[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. A contralateral tumor occurs in 3.5-5% of men diagnosed with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC). Biopsy of the contralateral testis may detect intratubular germ cell neoplasia ITGCNU, a precursor of TGCC. Biopsy of the contralateral testis to detect ITGCNU is controversial. If adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) protects against bilateral cancer is debated. Material and methods. A total of 1003 patients with clinical stage I (CS I) non-seminomatous testicular germ cell cancer (NSGCT) were included in two prospective, population-based protocols. Fifteen patients were excluded. Treatment was either adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 494), or surveillance (n = 494). Contralateral testicular biopsy was recommended for all patients, but was performed only in 282 patients. In case of ITGCNU radiotherapy (RT) to 16 Gy was recommended. Results. During a follow-up of 8.3 years, 31 (3.6%) patients developed contralateral TGCC. ITGCNU was detected in 3.2% (9/282) of biopsied patients. The incidence of bilateral TGCC was similar following ACT, 2.5% (11/494), and surveillance, 3.4% (13/494), p = 0.41. Young age was a risk factor for metachronous TGCC (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.99, p = 0.02). In total 2.2% (6/273) of patients without ITGCNU in the biopsy developed contralateral TGCC. One irradiated patient developed contralateral cancer, and one developed contralateral tumor before RT was given. Conclusion. ACT did not reduce the incidence of contralateral TGCC. Young patients had the highest risk of developing contralateral TGCC. The proportion of false negatives biopsies was higher than reported in earlier trials, but this may in part be related to patient selection, single biopsies and lack of mandatory immunohistochemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SWENOTECA has since 1998 offered patients with clinical stage I (CS I) nonseminoma, adjuvant chemotherapy with one course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP). The aim has been to reduce the risk of relapse, sparing patients the need of toxic salvage treatment. Initial results on 312 patients treated with one course of adjuvant BEP, with a median follow-up of 4.5 years, have been previously published. We now report mature and expanded results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone metastases frequently cause skeletal events in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy, short-range α-particles. We assessed the effect of radium-223 compared with placebo in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases.1 METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised ALSYMPCA trial, we enrolled patients who had symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with two or more bone metastases and no known visceral metastases, who were receiving best standard of care, and had previously either received or were unsuitable for docetaxel. Patients were stratified by previous docetaxel use, baseline total alkaline phosphatase level, and current bisphosphonate use, then randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either six intravenous injections of radium-223 (50 kBq/kg) or matching placebo; one injection was given every 4 weeks. Randomisation was done with an interactive voice response system, taking into account trial stratification factors. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, which has been reported previously. Here we report on time to first symptomatic skeletal event, defined as the use of external beam radiation to relieve bone pain, or occurrence of a new symptomatic pathological fracture (vertebral or non-verterbal), or occurence of spinal cord compression, or tumour-related orthopeadic surgical intervention. All events were required to be clinically apparent and were not assessed by periodic radiological review. Statistical analyses of symptomatic skeletal events were based on the intention-to-treat population. The study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00699751.
The Lancet Oncology 05/2014; · 25.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), an alpha emitter, selectively targets bone metastases with alpha particles. We assessed the efficacy and safety of radium-223 as compared with placebo, in addition to the best standard of care, in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases.
METHODS: In our phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 921 patients who had received, were not eligible to receive, or declined docetaxel, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive six injections of radium-223 (at a dose of 50 kBq per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or matching placebo; one injection was administered every 4 weeks. In addition, all patients received the best standard of care. The primary end point was overall survival. The main secondary efficacy end points included time to the first symptomatic skeletal event and various biochemical end points. A prespecified interim analysis, conducted when 314 deaths had occurred, assessed the effect of radium-223 versus placebo on survival. An updated analysis, when 528 deaths had occurred, was performed before crossover from placebo to radium-223.
RESULTS: At the interim analysis, which involved 809 patients, radium-223, as compared with placebo, significantly improved overall survival (median, 14.0 months vs. 11.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.88; two-sided P=0.002). The updated analysis involving 921 patients confirmed the radium-223 survival benefit (median, 14.9 months vs. 11.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.83; P<0.001). Assessments of all main secondary efficacy end points also showed a benefit of radium-233 as compared with placebo. Radium-223 was associated with low myelosuppression rates and fewer adverse events.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, which was terminated for efficacy at the prespecified interim analysis, radium-223 improved overall survival. (Funded by Algeta and Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; ALSYMPCA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699751.).
