Bo Olsson

AstraZeneca, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (7)13.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: A validated method to predict lung deposition for inhaled medication from in vitro data is lacking in spite of many attempts to correlate in vitro and in vivo outcomes. By using an in vivo-like in vitro setup and analyzing inhalers from the same batches, both in vitro and in vivo, we wanted to create a situation where information from the in vitro and in vivo outcomes could be analyzed at the same time. Method: Nine inhalation products containing either budesonide or AZD4818 were evaluated. These comprised two pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), a pMDI plus a spacer, four dry powder inhalers, and two dosimetric nebulizers. In vitro, an in vivo-like setup consisting of anatomically correct inlet throats were linked to a flow system that could replay actual inhalation flow profiles through the throat to a filter or to an impactor. In vivo, total lung deposition was measured in healthy adults by pharmacokinetic methods. Results and Conclusion: We could show that the amount of drug escaping filtration in a realistic throat model under realistic delivery conditions predicts the typical total lung deposition in trained healthy adult subjects in the absence of significant exhaled mass. We could further show that by using combinations of throat models and flow profiles that represent realistic deviations from the typical case, variations in ex-cast deposition reflect between-subject variation in lung deposition. Further, we have demonstrated that ex-cast deposition collected either by a simple filter or by a cascade impactor operated at a fixed flow rate using a mixing inlet, to accommodate a variable flow profile through the inhaler, predicts equally well the lung deposited dose. Additionally, the ex-cast particle size distribution measured by this method may be relevant for predicting exhaled fraction and regional lung deposition by computational models.
    Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 02/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delivering therapeutic agents to the lungs requires a deep understanding of the kinetics and dynamics of drugs in this biologically and physiologically ­complex system. In this chapter these concepts are discussed and include drug ­dissolution rates in the airways, physical clearance mechanisms of the mucociliary escalator and cough, alveolar macrophage clearance, pulmonary metabolism, and pulmonary absorption. Finally, these aspects are considered together with drug and formulation aspects as determinants of duration of effects of inhaled products. The mechanisms of elimination of drug activity in the lungs by the various clearance processes described here are important factors to consider both in the development of new drugs and in understanding the relative merits of existing therapies. KeywordsAirway selectivity-Lung absorption-Lung metabolism-Lung ­retention-Mucociliary clearance-Prodrugs-Pulmonary drug dissolution-Pulmonary drug transporters-Soft drugs
    06/2011: pages 21-50;
  • Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 12/2010; 23 Suppl 2:S1-4. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of airway clearance in inhaled drug therapy is complex. Disease-induced bronchoconstriction results in a central drug-deposition pattern where mucociliary clearance is most efficient. When drug-induced bronchodilation is achieved, deposition and uptake becomes more peripheral, and because there is less mucociliary clearance in the periphery, this will lead to an unintentional increase in lung exposure and enhance the risk of systemic side effects. In addition, mucociliary clearance is pathologically reduced in both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among inhaled corticosteroids, rate of dissolution and lung uptake differs considerably. For the slowly dissolving, lipophilic steroids, the contribution of mucociliary clearance to these findings appears significant, and variability in lung and systemic exposure resulting from variable mucociliary function appears to be amplified. In addition, dose optimisation of non-stable asthma becomes more complex. The present review highlights the impact of mucociliary clearance on inhaled corticosteroid disposition and identifies critical areas where more research is needed.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 02/2008; 21(2):247-58. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the oropharyngeal region from 20 adult volunteers using four model inhalation devices (varying mouthpiece diameters, airflow resistances) and tidal breathing was carried out. Statistical analysis (convex hull method) selected 12 scans from 80 data sets representing the extremes of all dimensions in the population. Twelve physical mouth-throat models were made by stereolithography using the exact scan data. The aim was to produce models with varying dimensions to span the adult population, and to investigate if oropharyngeal dimensions affected throat retention for different delivery systems. In an in vitro analysis, the models were used to determine the retention effect of the oropharyngeal airspaces when drug aerosols were administered from four inhalation delivery systems: a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI), two different dry powder inhalers (DPIs A and B), and a nebulizer. The aims of this work were to determine the key parameters governing mouth-throat retention and whether retention was dependent on the delivery system used. Characterizing the throat models by measuring 51 different dimensional variables enabled determination of the most influential variables for dose retention for each inhalation delivery system. Throat model retention was found to be dependent on the delivery system (pMDI approximately DPI(A) > DPI(B) > Neb.). The most influential variable was the total throat model volume. Throat models representing high, median, and low oropharyngeal filtration in healthy adults have been identified.
    Journal of Aerosol Medicine 01/2007; 20(3):269-81. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalation is a mainstay for treatment of asthma, and lung deposition can be seen as a surrogate marker for the ensuing clinical effects. Not only absolute lung deposition, but also its variability is of interest, as it indicates the range of expected lung deposition in an individual patient when prescribing the drug and the expected day-to-day variability when using it. A literature survey found 71 studies with relevant information on lung deposition and its variability. Further characteristics of the studies, such as if the subjects were healthy or asthmatics, adults or children, and what device that was used, were noted. In all, 187 data points were included. Variability in lung deposition was depicted as a function of mean lung deposition; for the entire data set and for subsets thereof. Independent of device type or subject category high lung deposition was associated with low relative variability and vice versa. Using a published throat deposition model, the observed correlation of lung deposition variability to mean lung deposition could be explained as being determined largely by the extent of and variability in throat deposition. We hypothesize that throat deposition is the major determinant for lung deposition of an inhaled aerosol, and its absolute variability will largely be determined by the absolute variability in throat deposition. The relative variability in lung deposition will therefore tend to be high for low lung deposition and low for high lung deposition. Consequently, low relative variability in lung deposition can only be attained if high lung deposition is achieved.
    Journal of Aerosol Medicine 02/2006; 19(4):473-83. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to aerosol particle size and mode of inhalation, the time-point of dose delivery during inhalation may be an important factor governing the intrapulmonary distribution of aerosolized drug. To generate different intrapulmonary deposition patterns of a drug model aerosol, a device with the capability of delivering small amounts of technetium-99m-labeled lactose dry powder at pre-set time-points during inhalation was developed. A single dose of the radioaerosol was delivered after inhalation of 20% (A) or 70% (B) of the vital capacity inhaled through the device. Twelve healthy subjects were studied in a randomized crossover fashion. Planar gamma scintigraphy was carried out, and the penetration index, PI, defined as the ratio of peripheral to central lung zone deposition of radioactivity, was estimated. A significant increase in PI from 3.0 (A) to 3.7 (B) was observed with the change from early to late delivery of the dose (p < 0.01). No difference in the total amount of radioactivity within the lungs could be detected. In conclusion, independent of total pulmonary deposition, deeper dry powder aerosol penetration into the lungs was found for the dose delivered at near end instead of at the beginning of inhalation. By computational modeling of the aerosol transport and deposition, that finding was mechanistically explained by differences in airway caliber as a consequence of the level of lung inflation at the time-point of dose delivery.
    Journal of Aerosol Medicine 02/2005; 18(1):23-33. · 1.61 Impact Factor