Li-Ru Zhao

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States

Are you Li-Ru Zhao?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)94.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic stroke is the phase of brain recovery and repair generally beginning 3 months after stroke onset. No pharmaceutical approach is currently available to enhance brain repair in the chronic stroke. We have previously determined the therapeutic effects of stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or in combination (SCF+G-CSF) in an animal model of chronic stroke and demonstrated that only SCF+G-CSF induces long-term functional recovery. However, the mechanism underlying the SCF+G-CSF-induced brain repair in chronic stroke remains largely elusive. In the present study, we determined the role of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in neurovascular network remodeling and motor function improvement by SCF+G-CSF treatment in chronic stroke. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously administered for 7 days beginning 17 weeks after induction of experimental stroke. To inhibit NF-κB activation, NF-κB inhibitor was infused into the brain before SCF+G-CSF treatment. We observed that NF-κB inhibitor abolished the SCF+G-CSF-induced axonal sprouting, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis in the ipsilesional somatosensorimotor cortex. In addition, blockage of NF-κB activation resulted in elimination of the SCF+G-CSF-induced motor functional restoration in chronic stroke. These data suggest that NF-κB is required for the SCF+G-CSF-induced neuron-vascular network remodeling in the ipsilesional somatosensorimotor cortex and motor functional recovery in chronic stroke.
    Experimental Neurology 09/2014; · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a Notch3 dominant mutation-induced cerebral small vascular disease, is characterized by progressive degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of small arteries in the brain, leading to recurrent ischemic stroke, vascular dementia and death. To date, no treatment can stop or delay the progression of this disease. Herein, we determined the therapeutic effects of stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) in a mouse model of CADASIL carrying the human mutant Notch3 gene. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously administered for 5 days and repeated 4 times with 1-4 month intervals. We found through water maze testing that SCF+G-CSF treatment improved cognitive function. SCF+G-CSF also attenuated vSMCs degeneration in small arteries, increased cerebral blood vascular density, and inhibited apoptosis in CADASIL mice. We also discovered that loss of cerebral capillary endothelial cells and neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) occurred in CADASIL mice. SCF+G-CSF treatment inhibited the CADASIL-induced cell loss in the endothelia and NSCs/NPCs and promoted neurogenesis. In an in vitro model of apoptosis, SCF+G-CSF prevented apoptotic cell death in vSMCs through AKT signaling and by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF restricts the pathological progression of CADASIL. This study offers new insights into developing therapeutic strategies for CADASIL.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic (DA) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. However, substantial evidence has shown that a long-term overexpression of GDNF gene is often associated with side effects. We previously improved tetracycline (Tet)-On lentivirus system carrying human GDNF (hGDNF) gene, and demonstrated that hGDNF gene expression was tightly regulated and functional in vitro. Here we further examined the efficiency and neuroprotection of Tet-On lentivirus-mediated hGDNF gene regulation in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and a rat model of parkinsonism. The results showed that hGDNF gene expression was tightly regulated in transduced NPCs. Doxycycline (Dox)-induced hGDNF protected DA neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in vitro. Intrastriatal injections of Tet-On lentivirus vectors resulted in dramatically increased levels of hGDNF protein in the striatum of rats with Dox-drinking water, when compared to lentivirus-injected and saline-injected rats with normal drinking water, respectively. In addition, hGDNF protected nigral DA neurons and striatal DA fibers, and attenuated d-amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that hGDNF gene transfer by Tet-On lentivirus vectors is tightly regulated in rat brain, and Dox-induced hGDNF is functional in neuroprotection of nigral DA neurons in a rat model of parkinsonism.
