Laura Schild

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (8)17.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of addressing multiple barriers to physical activity (PA) using interventions at the workplace. Design. The Physical Activity and Lifestyle Study used a randomized controlled trial in which 60 university departments were randomized into five groups. Setting. Large Southeastern university. Subjects. Physically inactive nonfaculty employees in the participating departments (n = 410) were interviewed five times over 9 months, with 82% completing all surveys. Intervention. Departments were randomly assigned to (1) control, (2) gym membership, (3) gym + PA education, (4) gym + time during the workday, and (5) gym + education + time. Measures. PA intensity and quantity were measured using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall instrument, with PA then classified as the number of days meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Analysis. The outcome was modeled with generalized linear mixed model methodology. Results. There was no significant improvement when a group received gym alone compared to the control (Rate Ratio [RR]) 1.22 [.90, 1.67]). However, gym + education, gym + time, and gym + education + time were significantly better than the control (RR 1.51 [1.15, 1.98], RR 1.46 [1.13, 1.88], RR 1.28 [1.01, 1.62]), with improvements sustained over the 9 months. Conclusion. Among sedentary adults who had access to indoor exercise facilities, addressing environmental and cognitive barriers simultaneously (i.e., time and education) did not encourage more activity than addressing either barrier alone.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 03/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a falls management program (FMP) for nursing homes (NHs). DESIGN: A quality improvement project with data collection throughout FMP implementation. SETTING: NHs in Georgia owned and operated by a single nonprofit organization. PARTICIPANTS: All residents of participating NHs. INTERVENTION: A convenience sample of 19 NHs implemented the FMP. The FMP is a multifaceted quality improvement and culture change intervention. Key components included organizational leadership buy-in and support, a designated facility-based falls coordinator and interdisciplinary team, intensive education and training, and ongoing consultation and oversight by advanced practice nurses with expertise in falls management. MEASUREMENTS: Process-of-care documentation using a detailed 24-item audit tool and fall and physical restraint use rates derived from quality improvement software currently used in all Georgia NHs (MyInnerView). RESULTS: Care process documentation related to the assessment and management of fall risk improved significantly during implementation of the FMP. Restraint use decreased substantially during the project period, from 7.9% to 4.4% in the intervention NHs (a relative reduction of 44%), and decreased in the nonintervention NHs from 7.0% to 4.9% (a relative reduction of 30%). Fall rates remained stable in the intervention NHs (17.3 falls/100 residents per month at start and 16.4 falls/100 residents per month at end), whereas fall rates increased 26% in the NHs not implementing the FMP (from 15.0 falls/100 residents/per month to 18.9 falls/100 residents per month). CONCLUSION: Implementation was associated with significantly improved care process documentation and a stable fall rate during a period of substantial reduction in the use of physical restraints. In contrast, fall rates increased in NHs owned by the same organization that did not implement the FMP. The FMP may be a helpful tool for NHs to manage fall risk while attempting to reduce physical restraint use in response to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services quality initiatives.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 01/2007; 55(3). · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the degree that managed care organization (MCO) enrollees used preventive services and engaged in diabetes self-management behaviors by race/ethnicity. A 40-item selfadministered survey was mailed to 19,483 diabetic MCO enrollees. The survey measured use of eight preventive services and engagement in four self-management behaviors among enrollees who self-identified as black, white, or Hispanic. Of the 6,035 surveys analyzed, 4,623 respondents (76.6%) were white, 984 (16.3%) were black, and 428 (7.0%) were Hispanic. Black and Hispanic respondents reported more healthcare visits (mean of 7.0 and 6.5, respectively) in the past year compared to whites (mean, 5.7; p < 0.0001). However, compared to whites, blacks had significantly lower utilization of five of the eight preventive services measured, and Hispanics had significantly lower utilization of seven of the eight preventive services (p < 0.005). With regard to self-management behaviors, blacks were significantly less likely than whites to monitor their diet (65.9% vs. 73.7%, p < 0.0001), exercise (46.4% vs. 52.8%; p = 0.0004) and not smoke (85.1% vs. 89.3%; p = 0.0002); while Hispanics were less likely to monitor their diet (67.3% vs. 73.7%, p = 0.0051). All racial/ethnic groups had low levels of selfmanagement behaviors. Further research is warranted to identify why disparities remain in settings where services are universally available, and to find practical ways to eliminate disparities in a group with routine healthcare encounters.
