[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is part of the oxidative burst encountered upon internalization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by phagocytic cells. It has previously been established that, the ArcAB two-component system plays a critical role in ROS resistance, but the genes regulated by the system remained undetermined to date. We therefore investigated the ArcA regulon in aerobically growing S. Typhimurium before and after exposure to H2O2 by querying gene expression and other physiological changes in wild type and DeltaarcA strains.
In the DeltaarcA strain, expression of 292 genes showed direct or indirect regulation by ArcA in response to H2O2, of which 141were also regulated in aerobiosis, but in the opposite direction. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the expression data from WT and DeltaarcA strains, revealed that, in response to H2O2 challenge in aerobically grown cells, ArcA down regulated multiple PEP-PTS and ABC transporters, while up regulating genes involved in glutathione and glycerolipid metabolism and nucleotide transport. Further biochemical analysis guided by GSEA results showed that deletion of arcA during aerobic growth lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which was concomitant with an increased NADH/NAD+ ratio. In absence of ArcA under aerobic conditions, H2O2 exposure resulted in lower levels of glutathione reductase activity, leading to a decreased GSH (reduced glutathione)/ GSSG (oxidized glutathione) ratio.
The ArcA regulon was defined in 2 conditions, aerobic growth and the combination of peroxide treatment and aerobic growth in S. Typhimurium. ArcA coordinates a response that involves multiple aspects of the carbon flux through central metabolism, which ultimately modulates the reducing potential of the cell.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cattle are naturally infected with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and exhibit pathologic features of enteric salmonellosis that closely resemble those in humans. Cattle are the most relevant model of gastrointestinal disease resulting from non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in an animal with an intact microbiota. We utilized this model to screen a library of targeted single deletion mutants to identify novel genes of Salmonella Typhimurium required for survival during enteric infection. Fifty-four candidate mutants were strongly selected, including numerous genes known to be important for gastrointestinal survival of salmonellae. Three mutants with previously unproven phenotypes in gastrointestinal infection were tested in bovine ligated ileal loops. Two of these mutants, in STM3602 and STM3846, recapitulated the phenotype observed in the mutant pool. Complementation experiments successfully reversed the observed phenotypes, directly linking these genes to the colonization defects of the corresponding mutants. STM3602 is a putative transcriptional regulator that may be involved in phosphonate utilization and STM3846 is a retron reverse transcriptase that produces a unique RNA-DNA hybrid molecule called multicopy single-stranded DNA. The genes identified in this study represent an exciting new class of virulence determinants for further mechanistic study to elucidate the strategies employed by Salmonella to survive within the small intestine of cattle.
Infection and immunity 09/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sigma54, or RpoN, is an alternative sigma factor found widely in eubacteria. A significant complication in analysis of the global sigma54 regulon in a bacterium is that the sigma54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme requires interaction with an active bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) to initiate transcription at a sigma54-dependent promoter. Many bacteria possess multiple bEBPs, which are activated by diverse environmental stimuli. In this work, we assess the ability of a promiscuous, constitutively-active bEBP---the AAA+ ATPase domain of DctD from Sinorhizobium meliloti---to activate transcription from all sigma54-dependent promoters for the characterization of the sigma54 regulon of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.
The AAA+ ATPase domain of DctD was able to drive transcription from nearly all previously characterized or predicted sigma54-dependent promoters in Salmonella under a single condition. These promoters are controlled by a variety of native activators and, under the condition tested, are not transcribed in the absence of the DctD AAA+ ATPase domain. We also identified a novel sigma54-dependent promoter upstream of STM2939, a homolog of the cas1 component of a CRISPR system. ChIP-chip analysis revealed at least 70 sigma54 binding sites in the chromosome, of which 58% are located within coding sequences. Promoter-lacZ fusions with selected intragenic sigma54 binding sites suggest that many of these sites are capable of functioning as sigma54-dependent promoters.