    Experimental Neurology 07/2014; · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are initially discovered as the essential hematopoietic growth factors regulating bone marrow stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and SCF in combination with G-CSF (SCF+G-CSF) has synergistic effects on bone marrow stem cell mobilization. In this study we have determined the effect of SCF and G-CSF on neurite outgrowth in rat cortical neurons. Using molecular and cellular biology and live cell imaging approaches, we have revealed that receptors for SCF and G-CSF are expressed on the growth core of cortical neurons, and that SCF+G-CSF synergistically enhances neurite extension through PI3K/AKT and NFκB signaling pathways. Moreover, SCF+G-CSF induces much greater NFκB activation, NFκB transcriptional binding and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production than SCF or G-CSF alone. In addition, we have also observed that BDNF, the target gene of NFκB, is required for SCF+G-CSF-induced neurite outgrowth. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF has synergistic effects to promote neurite growth. This study provides new insights into the contribution of hematopoietic growth factors in neuronal plasticity.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e75562. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stroke has a high incidence in the elderly. Stroke enters the chronic phase 3 months after initial stroke onset. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for chronic stroke. We have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of the combination of stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) on chronic stroke. However, it remains unclear how SCF+G-CSF repairs the brain in chronic stroke. In this study, we determined the effects of SCF+G-CSF on neuronal network remodeling in the aged brain of chronic stroke. Cortical brain ischemia was produced in 16-18 month-old transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein in layer V pyramidal neurons. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously injected for 7 days beginning at 3.5 months post-ischemia. Using both live brain imaging and immunohistochemistry, we observed that SCF+G-CSF increased the mushroom-type spines on the apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons adjacent to the infarct cavities 2 and 6 weeks after treatment. SCF+G-CSF also augmented dendritic branches and post-synaptic density protein 95 puncta in the peri-infarct cortex 6 weeks after treatment. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF treatment in chronic stroke remodels neural circuits in the aged brain. This study provides evidence to support the development of a new therapeutic strategy for chronic stroke.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e64684. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene regulation remains one of the major challenges for gene therapy in clinical trials. In the present study, we first generated a binary tetracycline-on (Tet-On) system based on two lentivirus vectors, one expressing both human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) and humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) genes under second-generation tetracycline response element (TRE), and the other expressing the advanced reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator - rtTA2S-M2 under a human minimal cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV-IE) promoter. This system allows simultaneous expression of hGDNF and hrGFP genes in the presence of doxycycline (Dox). Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were transduced with the binary Tet-On lentivirus vectors and characterized in vitro in the presence (On) or absence (Off) of Dox. The expression of hGDNF and hrGFP transgenes in transduced hMSCs was tightly regulated as determined by flow cytometry (FCM), GDNF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). There was a dose-dependent regulation for hrGFP transgene expression. The levels of hGDNF protein in culture medium were correlated with the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) units of hrGFP. The levels of transgene background expression were very low in the absence of Dox. The treatment of the conditioned medium from cultures of transduced hMSCs in the presence of Dox protected SH-SY5Y cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity as determined by cell viability using 3, [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The treatment of the conditioned medium was also found to improve the survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue in serum-free culture conditions as assessed by cell body area, the number of neurites and dendrite branching points, and proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) cells. Our inducible lentivirus-mediated hGDNF gene delivery system may provide useful tools for basic research on gene therapy for chronic neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD).
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64389. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have recently demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated human erythropoietin (hEPO) gene delivery into the brain protects dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to AAV9-hEPO vectors with an intramuscular or intrastriatal injection would reduce AAV9-mediated hEPO transduction in rat brain. We first characterized transgene expression and immune responses against AAV9-hEPO vectors in rat striatum at 4 days, 3 weeks and 6 months, and with doses ranging from 10(11) to 10(13) viral genomes. To sensitize immune system, rats received an injection of AAV9-hEPO into either the muscle or the left striatum, and then sequentially an injection of AAV9-hEPO into the right striatum 3 weeks later. We observed that transgene expression exhibited in a time course and dose dependent manner, and inflammatory and immune responses displayed in a time course manner. Intramuscular, but not intrastriatal injections of AAV9-hEPO resulted in reduced levels of hEPO transduction and increased levels of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigen expression in the striatum following AAV9-hEPO re-administration. There were infiltration of the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)-and CD8-lymphacytes, and accumulation of activated microglial cells and astrocytes in the virally injected striatum. In addition, the sera from the rats with intramuscular injections of AAV9-hEPO contained greater levels of antibodies against both AAV9 capsid protein and hEPO protein than the other treatment groups. hEPO gene expression was negatively correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies against AAV9 capsid protein. Intramuscular and intrastriatal re-administration of AAV9-hEPO led to increased numbers of red blood cells in peripheral blood. Our results suggest that pre-immunization with an intramuscular injection can lead to the reduction of transgene expression in the striatal re-administration.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63876. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stroke occurs more frequently in the elderly population and presents the number one leading cause of persistent disability worldwide. Lack of effective treatment to enhance brain repair and improve functional restoration in chronic stroke, the recovery phase of stroke, is a challenging medical problem to be solved in stroke research. Our early study has revealed the therapeutic effects of stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) on chronic stroke in young animals. However, whether this treatment is effective and safe to the aged population remains to be determined. METHODS: Cortical brain ischemia was produced in aged C57BL mice or aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. SCF+G-CSF or equal volume of vehicle solution was subcutaneously injected for 7 days beginning at 3--4 months after induction of cortical brain ischemia. Using the approaches of biochemistry assays, flow cytometry, pathology, and evaluation of functional outcome, several doses of SCF+G-CSF have been examined for their safety and efficiency on chronic stroke in aged animals. RESULTS: All tested doses did not show acute or chronic toxicity in the aged animals. Additionally, SCF+G-CSF treatment in chronic stroke of aged animals mobilized bone marrow stem cells and improved functional outcome in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: SCF+G-CSF treatment is a safe and effective approach to chronic stroke in the aged condition. This study provides important information needed for developing a new therapeutic strategy to improve the health of older adults with chronic stroke.