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2013; 369(3):213-223. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) risk in the genes ATF7IP, BAK1, DMRT1, KITLG, SPRY4, and TERT. In the present study we validate these associations in a Scandinavian population, and explore effect modification by parental sex and differences in associations between the major histological subtypes seminoma and non-seminoma.A total of 118 SNPs in the six genes were genotyped in a population-based Swedish-Norwegian sample comprising 831 TGCT case-parent triads, 474 dyads, 712 singletons and 3919 population controls. 734 additional SNPs were imputed using reference haplotypes from the 1000 genomes project. SNP-TGCT association was investigated using a likelihood-based association test for nuclear families and unrelated subjects implemented in the software package UNPHASED. Forward stepwise regression within each gene was applied to determine independent association signals. Effect modification by parent-of-origin and effect differences between histological subtypes were explored.We observed strong association between SNPs in all six genes and TGCT (lowest P-value per gene: ATF7IP 6.2×10(-6); BAK1 2.1×10(-10); DMRT1 6.7×10(-25); KITLG 2.1×10(-48); SPRY4 1.4×10(-29); TERT 1.8×10(-18)). Stepwise regression indicated three independent signals for BAK1 and TERT, two for SPRY4, and one each for DMRT1, ATF7IP and KITLG. A significant parent-of-origin effect was observed for rs10463352 in SPRY4 (maternal odds ratio=1.72, paternal odds ratio=0.99, interaction P=0.0013). No significant effect differences between seminomas and non-seminomas were found.In summary, we validated previously reported genetic associations with TGCT in a Scandinavian population, and observed suggestive evidence of a parent-of-origin effect in SPRY4.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men, and an imbalance between the estrogen and androgen levels in utero is hypothesized to influence TGCT risk. Thus, polymorphisms in genes involved in the action of sex hormones may contribute to variability in an individual's susceptibility to TGCT.
We conducted a Norwegian-Swedish case-parent study. A total of 105 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 sex hormone pathway genes were genotyped using Sequenom MassArray iPLEX Gold, in 831 complete triads and 474 dyads. To increase the statistical power, the analysis was expanded to include 712 case singletons and 3922 Swedish controls, thus including triads, dyads and the case-control samples in a single test for association. Analysis for allelic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program, using a likelihood-based association test for nuclear families with missing data, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. False discovery rate (FDR) was used to adjust for multiple testing.
Five genetic variants across the ESR2 gene [encoding estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)] were statistically significantly associated with the risk of TGCT. In the case-parent analysis, the markers rs12434245 and rs10137185 were associated with a reduced risk of TGCT (OR = 0.66 and 0.72, respectively; both FDRs <5%), whereas rs2978381 and rs12435857 were associated with an increased risk of TGCT (OR = 1.21 and 1.19, respectively; both FDRs <5%). In the combined case-parent/case-control analysis, rs12435857 and rs10146204 were associated with an increased risk of TGCT (OR = 1.15 and 1.13, respectively; both FDRs <5%), whereas rs10137185 was associated with a reduced risk of TGCT (OR = 0.79, FDR <5%). In addition, we found that three genetic variants in CYP19A1 (encoding aromatase) were statistically significantly associated with the risk of TGCT in the case-parent analysis. The T alleles of the rs2414099, rs8025374 and rs3751592 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of TGCT (OR = 1.30, 1.30 and 1.21, respectively; all FDRs <5%). We found no statistically significant differences in allelic effect estimates between parental inherited genetic variation in the sex hormone pathways and TGCT risk in the offspring, and no evidence of heterogeneity between seminomas and non-seminomas, or between the Norwegian and the Swedish population, in any of the SNPs examined.
Our findings provide support for ERβ and aromatase being implicated in the aetiology of TGCT. Exploring the functional role of the TGCT risk-associated SNPs will further elucidate the biological mechanisms involved.
Human Reproduction 03/2012; 27(5):1525-35. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1995 to 2003, 603 adult patients from Sweden and Norway with metastatic testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) were included prospectively in a population-based protocol with strict guidelines for staging, treatment, and follow-up. Patients with extragonadal primary tumor or previous treatment for contralateral testicular tumor were excluded. The basic strategy was to individualize treatment according to initial tumor marker response.