Since the DctD AAA+ ATPase domain proved effective in activating transcription from the diverse sigma54-dependent promoters of the S. Typhimurium LT2 sigma54 regulon under a single growth condition, this approach is likely to be valuable for examining sigma54 regulons in other bacterial species. The S. Typhimurium sigma54 regulon included a high number of intragenic sigma54 binding sites/promoters, suggesting that sigma54 may have multiple regulatory roles beyond the initiation of transcription at the start of an operon.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 12 (SPI-12) of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a 15 kb region that encompasses genes STM2230 to STM2245 and encodes a remnant phage known to contribute to bacterial virulence. In mouse infection experiments and replication assays in macrophages we demonstrate a role for four genes in SPI-12 for bacterial survival in the host. STM2239, a potential Q-antiterminator, showed a prominent contribution to bacterial fitness. Transcriptional reporter experiments, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that the virulence regulator SsrB as well as STM2239 contribute to transcriptional activation of genes in SPI-12. SsrB was found to indirectly regulate this locus by transcriptional read-through from the sspH2 (STM2241) promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that STM2239 co-purified with the promoter regulating STM2237, suggesting that STM2239 may function as an antiterminator to activate adjacent genes. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage genes may be adapted by pathogenic bacteria to improve fitness in the host.
Infection and immunity 04/2013; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the 1980's and 1990's, population genetic analyses based on Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) provided an initial overview of the genetic diversity of multiple bacterial species, including Salmonella enterica. The genetic diversity within S. enterica subspecies enterica according to MLEE is represented by the SARA and SARB reference collections, each consisting of 72 isolates, which have been extensively used for comparative analyses. MLEE has subsequently been replaced by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Our initial MLST results indicated that some strains within the SARB collection differed from their published descriptions. We therefore performed MLST on four versions of the SARB collection from different sources and one collection of SARA, and found that multiple isolates in SARB and SARA differ in serovar from their original description, and other SARB isolates differed between different sources. Comparisons with a global MLST database allowed a plausible reconstruction of the serovars of the original collection. MLEE, MLST and microarrays were largely concordant at recognizing closely related strains. MLST was particularly effective at recognizing discrete population genetic groupings while the two other methods provided hints of higher order relationships. However, quantitative pair-wise phylogenetic distances differed considerably between all three methods. Our results provide a translation dictionary from MLEE to MLST for the extant SARA and SARB collections which can facilitate genomic comparisons based on archival insights from MLEE.
Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 03/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E. coli is generally a commensal but includes some highly pathogenic strains carrying additional genes in plasmids and/or the chromosome. Based on these genes the pathogenic strains are divided into pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and diffusely adherent (DAEC) E. coli. Here, previously developed multiplex PCR strategies for these strains were integrated into one single step multiplex that differentiates all these E. coli pathotypes, usually based on multiple characteristic PCR products. This multiplex PCR works reliably for colony PCR. Two additional markers were added: one to detect most Enterobacteriacea, which acts as a positive control for successful PCR, and one to distinguish Salmonella. The multiplex correctly classified a set of 45 reference strains by colony PCR and 71 (45+26) strains by in silico PCR. It was then used to interrogate 44 clinical strains from bovine hosts resulting in detection of EAEC and DAEC determinants.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 03/2013; · 4.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) infrequently causes invasive systemic disease and bacteremia. To understand better the nature of invasive NTS (iNTS), we studied the gene content and the pathogenicity of bacteremic strains from twelve serovars (Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Choleraesuis, Dublin, Virchow, Newport, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:- and Hadar). Comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella enterica microarray revealed a core of 3233 genes present in all of the iNTS strains, which include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1-5, 9, 13, 14; five fimbrial operons (bcf, csg, stb, sth, sti); three colonization factors (misL, bapA, sinH); and the invasion gene, pagN. In the iNTS variable genome, we identified 16 novel genomic islets; various NTS virulence factors; and six typhoid-associated virulence genes (tcfA, cdtB, hlyE, taiA, STY1413, STY1360), displaying a wider distribution among NTS than was previously known. Characterization of the bacteremic strains in C3H/HeN mice showed clear differences in disease manifestation. Previously unreported characterization of serovars Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Bredeney and Virchow in the mouse model showed low ability to elicit systemic disease, but a profound and elongated shedding of serovars Schwarzengrund and 9,12:l,v:- (as well as Enteritidis and Heidelberg) due to chronic infection of the mouse. Phenotypic comparison in macrophages and epithelial cell lines demonstrated a remarkable intra-serovar variation, but also showed that S. Typhimurium bacteremic strains tend to present lower intracellular growth than gastroenteritis isolates. Collectively, our data demonstrated a common core of virulence genes, which might be required for invasive salmonellosis, but also an impressive degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, highlighting that bacteremia is a complex phenotype, which cannot be attributed merely to an enhanced invasion or intracellular growth of a particular strain.