    Experimental and Translational Stroke Medicine 12/2012; 4(1):25.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression of dopaminergic (DA) neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41226. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pericytes, the specialized vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), play an important role in supporting and maintaining the structure of capillaries. Pericytes show biochemical and physiologic features similar to VSMC, usually containing smooth muscle actin fibers and rich endoplasm reticulum. Studies have indicated that degeneration of VSMCs due to Notch3 mutations is the cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). However, it remains unclear whether the Notch3 mutation also affects cerebral cortex capillary pericytes. In this ultrastructural morphologic study, the authors have observed pathological changes in the cerebral cortex capillary pericytes in aged mice that carry human mutant Notch3 genes. The number of abnormal pericytes in the cerebral cortex in Notch3 gene mutant mice was slightly increased when compared to an age-matched control group. Morphologically, the pericytes in the brains of Notch3 gene mutant mice showed more severe cellular injury, such as the presence of damaged mitochondria, secondary lysosomes, and large cytoplasmic vesicles. In addition, morphologic structures related to autophagy were also present in the pericytes of Notch3 gene mutant group. These ultrastructural morphologic alterations suggest that Notch3 mutation precipitates age-related pericytic degeneration that might result in cellular injury and trigger autophagic apoptosis. Microvascular dysfunction due to pericyte degeneration could initiate secondary neurodegenerative changes in brain parenchyma. These findings provide new insight into understanding the role of pericyte degeneration in the phathogenesis of CADASIL disease.
    Ultrastructural Pathology 02/2012; 36(1):48-55. · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were originally discovered as growth factors for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). It has been well defined that SCF and G-CSF contribute to regulation of lineage commitment for HSCs. However, little is known about whether SCF and G-CSF play roles in the determination and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). Here we demonstrate the novel function of SCF and G-CSF in controlling cell cycle and cell fate determination of NSCs. We also observe that SCF and G-CSF promote neuronal differentiation and inhibit astroglial differentiation at the early stage of differentiation. In addition, our research data reveal that SCF in combination with G-CSF has a dual function in promoting cell cycle exit and directing neuronal fate commitment at the stage of NSC dividing. This coordination effect of SCF+G-CSF on cell cycle arrest and neuronal differentiation is through enhancing neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) activity. These findings extend current knowledge regarding the role of SCF and G-CSF in the regulation of neurogenesis and provide insights into the contribution of hematopoietic growth factors to brain development and remodeling.
    Differentiation 01/2012; 83(1):17-25. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is widely recognized as a serious public health problem and heavy financial burden. Currently, there is no treatment that can delay or stop the progressive brain damage in AD. Recently, we demonstrated that stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) has therapeutic effects on chronic stroke. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether SCF+G-CSF can reduce the burden of β-amyloid deposits in a mouse model of AD. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were used as the model of AD. To track bone marrow-derived cells in the brain, the bone marrow of the APP/PS1 mice was replaced with the bone marrow from mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Six weeks after bone marrow transplantation, mice were randomly divided into a saline control group and a SCF+G-CSF-treated group. SCF in combination with G-CSF was administered subcutaneously for 12 days. Circulating bone marrow stem cells (CD117+ cells) were quantified 1 day after the final injection. Nine months after treatment, at the age of 18 months, mice were sacrificed. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry to identify β-amyloid deposits and GFP expressing bone marrow-derived microglia in the brain. Systemic administration of SCF+G-CSF to APP/PS1 transgenic mice leads to long-term reduction of β-amyloid deposition in the brain. In addition, we have also observed that the SCF+G-CSF treatment increases circulating bone marrow stem cells and augments bone marrow-derived microglial cells in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, SCF+G-CSF treatment results in enhancement of the co-localization of bone marrow-derived microglia and β-amyloid deposits in the brain. These data suggest that bone marrow-derived microglia play a role in SCF+G-CSF-induced long-term effects to reduce β-amyloid deposits. This study provides insights into the contribution of the hematopoeitic growth factors, SCF and G-CSF, to limit β-amyloid accumulation in AD and may offer a new therapeutic approach for AD.
    Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 03/2011; 3(2):8. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2010; 6(4). · 17.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Convincing evidence has shown that brain ischemia causes the proliferation of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of adult brain. The role of brain ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation, however, has remained unclear. Here we have determined whether brain ischemia-induced amplification of the NSCs/NPCs in adult brain is required for brain self-protection. The approach of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), an inhibitor for cell proliferation, for the first 7days after brain ischemia was used to block ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation. We observed that ICV infusion of Ara-C caused a complete blockade of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SVZ and a dramatic reduction of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SGZ. Additionally, as a result of the inhibition of ischemia-induced NSC/NPC pool amplification, the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 was significantly reduced, the infarction size was significantly enlarged, and neurological deficits were significantly worsened after focal brain ischemia. We also found that an NSC/NPC-conditioned medium showed neuroprotective effects in vitro and that adult NSC/NPC-released brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are required for NSC/NPC-conditioned medium-induced neuroprotection. These data suggest that NSC/NPC-generated trophic factors are neuroprotective and that brain ischemia-triggered NSC/NPC proliferation is crucial for brain protection. This study provides insights into the contribution of endogenous NSCs/NPCs to brain self-protection in adult brain after ischemia injury.
    Brain research 02/2010; 1327:91-102. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thiopental is an anesthetic used for controlling high intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by brain surgery, brain trauma, and severe stroke. However, it remains controversial whether Thiopental is detrimental or beneficial in ischemic stroke. In this study, we used an animal model of ischemic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rats to determine whether or not Thiopental is neuroprotective in the setting of brain ischemia. We observed that Thiopental caused a prolonged duration of unconsciousness with a high rate of mortality, that Thiopental created exaggerated neurological deficits that were revealed through limb placement tests at 4 days and 4 weeks after brain ischemia, and that infarct volume was increased in Thiopental-anesthetized rats. These data suggest that Thiopental is detrimental in ischemic stroke. Thus, our findings raise a caution about the use of Thiopental in the setting of ischemic stroke.
    Brain research 08/2009; 1294:176-82. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic stroke is a highly important but under-investigated scientific problem in neurologic research. We have reported earlier that stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment during chronic stroke improves functional outcomes. Here we have determined the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells in angiogenesis and neurogenesis, which are enhanced by SCF+G-CSF treatment during chronic stroke. Using bone marrow tracking, flow cytometry, 2-photon live brain imaging, and immunohistochemistry, we observed that the levels of circulating bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) (CD34+/c-kit+) were significantly increased by SCF+G-CSF treatment. In addition, live brain imaging revealed that numerous bone marrow-derived cells migrate into the brain parenchyma in the treated mice. We also found that bone marrow-derived cells, bone marrow-derived endothelial cells, vascular density, and bone marrow-derived neurons were significantly augmented by SCF+G-CSF. It is interesting that, in addition to the increase in bone marrow-derived endothelial cells, the number of bone marrow-derived pericytes was reduced after SCF+G-CSF treatment during chronic stroke. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF treatment can enhance repair of brain damage during chronic stroke by mobilizing BMSCs, and promoting the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to angiogenesis and neurogenesis.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 02/2009; 29(4):759-70. · 5.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for stroke survivors. Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are the growth factors regulating hematopoiesis. We have previously observed that SCF and G-CSF have neuroprotective and functional effects on acute brain ischemia. In the present study, the beneficial effects of SCF and G-CSF on chronic brain ischemia were determined. SCF, G-CSF, or SCF+G-CSF was administered subcutaneously to rats 3.5 months after induction of ischemic stroke by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurological deficits were evaluated by limb placement test and foot fault test over time. Field-evoked potential was performed 19 weeks after treatment. Infarct volume was histologically determined using serial coronal sections. Significant functional improvement was seen in SCF+G-CSF-treated rats 1, 5, and 17 weeks after injections. SCF alone also improved functional outcome, but it did not show as stable improvement as SCF+G-CSF. No functional benefit was seen in G-CSF-treated rats. Field-evoked potential studies further confirmed the behavioral data that the normal pattern of neuronal activity was reestablished in the lesioned brain of the rats with good functional outcome. Interestingly, infarction volume was also significantly reduced in SCF+G-CSF-treated rats. These data provide first evidence that functional restoration in chronic brain ischemia can be attained using hematopoietic growth factors.