Initial treatment for all patients was two courses of standard bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), with tumor markers analyzed weekly. Good response was defined as a half-life (t(1/2)) for α-fetoprotein (AFP) of ≤ 7 days and/or for β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) of ≤ 3 days. Patients with prolonged marker t(1/2) (ie, poor response) received intensification with addition of ifosfamide (BEP-if/PEI) in step 1. If poor response continued, the treatment was intensified with high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue as step 2.
Overall, 99% of all patients with metastatic testicular NSGCT in the population were included in the protocol. Median follow-up was 8.2 years. Seventy-seven percent of the patients were treated with BEP alone; 18% received intensification step 1%, and 5% received intensification step 2. Grouped according to International Germ Cell Consensus Classification, 10-year overall survival was 94.7% in good-prognosis patients, 90.0% in intermediate-prognosis patients, and 67.4% in poor-prognosis patients.
With detailed treatment protocols and a dedicated collaborative group of specialists, treatment results comparable to those reported from large single institutions can be achieved at national level. With the treatment principles used in Swedish-Norwegian Testicular Cancer Group study SWENOTECA IV, the survival of intermediate-prognosis patients is remarkable and close to that of good-prognosis patients.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2011; 29(15):2032-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 randomized trial demonstrated a survival benefit of combined endocrine therapy and external-beam radiotherapy over endocrine therapy alone in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. In a subset of the study population, the incidence and clinical implications of residual prostate cancer in posttreatment prostate biopsy specimens was evaluated.
Biopsy specimens were obtained from 120 of 875 men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 study.
Biopsies were performed at median of 45 months follow-up. In 63 patients receiving endocrine treatment only and 57 patients receiving combined treatment, residual cancer was found in 66% (n = 41) and 22% (n = 12), respectively (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of residual tumors were poorly differentiated (Gleason score ≥ 8). Endocrine therapy alone was predictive of residual prostate cancer: odds ratio 7.49 (3.18-17.7), p < 0.0001. In patients with positive vs. negative biopsy the incidences of clinical events were as follows: biochemical recurrence 74% vs. 27% (p < 0.0001), local progression 26% vs. 4.7% (p = 0.002), distant recurrence 17% vs. 9.4% (p = 0.27), clinical recurrence 36% vs. 13% (p = 0.006), cancer-specific death 19% vs. 9.7% (p = 0.025). In multivariable analysis, biochemical recurrence was significantly associated with residual cancer: hazard ratio 2.69 (1.45-4.99), p = 0.002, and endocrine therapy alone hazard ratio 3.45 (1.80-6.62), p < 0.0001.
Radiotherapy combined with hormones improved local tumor control in comparison with endocrine therapy alone. Residual prostate cancer was significantly associated with serum prostate-specific antigen recurrence, local tumor progression, clinical recurrence, and cancer-specific death in univariable analysis. Residual cancer was predictive of prostate-specific antigen recurrence in multivariable analysis.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2011; 80(1):55-61. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-treatment prostate biopsy side-effects were evaluated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer on endocrine therapy alone or combined with radiotherapy in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 randomized trial.
One-hundred and twenty patients underwent transrectalultrasound-guided biopsy, and were requested to complete a questionnaire on side-effects occurring within 7 days' follow-up.
The questionnaire was returned by 109 patients (91%) (endocrine therapy only 52%, combined endocrine therapy and radiotherapy 48%). Previous therapy had no significant influence on pain, urinary flow, haematuria or haematospermia. Pain at biopsy was reported in 63% (mild, 57%; moderate, 5.6%; severe, one patient) and pain at follow-up in 31% (mild, 27%; moderate, four patients). Haematuria (mean duration 2.2 days) was reported in 41%, and reduced urinary flow in 20% (mild, 18%; severe: four patients; no patient had urinary retention). Haematospermia was scarce. No patient reported urinary tract infection. Rectal bleeding occurred in 18% in the endocrine and 35% in the combined therapy group (p = 0.047), with a mean duration of 1.6 and 2.2 days, respectively (p = 0.031). In logistic regression analysis, a trend towards increased rectal bleeding was found in patients on combined endocrine therapy and radiotherapy (odds ratio 2.4, p = 0.050).
Patient-reported post-treatment prostate biopsy side-effects were mild and self-limiting.
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 03/2011; 45(4):233-8. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A binational, population-based treatment protocol was established to prospectively treat and follow patients with seminomatous testicular cancer. The aim was to standardize care for all patients with seminoma to further improve the good results expected for this disease.