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58449. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Six subspecies are currently recognized in Salmonella enterica. Subspecies I (subspecies enterica) is responsible for nearly all infections in humans and warm-blooded animals, while five other subspecies are isolated principally from cold-blooded animals. We sequenced 21 phylogenetically diverse strains, including two representatives from each of the previously unsequenced five subspecies and 11 diverse new strains from S. enterica subspecies enterica, to put this species into an evolutionary perspective. The phylogeny of the subspecies was partly obscured by abundant recombination events between lineages and a relatively short period of time within which subspeciation took place. Nevertheless, a variety of different tree-building methods gave congruent evolutionary tree topologies for subspeciation. A total of 285 gene families were identified that were recruited into subspecies enterica, and most of these are of unknown function. At least 2,807 gene families were identified in one or more of the other subspecies that are not found in subspecies I or Salmonella bongori. Among these gene families were 13 new candidate effectors and 7 new candidate fimbrial clusters. A third complete type III secretion system not present in subspecies enterica (I) isolates was found in both strains of subspecies salamae (II). Some gene families had complex taxonomies, such as the type VI secretion systems, which were recruited from four different lineages in five of six subspecies. Analysis of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rates indicated that the more-recently acquired regions in S. enterica are undergoing faster fixation rates than the rest of the genome. Recently acquired AT-rich regions, which often encode virulence functions, are under ongoing selection to maintain their high AT content. IMPORTANCE We have sequenced 21 new genomes which encompass the phylogenetic diversity of Salmonella, including strains of the previously unsequenced subspecies arizonae, diarizonae, houtenae, salamae, and indica as well as new diverse strains of subspecies enterica. We have deduced possible evolutionary paths traversed by this very important zoonotic pathogen and identified novel putative virulence factors that are not found in subspecies I. Gene families gained at the time of the evolution of subspecies enterica are of particular interest because they include mechanisms by which this subspecies adapted to warm-blooded hosts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium avoids clearance by the host immune system by suppressing T cell responses; however, the mechanisms that mediate this immunosuppression remain unknown. We show that S. Typhimurium inhibit T cell responses by producing L-Asparaginase II, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. L-Asparaginase II is necessary and sufficient to suppress T cell blastogenesis, cytokine production, and proliferation and to downmodulate expression of the T cell receptor. Furthermore, S. Typhimurium-induced inhibition of T cells in vitro is prevented upon addition of L-asparagine. S. Typhimurium lacking the L-Asparaginase II gene (STM3106) are unable to inhibit T cell responses and exhibit attenuated virulence in vivo. L-Asparaginases are used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia through mechanisms that likely involve amino acid starvation of leukemic cells, and these findings indicate that pathogens similarly use L-asparagine deprivation to limit T cell responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the scientific and industrial importance of desiccation tolerance in Salmonella, knowledge regarding its genetic basis is still scarce. In the present study, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of dehydrated and water-suspended Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using microarrays. Dehydration induced expression of 90 genes and downregulated that of 7 genes. Ribosomal structural genes represented the most abundant functional group with a relatively higher transcription during dehydration. Other main induced functional groups included genes involved in amino acid metabolism, energy production, ion transport, transcription, and stress response. The highest induction was observed in the kdpFABC operon, encoding a potassium transport channel. Knockout mutations were generated in nine upregulated genes. Five mutants displayed lower tolerance to desiccation, implying the involvement of the corresponding genes in the adaptation of Salmonella to desiccation. These included genes encoding the isocitrate-lyase AceA, the lipid A biosynthesis palmitoleoyl-acyltransferase Ddg, the modular iron-sulfur cluster scaffolding protein NifU, the global regulator Fnr, and the alternative sigma factor RpoE. Notably, these proteins were previously implicated in the response of Salmonella to oxidative stress, heat shock, and cold shock. A strain with a mutation in the structural gene kdpA had a tolerance to dehydration comparable to that of the parent strain, implying that potassium transport through this system is dispensable for early adaptation to the dry environment. Nevertheless, this mutant was significantly impaired in long-term persistence during cold storage. Our findings indicate the involvement of a relatively small fraction of the Salmonella genome in transcriptional adjustment from water to dehydration, with a high prevalence of genes belonging to the protein biosynthesis machinery.