    Stroke 11/2007; 38(10):2804-11. · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor, Sox1 has been implicated in the maintenance of neural progenitor cell status, but accumulating evidence suggests that this is only part of its function. This study examined the role of Sox1 expression in proliferation, lineage commitment, and differentiation by telencephalic neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo, and further clarified the pattern of Sox1 expression in postnatal and adult mouse brain. Telencephalic neural progenitor cells isolated from Sox1 null embryos formed neurospheres normally, but were specifically deficient in neuronal differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of Sox1 in the embryonic telencephalon in vivo both expanded the progenitor pool and biased neural progenitor cells towards neuronal lineage commitment. Sox1 mRNA and protein were found to be persistently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain in both differentiated and neurogenic regions. Importantly, in differentiated regions Sox1 co-labeled only with neuronal markers. These observations, coupled with previous studies, suggest that Sox1 expression by early embryonic progenitor cells initially helps to maintain the cells in cell cycle, but that continued expression subsequently promotes neuronal lineage commitment.
    Developmental Biology 11/2007; 310(1):85-98. · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Li-Ru Zhao, Sang Chae Nam
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) travel a long distance along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to give rise to interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Using the multiphoton microscope and time-lapse recording techniques we here report the behavior of NPCs in the RMS under both intact and ischemic conditions in living brain slices. The NPCs were visualized in 3-week-old transgenic mice that carry the reporter gene, green fluorescent protein (GFP), driven by the nestin promoter. Cortical brain ischemia was induced by permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery and the middle cerebral artery. We observed that the RMS contained two populations of NPCs: nonmigrating cells (bridge cells) and migrating cells. Bridge cells enabled migrating cells to travel and also produced new cells in the RMS. The direction of NPC migration in the RMS was bidirectional in both intact and ischemic conditions. Cortical ischemia impeded NPC travel in the RMS next to the lesion area during the early period of ischemia. Cell-cell contact was a prominent feature affecting NPC translocation and migratory direction. These data suggest that behavior and function of nestin-positive NPCs in the RMS are variable. Cell-cell contacts and microenvironmental changes influence NPC behavior in the RMS. This study may provide insights to help in understanding NPC biology.
    Neuroscience Letters 10/2007; 425(2):83-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are essential growth factors in hematopoiesis. We determined whether receptors for SCF and G-CSF exist in the brain and whether exogenous SCF and G-CSF are beneficial to brain repair after brain ischemia. A well-established rat model of experimental stroke was used in this study. SCF, G-CSF, SCF+G-CSF, or saline was subcutaneously administered 3 hours to 7 days after brain ischemia. Bromodeoxyuridine was administered simultaneously. Sensorimotor function was evaluated with a limb placement test and foot fault test over time. We observed that receptors for SCF and G-CSF were expressed in both neurogenic regions and neurons. SCF-treated rats showed the best functional restoration at 1 week that was maintained 4, 7, and 10 weeks after the final injection. G-CSF-induced functional recovery was limited and unstable. Interestingly, stable but delayed functional improvement was seen in SCF+G-CSF-treated rats. Infarction size was significantly reduced in all growth factor-treated rats. In addition, SCF and SCF+G-CSF enhanced neural progenitor cell proliferation in the subventricular zone bilaterally, whereas G-CSF and SCF+G-CSF treatment increased bromodeoxyuridine -positive cells in periinfarct areas. SCF and G-CSF are neuroprotective and beneficial to functional restoration when administered during the acute phase after brain ischemia, indicating hematopoietic growth factors play a role in brain repair.
    Stroke 10/2007; 38(9):2584-91. · 6.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

277 Citations
94.14 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 2009–2014
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
      • Department of Neurology
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
    • Tulane University
      • A.B. Freeman School of Business
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Capital Medical University
      • Department of Anatomy
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Pathology
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
  • 2007
    • Northwestern University
      • Feinberg School of Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States