From 2000 to 2006, a total of 1,384 Norwegian and Swedish patients were included in the study. Treatment in clinical stage 1 (CS1) was surveillance, adjuvant radiotherapy, or adjuvant carboplatin. In metastatic disease, recommended treatment was radiotherapy in CS2A and cisplatin-based chemotherapy in CS2B or higher.
At a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 5-year cause-specific survival was 99.6%. In CS1, 14.3% (65 of 512) of patients relapsed following surveillance, 3.9% (seven of 188) after carboplatin, and 0.8% (four of 481) after radiotherapy. We could not identify any factors predicting relapse in CS1 patients who were subjected to surveillance only. In CS2A, 10.9% (three of 29) patients relapsed after radiotherapy compared with no relapses in CS2A/B patients (zero of 73) treated with chemotherapy (P = .011).
An international, population-based treatment protocol for testicular seminoma is feasible with excellent results. Surveillance remains a good option for CS1 patients. No factors predicted relapse in CS1 patients on surveillance. Despite resulting in a lower rate of relapse than with adjuvant carboplatin, adjuvant radiotherapy has been abandoned in the Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Project (SWENOTECA) as a recommended treatment option because of concerns of induction of secondary cancers. The higher number of relapses in radiotherapy-treated CS2A patients when compared with chemotherapy-treated CS2A/B patients is of concern. Late toxicity of cisplatin-based chemotherapy versus radiotherapy must be considered in CS2A patients.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 29(6):719-25. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the trends in prostate cancer incidence, treatment with curative intent and mortality across regions and counties in Norway, and to consider changes in incidence (an indicator for early diagnosis) and treatment with curative intent as explanatory factors for the decreasing prostate cancer mortality rates.
Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data (1980-2007) alongside treatment data (1987-2005) were obtained from the national, population-based Cancer Registry of Norway. Joinpoint regression models were fitted to age-adjusted incidence, treatment and mortality rates to identify linear changes in the trends.
Both age-adjusted incidence rates and rates of curative treatment of prostate cancer increased significantly in all five regions of Norway since the early 1990s. There was a strong positive correlation between increasing incidence and increasing use of curative treatment. The frequency of curative treatment in Western Norway was almost threefold that in the Northern and Central regions around year 2000. Subsequently, the regional trends converged and only minor differences in prostate cancer incidence and use of curative treatment were observed by 2005. The declines in mortality were observed earliest in the regions with the highest incidence and the most frequent use of curative treatment, while the largest decreases in mortality were found in counties where the largest increases in curative treatment were observed.
The elucidation of the prostate cancer mortality trends is hindered by an inability to tease out the potential effects of early treatment from the more general impact of improved and more active treatment. However, it is likely that both sets of intervention have contributed to the decline in prostate cancer mortality in Norway since 1996.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To offer minimized risk-adapted adjuvant treatment on a nationwide basis for patients with clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT). The aim was to reduce the risk of relapse and thereby reducing the need of later salvage chemotherapy while maintaining a high cure rate.
From 1998 to 2005, 745 Norwegian and Swedish patients were included into a prospective, community-based multicenter Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Project (SWENOTECA) management program. Treatment strategy depended on the presence or absence of vascular tumor invasion (VASC). VASC-positive patients were recommended brief adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), whereas VASC-negative patients could choose between ACT and surveillance.
At a median follow-up of 4.7 years, there have been 51 relapses. On surveillance, 41.7% of VASC+ patients relapsed, compared with 13.2% of VASC- patients. After one course of BEP, 3.2% of VASC+ and 1.3% of VASC- patients relapsed. The toxicity of adjuvant BEP was low. Eight patients have died, none died from progressive disease.
One course of adjuvant BEP reduces the risk of relapse by approximately 90% in both VASC+ and VASC- CS1 NSGCT, and may be a new option as initial treatment for all CS1 NSGCT. One course of adjuvant BEP for VASC+ CS1 reduces the total burden of chemotherapy compared with surveillance or two courses of BEP. SWENOTECA currently recommends one course of BEP as standard treatment of VASC+ CS1 NSGCT, whereas both surveillance and one course of BEP are options for VASC- CS1 NSGCT.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2009; 27(13):2122-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown the efficacy of endocrine therapy in combination with radiotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer. To assess the effect of radiotherapy, we did an open phase III study comparing endocrine therapy with and without local radiotherapy, followed by castration on progression.