    Disease Management 07/2006; 9(3):167-75. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2001, terrorism led to emotional stress, disruptions in adherence to treatments and access to services, and exposure to environmental contaminants in New York City (NYC). To describe healthcare use following the terrorist attacks of 2001, we examined insurance claims for January 2000 to March 2002 among more than 2 million residents of the NYC region who were enrolled in the health plans of a large insurer, including overall use by care setting and use for selected conditions that may be associated with stress or other disaster consequences. For all enrollees and for those residing at varying distances from the World Trade Center (WTC), we compared observed use to expected use, based on comparable intervals in prior years and adjusted for seasonal and secular trends. Use declined across all care settings in the 3 weeks following September 11. From October 1 to December 31, 2001, outpatient visits rose beyond expected both overall and for specific cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and dermatologic conditions. Declines in overall mental health service use began immediately after September 11 and were sustained through March 2002. Changes in healthcare use were more marked among those residing within 10 miles of the WTC than those residing at greater distances. A transient decline in visits across all settings occurred immediately after September 11, followed by a sustained increase in demand for health care for conditions that may be associated with stress or other disaster consequences.
    Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 02/2006; 4(3):263-75. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine from state and local health departments: (1) how they purchase, distribute, and fund influenza vaccine; (2) whether they experienced a shortage in 2003/04; (3) how the shortages were handled; and (4) how they prepared for distribution in 2004/05. A web-based survey was completed from June to August 2004 in eight Southeastern states. Data were obtained from each state and 222 local health departments. Major differences between and within states were found with regard to purchasing, distributing, and funding influenza vaccine. Although the majority of health departments experienced periods of shortages in 2003/2004, surpluses of vaccine remained at the end of the season. There was little evidence of interaction between the public and private sectors to share vaccine resources in response to shortages. Tracking systems for redistribution of vaccine or follow-up were often not in place. Entering the 2004/05 season, 25% of states and 11% of counties were not developing any special procedures to deal with shortages beyond what was in place earlier. Better systems and funding are needed, especially for adult influenza vaccine delivery and for redistribution of influenza vaccine in response to shortages.
    Public Health Reports 01/2006; 121(6):684-94. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the US, diabetes mellitus affects people in all racial and ethnic groups, but the prevalence and risk of complications are considerably higher among African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, and Alaskan Natives. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of enrollment for at least 1 calendar year in a diabetes disease management program (DDMP) in a large, commercially insured, managed care population. We assessed changes in utilization of preventive services and adoption of diabetes self-management behaviors by race and ethnicity.Methods: Participants were aged >17 years and had type 1 or 2 diabetes. They were enrolled in a targeted, high-risk level DDMP between January 2003 and September 2003 and were enrolled in the managed care organization (MCO) for a 2-year period beginning 1 year prior to their enrollment in the DDMP. At baseline, 19 483 MCO enrollees who were participating in the targeted high-risk level DDMP were mailed a 40-item, self-administered baseline survey, which took between 10 and 15 minutes to complete. Baseline results are reported elsewhere. One year later, in June 2004, 5174 of the baseline responders were mailed a slightly modified version of the 40-item survey. The survey measured use of eight preventive services (cholesterol test, dental examination, dilated eye examination, urinalysis, foot examination, influenza vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination, and glycated hemoglobin testing) and engagement in four self-management behaviors (blood glucose tests, diet monitoring, exercise, and smoking avoidance).Results: Of the 5174 follow-up surveys mailed, 1961 (37.9%) were eligible for comparative analysis. Blacks and Hispanics reported more annual healthcare visits (average of 6.2 and 6.5, respectively) compared with Whites (average of 5.0, p < 0.0001). However, at follow-up, both Blacks and Hispanics had lower utilization rates than Whites for six of the eight preventive services that were measured. At follow-up, both Blacks and Whites were more likely than at baseline to report up-to-date status of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination (p ≤ 0.0001). At follow-up, the racial/ethnic gap in self-management behaviors that was observed at baseline had reduced and in fact had reversed direction for glucose tests, as Blacks were more likely than Whites to routinely test their blood glucose.Conclusions: These data indicate that DDMP enrollment for at least 1 calendar year had a mixed impact on overall diabetes behaviors and on racial/ethnic disparities in preventive services utilization and self-management behaviors. Further studies are needed to give a clearer understanding of why some diabetic MCO enrollees are less likely to use preventive services, and why disparities remain even in settings where healthcare services are universally available.
    Disease Management and Health Outcomes 12/2005; 14(4):245-252. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence of hospitalizations during pregnancy, the reason for hospitalization, the length of stay, and the associated costs. We analyzed data from a national managed care organization and determined the occurrence of hospitalizations for 46,179 women who had a live birth or a pregnancy loss in 1997. Overall, 8.7% of women were hospitalized during their pregnancy. Of these, 5.7% were hospitalized and discharged while pregnant, 0.8% experienced extended stays before a live birth or pregnancy loss, and 2.1% experienced pregnancy loss. Hospitalizations were more common among younger women, women with multiple gestations, and women in the northeastern United States. Women who had a live birth were primarily hospitalized for preterm labor (24%), hyperemesis (9%), hypertension (9%), kidney disorders (6%), and prolonged premature rupture of membranes (6%). Charges totaled over $36 million. Antenatal hospitalizations are common.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2002; 100(1):94-100. · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    Public Health Reports 120(6):589. · 1.64 Impact Factor