Applied and environmental microbiology 08/2012; 78(22):7866-75. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO·) is an important mediator of innate immunity. The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella has evolved mechanisms to detoxify and evade the antimicrobial actions of host-derived NO· produced during infection. Expression of the NO·-detoxifying flavohaemoglobin Hmp is controlled by the NO·-sensing transcriptional repressor NsrR and is required for Salmonella virulence. In this study we show that NsrR responds to very low NO· concentrations, suggesting that it plays a primary role in the nitrosative stress response. Additionally, we have defined the NsrR regulon in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium 14028s using transcriptional microarray, qRT-PCR and in silico methods. A novel NsrR-regulated gene designated STM1808 has been identified, along with hmp, hcp-hcr, yeaR-yoaG, ygbA and ytfE. STM1808 and ygbA are important for S. Typhimurium growth during nitrosative stress, and the hcp-hcr locus plays a supportive role in NO· detoxification. ICP-MS analysis of purified STM1808 suggests that it is a zinc metalloprotein, with histidine residues H32 and H82 required for NO· resistance and zinc binding. Moreover, STM1808 and ytfE promote Salmonella growth during systemic infection of mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NsrR-regulated genes in addition to hmp are important for NO· detoxification, nitrosative stress resistance and Salmonella virulence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The contribution of a gene to the fitness of a bacterium can be assayed by whether and to what degree the bacterium tolerates transposon insertions in that gene. We use this fact to compare the fitness of syntenic homologous genes among related Salmonella strains to reveal differences not apparent at the gene sequence level. RESULTS: A transposon Tn5 derivative was used to construct mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC14028 (STM1) and Salmonella Typhi Ty2 (STY1), which were then grown in rich media. The locations of 234,152 and 53,556 integration sites, respectively, were mapped by sequencing. These data were compared to similar data available for a different Ty2 strain (STY2) and essential genes identified in E. coli K-12 (ECO). Of 277 genes considered essential in ECO, all had syntenic homologs in STM1, STY1, and STY2, and all but nine genes were either devoid of Tn insertions or had very few. For three of these nine genes, part of the annotated gene lacked Tn integrations (yejM, ftsN and murB). At least one of the other six genes, trpS, had a potentially functionally redundant gene encoded elsewhere in Salmonella but not in ECO. An additional 165 genes were almost entirely devoid of transposon integrations in all three Salmonella strains examined, including many genes associated with protein and DNA synthesis. Four of these genes (STM14_1498.L, STM14_2872, STM14_3360.RJ, and STM14_5442) are not found in E. coli. Notable differences in the extent of gene selection were also observed among the three different Salmonella isolates. Mutations in hns, for example, were selected against in STM1 but not in the two STY strains, which have a defect in rpoS rendering hns nonessential. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons among transposon integration profiles from different members of a species and among related species, all grown in similar conditions, identify differences in gene fitness among syntenic homologous genes. Further differences in fitness profiles among shared genes can be expected in other selective environments, with potential relevance for comparative systems biology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are reactive oxygen species that are part of the oxidative burst encountered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) upon internalization by phagocytic cells. In order to survive, bacteria must sense these signals and modulate gene expression. Growing evidence indicates that the ArcAB two component system plays a role in the resistance to reactive oxygen species. We investigated the influx of H2O2 and HOCl through OmpW and the role of ArcAB in modulating its expression after exposure to both toxic compounds in S. Typhimurium.
H2O2 and HOCl influx was determined both in vitro and in vivo. A S. Typhimurium ompW mutant strain (∆ompW) exposed to sub-lethal levels of H2O2 and HOCl showed a decreased influx of both compounds as compared to a wild type strain. Further evidence of H2O2 and HOCl diffusion through OmpW was obtained by using reconstituted proteoliposomes. We hypothesized that ompW expression should be negatively regulated upon exposure to H2O2 and HOCl to better exclude these compounds from the cell. As expected, qRT-PCR showed a negative regulation in a wild type strain treated with sub-lethal concentrations of these compounds. A bioinformatic analysis in search for potential negative regulators predicted the presence of three ArcA binding sites at the ompW promoter region. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and using transcriptional fusions we demonstrated an interaction between ArcA and one site at the ompW promoter region. Moreover, qRT-PCR showed that the negative regulation observed in the wild type strain was lost in an arcA and in arcB mutant strains.