This randomised trial included men from 47 centres in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Between February, 1996, and December, 2002, 875 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (T3; 78%; PSA<70; N0; M0) were centrally randomly assigned by computer to endocrine treatment alone (3 months of total androgen blockade followed by continuous endocrine treatment using flutamide; 439 patients), or to the same endocrine treatment combined with radiotherapy (436 patients). The primary endpoint was prostate-cancer-specific survival, and analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an international standard randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN01534787.
After a median follow-up of 7.6 years, 79 men in the endocrine alone group and 37 men in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group had died of prostate cancer. The cumulative incidence at 10 years for prostate-cancer-specific mortality was 23.9% in the endocrine alone group and 11.9% in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group (difference 12.0%, 95% CI 4.9-19.1%), for a relative risk of 0.44 (0.30-0.66). At 10 years, the cumulative incidence for overall mortality was 39.4% in the endocrine alone group and 29.6% in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group (difference 9.8%, 0.8-18.8%), for a relative risk of 0.68 (0.52-0.89). Cumulative incidence at 10 years for PSA recurrence was substantially higher in men in the endocrine-alone group (74.7%vs 25.9%, p<0.0001; HR 0.16; 0.12-0.20). After 5 years, urinary, rectal, and sexual problems were slightly more frequent in the endocrine plus radiotherapy group.
In patients with locally advanced or high-risk local prostate cancer, addition of local radiotherapy to endocrine treatment halved the 10-year prostate-cancer-specific mortality, and substantially decreased overall mortality with fully acceptable risk of side-effects compared with endocrine treatment alone. In the light of these data, endocrine treatment plus radiotherapy should be the new standard.
The Lancet 12/2008; 373(9660):301-8. · 39.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the histopathological outcome in patients with prostate cancer operated on with radical retropubic prostatectomy.
A total of 167 patients with clinically organ-localized prostate cancer treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy between 1996 and 2001 were divided into three equally sized consecutive cohorts (cohorts I-III). The prostatectomy specimens were re-examined by two pathologists with respect to pathological tumour stage, tumour grade and surgical tumour margins.
The mean preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value was statistically significantly higher in cohort I compared to cohorts II and III: 13.2, 9.0 and 8.5 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.05). The incidence of locally advanced (pT3a-3b) tumours was 44% in cohort I and 20% in both cohorts II and III (p<0.05). The incidence of positive tumour margins was 58% in cohort I, compared to 30% in cohort II and 13% in cohort III (p<0.05). The incidence of positive intracapsular tumour margins was 55% in cohort I, compared to 25% in cohort II and 8.9% in cohort III (p<0.05). The incidence of positive tumour margins in the pT2 tumours in cohorts I-III was 57%, 26% and 8.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Cohort III had significantly more low-grade tumours (Gleason score 4-6; 58.9%) compared to cohorts I (31.5%) and II (34%). There was a higher incidence of Gleason score >or=7 in the pT3 tumours compared to the pT2 tumours (80% vs 46%) and in margin-positive compared to -negative tumours (69.6% vs 48.6%) (p<0.05).
The decline in pT3 tumours and positive tumour margins between cohorts I-III is probably due to a gradually more strict selection of patients for radical retropubic prostatectomy. The successive reduction in positive intracapsular tumour margins is most likely due to an improved surgical technique.
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 02/2005; 39(4):283-8. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the frequencies of pelvic lymphocele formation after laparoscopic and open pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with prostate cancer.
A total of 132 patients operated on with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) underwent CT scanning of the abdomen and pelvis at a median of 29 days postoperatively. Open pelvic lymph node dissection (OPLND) was performed in 94 patients (71%) and 38 patients (29%) were operated on using a laparoscopic technique (LPLND). The frequency and size of pelvic lymphoceles were registered. Lymphoceles with a horizontal diameter of </=4.9 cm were classified as small and those with a horizontal diameter of >/=5.0 cm were classified as large.
The overall frequency of lymphoceles was 54%. The frequencies in the OPLND and LPLND groups were 61% and 37%, respectively. A total of 27% of the OPLND patients had large lymphoceles, compared to 8% of the LPLND patients. Three patients (2.3%), all in the OPLND group, had clinically significant lymphoceles.
Although the overall frequency of lymphocele formation was high, clinically significant lymphoceles were scarce. LPLND was associated with a statistically significant lower frequency of lymphocele formation compared to OPLND.
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 01/2003; 37(3):218-21. · 1.01 Impact Factor