely using Ki-67 proliferative indices - (from ENETS and WHO 2010) can be particularly helpful in further categorising these tumours. The natural history of Type 1 gastric carcinoids is generally (>95%) favourable and simple surveillance is usually recommended for small (<1 cm) T1 tumours, with local (endoscopic or surgical) resection for larger lesions. Other potential therapies such as somatostatin analogues and gastrin receptor antagonists may offer newer therapeutic possibilities. Rarely, gastric NENs have a malignant course and this is usually confined to Type 2 and especially Type 3 tumours; the latter mimic the biological course of gastric adenocarcinoma and require radical oncological therapies. Most duodenal NENs, apart from gastrinomas (that are not dealt with here) are sporadic and non functional. They are also increasing in frequency probably due to incidental discovery at endoscopy or imaging for other reasons and this may account for their overall good prognosis. Peri-ampullary and ampullary NENs may have a more aggressive outcome and should be carefully appraised and treated (often with surgical resection).
Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 12/2012; 26(6):719-35. · 2.48 Impact Factor