OmpW allows the influx of H2O2 and HOCl and is negatively regulated by ArcA by direct interaction with the ompW promoter region upon exposure to both toxic compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the United States, serovar Kentucky has become one of the most frequently isolated Salmonella enterica serovars from chickens. The reasons for this prevalence are not well understood. Phenotypic comparisons of poultry Salmonella isolates belonging to various serovars demonstrated that serovar Kentucky isolates differed from those of most other serovars in their response to acid. Microarray and qPCR analyses were performed with aerated exponentially growing poultry isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky 3795 and Enteritidis Nal(R), exposed for 10 min to tryptic soy broth (TSB) adjusted to pH 4.5 with HCl and to pH 5.5 with HCl or acetic acid. Data obtained by microarray analysis indicated that more genes were up- or down-regulated in strain Kentucky 3795 than in Enteritidis Nal(R) under acidic conditions. Acid exposure in general caused up-regulation of energy metabolism genes and down-regulation of protein synthesis genes, particularly of ribosomal protein genes. Both strains appear to similarly utilize the lysine-based pH homeostasis system, as up-regulation of cadB was observed under the acidic conditions. Expression of regulatory genes (rpoS, fur, phoPQ) known to be involved in the acid response showed similar trends in both isolates. Differences between Kentucky 3795 and Enteritidis Nal(R) were observed with respect to the expression of the hdeB-like locus SEN1493 (potentially encoding a chaperone important to acid response), and some differences in the expression of other genes such as those involved in citrate utilization and motility were noted. It appears that the early stages of the transcriptional response to acid by isolates Kentucky 3795 and Enteritidis Nal(R) are similar, but differences exist in the scope and in some facets of the response. Possibly, the quantitative differences observed might lead to differences in protein levels that could explain the observed differences in the acid phenotype of serovar Kentucky and other Salmonella serovars.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 02/2012; 9(4):331-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virulence and persistence in the BALB/c mouse gut was tested for 32 strains of Salmonella enterica for which genome sequencing is complete or underway, including 17 serovars within subspecies I (enterica), and two representatives of each of the other five subspecies. Only serovar Paratyphi C strain BAA1715 and serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 were fully virulent in mice. Three divergent atypical Enteritidis strains were not virulent in BALB/c, but two efficiently persisted. Most of the other strains in all six subspecies persisted in the mouse intestinal tract for several weeks in multiple repeat experiments although the frequency and level of persistence varied considerably. Strains with heavily degraded genomes persisted very poorly, if at all. None of the strains tested provided immunity to Typhimurium infection. These data greatly expand on the known significant strain-to-strain variation in mouse virulence and highlight the need for comparative genomic and phenotypic studies.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e36043. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteric fever is an invasive life-threatening systemic disease caused by the Salmonella enterica human-adapted serovars Typhi and Paratyphi. Increasing incidence of infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and the spreading of its antibiotic-resistant derivates pose a significant health concern in some areas of the world. Herein, we describe a molecular and phenotypic characterization of an S. Paratyphi A strain accounted for a recent paratyphoid outbreak in Nepal that affected at least 37 travelers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the outbreak isolates revealed one genetic clone (pulsotype), confirming a single infecting source. Genetic profiling of the outbreak strain demonstrated the contribution of specific bacteriophages as a prime source of genetic diversity among clinical isolates of S. Paratyphi A. Phenotypic characterization in comparison with the S. Paratyphi A ATCC 9150 reference sequenced strain showed differences in flagellar morphology and increased abilities of the outbreak strain with respect to its motility, invasion into nonphagocytic cells, intracellular multiplication, survival within macrophages, and higher induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) secreted by host cells. Collectively, these differences suggest an enhanced virulence potential of this strain and demonstrate an interesting phenotypic variation among S. Paratyphi A isolates. In vivo profiling of 16 inflammatory cytokines in patients infected with the outbreak strain revealed a common profile of a remarkable gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induction together with elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-15, but not IL-12, which was previously demonstrated as elevated in nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. This apparent profile implies a distinct immune response to paratyphoid infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans.
We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS), and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi transcripts expressed in the blood of five humans infected with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. In total, we detected the expression of mRNAs for 2,046 S. Typhi genes (44% of the S. Typhi genome) in human blood; expression of 912 genes was detected in all 5 patients, and expression of 1,100 genes was detected in 4 or more patients. Identified transcripts were associated with the virulence-associated PhoP regulon, Salmonella pathogenicity islands, the use of alternative carbon and energy sources, synthesis and transport of iron, thiamine, and biotin, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides and oxidative stress. The most highly represented group were genes currently annotated as encoding proteins designated as hypothetical, unknown, or unclassified. Of the 2,046 detected transcripts, 1,320 (29% of the S. Typhi genome) had significantly different levels of detection in human blood compared to in vitro cultures; detection of 141 transcripts was significantly different in all 5 patients, and detection of 331 transcripts varied in at least 4 patients. These mRNAs encode proteins of unknown function, those involved in energy metabolism, transport and binding, cell envelope, cellular processes, and pathogenesis. We confirmed increased expression of a subset of identified mRNAs by quantitative-PCR.
We report the first characterization of bacterial transcriptional profiles in the blood of patients with typhoid fever. S. Typhi is an important global pathogen whose restricted host range has greatly inhibited laboratory studies. Our results suggest that S. Typhi uses a largely uncharacterized genetic repertoire to survive within cells and utilize alternate energy sources during infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a systemic, typhoid-like infection in newly hatched poultry and mice. In the present study, a library of 54,000 transposon mutants of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) strain P125109 was screened for mutants deficient in the in vivo colonization of the BALB/c mouse model using a microarray-based negative-selection screening. Mutants in genes known to contribute to systemic infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 [SPI-2], aro, rfa, rfb, phoP, and phoQ) and enteric infection (e.g., SPI-1 and SPI-5) in this and other Salmonella serovars displayed colonization defects in our assay. In addition, a strong attenuation was observed for mutants in genes and genomic islands that are not present in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars. These genes include a type I restriction/modification system (SEN4290 to SEN4292), the peg fimbrial operon (SEN2144A to SEN2145B), a putative pathogenicity island (SEN1970 to SEN1999), and a type VI secretion system remnant SEN1001, encoding a hypothetical protein containing a lysin motif (LysM) domain associated with peptidoglycan binding. Proliferation defects for mutants in these individual genes and in exemplar genes for each of these clusters were confirmed in competitive infections with wild-type S. Enteritidis. A ΔSEN1001 mutant was defective for survival within RAW264.7 murine macrophages in vitro. Complementation assays directly linked the SEN1001 gene to phenotypes observed in vivo and in vitro. The genes identified here may perform novel virulence functions not characterized in previous Salmonella models.
Infection and immunity 11/2011; 80(2):839-49. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete and accurate genome annotation is crucial for comprehensive and systematic studies of biological systems. However, determining protein-coding genes for most new genomes is almost completely performed by inference using computational predictions with significant documented error rates (> 15%). Furthermore, gene prediction programs provide no information on biologically important post-translational processing events critical for protein function.
We experimentally annotated the bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium 14028, using "shotgun" proteomics to accurately uncover the translational landscape and post-translational features. The data provide protein-level experimental validation for approximately half of the predicted protein-coding genes in Salmonella and suggest revisions to several genes that appear to have incorrectly assigned translational start sites, including a potential novel alternate start codon. Additionally, we uncovered 12 non-annotated genes missed by gene prediction programs, as well as evidence suggesting a role for one of these novel ORFs in Salmonella pathogenesis. We also characterized post-translational features in the Salmonella genome, including chemical modifications and proteolytic cleavages. We find that bacteria have a much larger and more complex repertoire of chemical modifications than previously thought including several novel modifications. Our in vivo proteolysis data identified more than 130 signal peptide and N-terminal methionine cleavage events critical for protein function.
This work highlights several ways in which application of proteomics data can improve the quality of genome annotations to facilitate novel biological insights and provides a comprehensive proteome map of Salmonella as a resource for systems analysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can utilize molecular hydrogen for growth and amino acid transport during anaerobic growth. Via microarray we identified H(2) gas-affected gene expression changes in Salmonella. The addition of H(2) caused altered expression of 597 genes, of which 176 genes were upregulated and 421 were downregulated. The significantly H(2)-upregulated genes include those that encode proteins involved in the transport of iron, manganese, amino acids, nucleosides, and sugars. Genes encoding isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (aceB), both involved in the carbon conserving glyoxylate pathway, and genes encoding the enzymes of the d-glucarate and d-glycerate pathways (gudT, gudD, garR, garL, garK) are significantly upregulated by H(2). Cells grown with H(2) showed markedly increased AceA enzyme activity compared to cells without H(2). Mutant strains with deletion of either aceA or aceB had reduced H(2)-dependent growth rates. Genes encoding the glutamine-specific transporters (glnH, glnP, glnQ) were upregulated by H(2), and cells grown with H(2) showed increased [(14)C]glutamine uptake. Similarly, the mannose uptake system genes (manX, manY) were upregulated by H(2,) and cells grown with H(2) showed about 2.0-fold-increased [(14)C]d-mannose uptake compared to the cells grown without H(2). Hydrogen stimulates the expression of genes involved in nutrient and carbon acquisition and carbon-conserving pathways, linking carbon and energy metabolism to sustain H(2)-dependent growth.
Journal of bacteriology 08/2011; 193(20):5824-32. · 3.94 Impact Factor